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PROPERTY OF 



uIPMaJU 











ARTES SCIENTIA VERITAS 



1 



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• ' ~.--* — ■•-• ■lar-. 



■J-- ""• 



Grammatical Commentaries: 

BEING an 

APPARATUS 

T O A N E W 

National Grammar: 

By way of 

ANIMADVERSIO N 

UPON THE 

Falsities, OBScaniTiES, Redundancies, 

and Defects 

l/llfsVystem 

Now in Use. 

In which alfo 

Many Errors of the mod Eminent Grammarians, 
both Antient and Modern^ particularly, SanStUts, 
Seioppiusj VoJJim^ AieJJUurs Je Port Royal, &c are Cor* 
reded, and their Defeds fupply'd. 

WITH 

An ALt*HABETicAL Index of Words and Matten 
Neceflary for Schools, (as sl Comment upon the prefem 
Grammar) and fuch as would Attain to the True 
Knowledge of the Latin Tongue. 

■ ■ ■ • V • • T 

By RICHARD JOHNSON.M.K. 



Ne^ ^mis igituf tan^udm paroa fafiidiat Grammatices ekmemta : fuU 
interiora vclutfofri bujos adeuntibus a/forebit multa rerum fubuHtas^ 
qum non modo anttre if^eniapuerilia^ feiexercere altijftmam fuo^ut 
eruditionem ac fiien tiam pojjfti. Quintil. 1. 1. €.4, 

LO KDON, Printed for the A U T H O R 2 
And Sold b)r § a M U B l B a L L a CL o^ it tb^ BUt "M^ Naa^ VxvCVr.- 

Britain, TA^^^^SwSWV* 






f i 



i • 



1 , 1 ■ VI 



T^ 






Ludonim in Anglia 
Magiftris. 



EAndem vobifcum, Vifi Optimi, naSus provin- 
ciam, laborem per fe fitis gravem, eo tamen 
multo tuli gravius, quod nulla in promptu iatis 
firma fubfidia, quibus tantum munus infifterem, vide;- 
rem. Acceffi, feteor, ad opus fatis cum confidentiS, 
utpote in Claflicorum fcriptis diu multumque, pro xta- 
te, verfatus. Venini autem ftatim fenfi, quantum me 
felelliflet opinio, quam habuiflem facultatis mex y nee 
fine Grammatical adminiculo rem tantam ftare. Qiiippe 
quat, cum prope eflet infinita, cert^ varia, & multiplex, 
/ nifi capitibus digefta, comprehend! nequiret. Itaque 
Gramma ticam vulgarem. jampridemdepofitam, inma- 
nus refumpfi ^ iperans fore, ut, cum omnium fere ufU 
comprobaretur, inibi artis-praccepta, fi non omnia, ta- 
men paucis tantum omiffis, pleraque faltem, eaquecer- 
ta, perfpicua, luculenta, &, quantum fieri poffer, fuc- 
cinfte difla deprehenderem. Venim quanta de ipe de- 
cidi! EaenimledB, atquerelefltS, lenii egregieftuftra- 
tam operam, &, paucis admodum exceptis, omnia ^ 
trivio allata, nihil ex penetralibus difciplingc fumptum, 
nihil non tritum, atque omnibus cognitum, 

Niji qui nonium asre laoantur. 

Quin ex lis etiam, quae tra£l:aret, multa falfa, plura obr 
fcuraj jGne quibus tamen (quod Grammatical propriunj 

A 2 eft} 



*i 



Ludomm in Anglia Magifiris. 

eft) rcrum ad tnvicem affe£lus effeiri nequirent: Et 
(quod in arris fcriptore minime terenduni elt) in tanto 
jieceilariQrum defiderlo, pluricoa fupervacua. Deni^uc 
tnonftri fimile videbatur, ejufmodi Icriptorem a nemine 
doftorum in ordinem coaftum, fed in Scholis adhuc im- 
pune doQjinari. Quace ki fye deje£lus, cunp Terenti- 
ano illo D^vo, quoniam^ inquam, hac non [uccejjit^ 
alia aggrediemur vU, A|idivertoi Voflium, a Leodio 
contraO:um, & in Gramns^cicam vidgarem accommo* 
datum : audiveram & commenrarios ineandem abOxo- 
nienfibus quibuldam confcripcos ; atque ingens 6ducia 
acceffit, ex horunni libris, utriique laltem, letn impedi-* 
*tatn ^xpediendi. Catterum multa ab his quoque in- 
ta3:a diepiehendi ; mulca perperam difbi, incelle^la ) 

2uadam, de Oxonienfibus dico, parum larin^ ufurpata. 
tuaniobrem par inde cura inc^ animum Alvanim, 
Delpauteriian Farnabium, Sanftium, Scioppium, Ve- 
tepacum, ac Grammaricorom principem Voflmm, quern 
Leodium, cum Annotatoribus per omnia lecutos ani- 
ffladverteram, comparandi. Verum his perleftis, neque 
jBc tamen voti compos •, quia ab his quoque inter mul- 
ta prxclara, & tantis nominibus baud indigna, nonnuil' 
tatjien parum refte conftituta, prartermiflS plurima i 
tellexeram,^ antiquos etiam rei Grammaticac fcripto' 
nihil pretioparcens, undique qua potui, corrafi. C 
& ab his quoque vel nihil omnino, vel panim ad 
dumadjutus^ quippe quorum omnia a Voffiocongr 
fitis habermn ante cognita, 8c conftituta, miflis C 
riiaricorum placitis, ibntes ipfos, nempe ipfos 
Latinff autores adeundos cenfui ; inde obfcura i' 
da, corrigenda fal fa, quscqueadremGrammari^ 
cflent, a Grammaticis autem pnctermifla, ' 
His cogirationibus intervenit Amicus quidan- 
rum fatis peritus exiftimator, qui Grg^fiir 
nam, Galilee quidem fcriptam, jufluChril 
gis in lucem editam miris laudrbus effete 
\4^ €ti^ coinparatS, \fm if- Lii)gi» 



to 







i»r ""'«'», cum hi r." **"^weret nr^T^^ 9itod a^ 






cxoer. 




Lndofum in Anglia Magijlris. 

cundx notz contentus fui : femper tamen in fufpeCHs 
meliora confulens, ex iil^ue quae corrigenda viderentur, 
emendans. Atque paratis omnibu^ quar ufui fbrenr, 
fii^ tamen quatdam, quar jam vela dantem morarentur. 
Deerat enim occupato otium, & rei immenficas inluper 
terrebat. Horis tamen fubfecivis, ut potui, aiiquid 
lempercongefli, fuperfcetentia recidi, illuftravi obicura, 
practermifla liibjunxi. Sed cum in ea tempora incidif 
lem, ^uibus per eos, qui in repub. plus polTent, erudi* 
cndac juventuti operam non diutius liceret impendere^ 
llatui malum otium non melius poflTe collocari, quam 
fi univerla de novo ordiens, non ex Grammaticorum 
^ecretis, led ex ipfis autoribus re£lius aiiquid, quo labo- 
ranti eidem fuccurrerem, concinnarem, Quin tandem 
perleftis omnibus, atque ex iildem, guar ufui effenr, 
excerptis, deftinatum opus inchoavi. Verum optimum 
fiftu ratus, antequam nova conderem, Vetera diruere ^ 
neque Grammaticar noftrar locum fore, ftante adhuc, 
atque incolumi vulgari, illam mihi imprimis impug- 
nandam cenliii, illius errores detegendos : fie tamen, ur, 
^um aliena carperem, & ipfe mea fimul ederem, & in 
fingulis, non tantiim quid noUem, led & quid vellem, 
oftenderem : ut fi qui fint, qui Vetera omnino, quam no- 
va malint (quos, quar eft hominum perverfitas, fentio 
multos futurosj licet in aliis nihil non novum placeat) 
certa habeant, ouar fequantur, neque in errorum tene- 
hris diutius vertentur. Ejus operis banc primam par- 
tem vobis exhibeo, eoque obftriftam dudum fidem tan- 
dem liberavi, aliquanto citius liberaturus, nifi multum 
adversa valctudine, nee minus proeli mora confliftatus. 
DeScriptorum hujufmodiutilitate, quod pluribus apud 
vos verba faciam, nihil eft, qui juxta mecum arque fal- 
tem intelligatis, imo & raulto etiam melifis. Lingua 
Latina quanti fit habenda, quantoque opere tuenda, ne 
fuis depulfa fedibus incerta vagctur, nulli cognita, imo 
nee ipla fibi. Ita intercidet omne ciimLatinis ftripto- 
•tibus commercium, pofteriorum fcriptis nequaquam 

penlan- 



Lndomm in Anglid Magifiris* 

penfandum: quin K de LinguS communi dofilorum 
aftum erit, qua, ad doStrinse compendium, nefcio an 
majus quicquamDeus immortalis niortalibus dederit« 
Haud mihi ignotum eft, efle qui putent, fine Gtani- 
matices ope hoc tantum evitari pofle incommodum, eo 
quod nonnullos leftione Ibla Linguam Latinam adepcos 
autument. Id quale fit, in Prsfatiuncula fufiiis dicetur. 
Verum adepti fuerint. At nifi id probent, non quibuP 
dam folum, led piuribus etiam contigifle, vel fdlisca 
potuifle contingere, jacent profeQo iUorum omnia : 
quandoquidem artis eft piuribus confiilere, nee quU 
aliquibus contingat attendere. Prxcipu^ cum, fi fine 
aliqui, finttamen 

4 

— — '^Fauci quos equus amavit, 
Jupiter.''^ ■ * ■■ ■ ■ 

Verum de prxftantia artis Grammatical, pracfertimapud 
Grammaticos, fit, ut opinor, diftum latis. Pervelr 
lem, utquam facile fit hujus utilitatem, dignitatemque 
defendere, tarn facile etiam eflet, quae a nobis in hoc 
opuiculo di£la funt, propugnare. Venim hoc utcunque 
nobis erit difficile, vobis ialtem erit £icile, dil%entiam 
noftram, S: obfeauium probare, qui veftris infervivimus 
commodis, non iblum nuUo noftio aim commodo, verum 
etiam dim detrimento notiiis, aut fi non infervivimus^ 
certe conati fumus. Minime verendum videtur, ne 
quis veflium ( id quod alii fbrtafle fecient , eo quod 
parva magno labore profequamur)' fiipervacuam pror- 
fus tantam in re tali diligentiam putet^ cum iciatis re$ 
magnas plerumque, fie inter cacteras^Grammaticam, par- 
vis ftare, & tenui difcrimine veris. lUud magis fbiv 
tafle metuendum, ne prolixiores videamur, quam par 
eft. Verum commentarios Icribenti, multa intodum 
argumentatione opus eft:, multa aliunde petenda, exco- 
tiendae fcriptorum lententix ; mihi vero practetea hujus 
Giammatices incommoda in fingulis ob oculos ponenda^ 




Lttehftfm in A^lid Ms^ifMs, 

ffot qui: repotet, ^USt vMcrit Hon pomifle patoek>ribu9 
Invdierdta toUi, prarferrim magni nomiffis patroeiifio 
tota^. Nee \n iis qux a Gramtnaticis vd damnafmir 
omnino, vel tanquam iiara ac fidgularia &ls6 cenienmr, 
ftiecmmplbrum muldtudine res conficf potierac. >l% 
tt 6()c incdmrfiodo, iUud ialtem evemet comtYiodi, uf 
tandem m pueformn gratiam Grammaticam fcribent 
€ompendlariam,veInotasinvQ]garem, pabcicHribus leoi 
totam abfolvam ^ tot bic addu^ 8e confirmatis, (^ 
Ins iUic pro con^o nti IkeMt, ftru€t£ ante compendtd 
m. De ratione operis noifeft quod longo fermone v«8 
ffiorct. Ip£i ft Kiti!» indreaUt, & nti fpero tneMmr^ 
nihil de novo flatuens, nihil ab aliis fbtatuM nKitt!l% 
nifiAutorum ufii comprobatum ^ ita denique citatis Au- 
torum locis, qnSms vel noitra tuemur, vel oppugnamus 
aliena, utab lis^etiam quibus noftn exemplaria in mani'^ 
bus non fine, quam facillime inveniantur. Cunique ad 
difiendom mnt minila^ vtd non mutto minds valef, ut 
ordfne fingdCa^, qitslm ut vera, cerra, at neceflaria n^ 
&ntur, iltudethm, quoad ejud fieri poruit, operam de^ 
m Eum ncmpe fccutus flint, queiit facillimum daxi^ 
8e ad difcenrium ufnm maxime accommodatum, ferva^ 
», quantum potuir Grammaricse ordkie, annotationi- 
mi ad regulSisi ad|e^, draimie vocibus annotandis- ft^ 
enndum fcrierw feeranim deftriptia^ ar extra daewa 

EMninentibus; Vcnitn cum Grammatics Ai^icana i 
tinJ mwi femel' ordine diftsnqjarer, id eum accideiiP, 
CD mi placuit, q^t ad rerum naturam eflet appofiros 
naxim^ Cumque voces annotandxaliquotje^ vel pd» 
cat effiint, vel^ pauci!i abfelVetidise, ea^ ne in inftiinm 
irdiunen crefteiet, continual dedt. fit ad hoe quic^i^ 
iocommodi fiiUevatiduin,, indicenr AiKCuiemym ^jeci, 
quo fic^imi cnnftar inveffigareiKur: Veftram eflr, 
vhi Inanamlfimi, laboiwnoftws bont ccHiiuter^, fov^e 
fludia^ quorum opei^, niff^ m% ipft« v^de amemuia^ 
docend!) cfil&endiqcRr motsfBa^ iSibllefv^tur : dienique 
ficpif i^iarirkvneinv^^ Q^ft^ftiSMltte, grati 

prope* 



hudorum in Anglia Magiflris. 

propediem majora dabimus , neque uUum laborem 
recufibimus, quin Grammaticam Latinam, etfi non 
omnibus numeris ablblutam, multo tamen quani nunc 
eft, pleniorem effieiamus, & certiorem, Reftatenim 
ut lyntaxin fimili indagine perfequamur, rem arduam, 
& periculofdc plenum opus alc£ : cujus magna parte a 
Grammaticis intafta, laepe per devia eundum, nuUis 
imprefla vettigiis, nuUius ante Trita folo, Vobis ta- 
men vocantibus, 

^aq^^efl dtfficUis^ Q^^^h ^ft ^^^ nulla fequemur. 

Vos autem, viri graviffimi, rogo, atque obteftor, fi 
quid eravero amice moneatis, & defleftentem reducatis 
in viam. Nam pra^terquam quod, ut ait Ennius, 

Homo^ qui errant} comiter monlirat viam^ 
Tanquam lumen de fuo lumlne accendat^ facit ^ 
J\ihilominus ut ipfi luceat^ cum illi accenderit. 

Ego certe gratum prxftabo, & lubenter agnofcentem 
per quem profecero. Atque hxc haftenus. Cetera fi 
placet una cum reliquis apcipite ledtoribus, acquis aurir 
bus, animifque. 



T H E 



THE 



PREFACE. 



REader^ I have a long while exferienc0d the In-: 
fufficiency of the Conmion Grammar^ and the 
Inconveniences arifing upon that account : And 
out of a Defire to ferve my Country^ Ihavefet my f elf 
to endeavour the redrejjing of this Grievance. 1 here 
frefent thee with the Labour of many Tears ^ and ftot 
a few of them fpent entirely upon this Subject : Tet 
what purpofe^ when all is done^ Thou muft be jud^e^ 
But that thou mayfi not be too fevere in thy Cenjurei 
upon one J who has taken fo much pains to pfeafe thee^ 
I miifi defire thee to corifider two things ^ namely^ tha 
Ufejulnefs of the Subjea^ and the Difficulty oftreat-^ 
ing of it. I know there he fome^ who think the Latin 
Tongue a thing of nofucb mighty Confequence^ but that 
we might be well enough without it : But furely a Uni^ 
vcrfal Language (and fuch at prefent is the Latin 
Tongue) is a thing of mighty Advantange. By it wa 
receive the Benefit of other Mens Learnings in wbat-^^ 
ever fart of Europe, (which is now the only Learned 
World) by it wc impart to others that of our own. 
This once Iqfi^ we have as many Languages to learn^ 
as there aye Nations in th^ World confiderable for 

Learning^ 



The Preface. 

Learnings if we will either learn of them, or expeSl 
they Jkould learn of us* There are others^ who though 
they think fuch a Language neceffary, yet think there 
is no Nedeffity the Latin Tongue mttfi he it, but that 
another might do as well : But in the mean time, 
there is no oth^r, but that only, which is common to 
Learned Men of all Countries ^ and it would be no 
fmall Trouble, if at all praEticable, to ejiablijb another. 
And if that were done, where woud be the Advan- 
tage ? Unlefs we coud get one in its ftead, which con-- 
tains a greater Treafure of Eloquence and good Senfe, 
which Ijuppofe the French with all their Conceit of 
themfelves, and tJyeir Language, will not pretend to. 
Arid yet this, of all Languages, is moft likely to be- 
come univerfal if the Latin were dropd. And I be- 
lieve the Politicians would think it were none of the 
likelieji way to pull down France by fuch a Change. 
The Latin Tongue then is like to continue the univerfal 
Language : And as fuch, is well worth t/je prejerving. 
But then there isfome Tiijbute alfo about the means by 
which this may be beH effeBed. In this Difpute there 
are two Opinions: The firft of them who fuppofe read- 
ing to be fuffictent , efpecially if to it be added the 
PraBice of Writing •, the fecond of them who think 
Grammar to be necejfary *, and I am abfolutely of the 
fame Mind with the latter, as thinking a dead Lath 
guage can never be preferved without Rules. It is aU 
ledged to the contrary, that tloere have been fame who 
have attained it without them', and G)vvley and 
Montagne, areproducdfor Examples. But in the firft 
place, I know of nothing which the latter of thefe At- 
thors has wrote in Latin -, and for what Mr. Cowley 
has done, it is not fujfcient to prove him to have been 
a perfect Mafter of that Language. No body knows 
how be woud have acquitted himf elf upon other SubjeBs, 
no body knows with what Difficulty he performed what 
he wrote J what Time was fpent in turning over Di3ia- 

a 2 naries 



The Preface. 

na'ies and Pbrafeologies to ajjure the Jjttbor of doubt ^ 
frtl ConJirnElions. But fnppofing that both thefe Au- 
thor's were Men offucb a GentuSy as to comfreherul 
that by reading only and the Strength of Metnory^ for 
vphicb others are forcd to recurr to Rule. Are all 
Montagues ? Are all Cowleys > What then Jhall be- 
' come of the reji ? What Vrovifion fljall be made for 
tJjem ? Nothing certainly but a good Grammar ^ which 

- fnay furnijh them with warrantable Forms of Confiru- 
ilion upon all Occafions^ which though they have often 
ready may yet h^roe Jlip^d their JHenmies, Certainly^ 
Gerard Vollius was a Alan of Learning far fuferiour 
to Montague, or Cowky, and yet he himfelf was at 
vaji pains to compile a Latin Grammar^ although his 
reading in that Language was far above either of 
theirs. To what purpofe think we ? But to provide 
againfi the Treacheroujnefs of Memory both in himfelf 
and others : Nay^ and after all his pains ^ and all the 

fearch he has made into Grammarians ami Criticks^ 

' as well as the Roman TFriters^ he has faWn into more 
Errours pqljibly in this one Piece^ than in all his other 
Works, S) unable is Memory alone to fecure a Man 
hi this Point y without a comprehenjive Grammar ^ 
fuch an one^ as is an adequate Meafure of the Latin 
Language. Thus much admitting thefe Authors to 

■have attaiftd the Latin Tongue without Grammar: 
But that lam cfOfimon they never did* Poffibly each 
of them might take check at the Grammar propounded 
to him^ Delpa liter havings I f^pf^fiy been put itpon 
Montagne, and Lilh'' ///r?;/ Cowley , the fir ji is hot- 

- ribly tedious^ and yet yiot fufficient^ and if ten erro- 
neous i?ito the bargain ^ tlw latter is fo errant a Tri" 
fe^ that it is no wo?hler it fboud not lelifb with fuch 
a Genius as that tf Cowle}'', any more than the orLyer 
with that of Montagne. However this were^ they 

'ca'/mot be JHppos\i to have learn d this Languag^^ 
without objerving the Uje of A^tthon) and ordetly Ji- 

gejiing 



The Prefag e. 

-^ pelting and diftinguijhing fuch Obfervations^ which if 
tfjeir Memories werefo Jirong as to retain^ thit then 
was their Grammar. And I Mieve, after all^ thefe 
Obfervations of theirs they committed to writings at 
leafi good part of them ^ or elfe their Readinefs at wri- 
ting of Latin is much to be qnejiionedi A>id if any 
Man be of another Opinion^ let him biitperufe the en- 

' f^^^i, Treatifey and think fo if he can. In tJje mean 
time^ whether it be advif cable to leave Touth to do this 
for themfelveSy Ifljall leave it with the Reader. Ano- 
ther Argument is^ to prove that this Work may be 
done without Grammar^ that the Latins learn d it 
without ity and that we learn Languages at this Day 
without it, Veil J and fo we might Latin I queftiou 
not y had we the fame Opportunity the Latins hady 
and which we have for the attaining of other Lan- 
guages : But here lies a great Difference between its 
and t hem ^' and no lefs between the prefent Languages^ 
and the Latin. The Latins had a National ' Ufe to 
learn it by, which we have not-^ and the ^prefent Lan^ 
guages have Natives to learn them from^ which the 
Latin has not. Now let any. Man co^tfider the Diffe- 
rence^ and he will fee plainly^ that tljere is no man- 
fie- of ConjequerKe in this Argument ': For what fort 
of Inference is this? Languages that areconjiantly 
us'd in the Country where we live^ or perfeElly underr 
jiood by the Ferjons we conjlantly converfe ivith, may 
be learyid by Cufiom^ without Rule : Therefore a Lan- 
guage no where us^d as the National Language^ nor 
fe-feUly underfioodly the Fefons we confiantly con- 
vey fe nithy may be learn d fo too. This is to draw the 
fame Conclufion from different' Premifjes^ which is a- 
'gairifi all the Rules of iight Reajjn, This- may look 
J ike a Reflexion upon the Ability (f our Schoolmafiers^ 
. as if they were not as well fkiWd^ as might be^ expetled^ 
iyythe Latin Tongue \ but I do not intend it jo ^ and 
L think ^t is ^ not. For what R^fiexiqn can it. b^ upon 
^:^,^\ ' ■ ■ " a Man 



The PkitACt. 

a Man^ if bis Knowledge of each Langu/ige is hot tbe^ 
fame J when the Helps of attaining each are fo diffe^ 
tent ? The Englijb tumguage is always bnzzd in his 
Uar^ whether he will or nOj as livif^ always in tb& 
Sound of it. jdfid if he happens to be outy the ge^ 
miral Ufe will foon Jet him rights the major fart of 
thofe he cofwerfes with being able to correS any Im- 
propriety y if it fiall happen to efcape him: But as to the 
Latin Lanffiage^ the Cafe is quite otherwife. He 
lives in a Country ^ where there is no Converfation to 
be had in />, or next to none. All the Company in a 
manner y which he can have of that iindy being only 
that of his Boys, from whom he can learn nothing ^ and 
if he begins a Latin Converfation elfewhere, all that 
he is like to get by it, will be to be Routed for his 
fainsy with the Name of Pedant. As for Readings 
no doubt there are many ingenious Men amongfi them 
tfiho betake themfehes to that, as time will permit. 
But by that time the School Hours are over, and the 
^9feceJJary BufineJSoftbe World, and the as necejfary Bu- 
finejs, to Men fo engaged all the Day long, ofreafon* 
,able Diverfion, there will not be fo much time left for 
'Reading, as may make that equal to Education in a 
Language, and perpetual Converfation in it ; and fo 
*we may well fuppoje the Scboolmafter from whom the 
Child is to learn, not fo infallible an Author to follajv 
as the Native in his own Language, anil no fault in 
the Man all this while. There is, no doubt of it, a 
Difference in Scholmafters, and fame are nme to be 
depended on, than others in this Point : But I believe 
the beft will find Rules necejj'ary, not only for his Boys^ 
but himfelf alfo. It is unreafonable therefore to ^r- 
peEl, that becaufe the Romans learned the Latin^ and 
we at this Day learn other Languages without Rule^ 
that our Touthjboud learn the Latin Language fo too^ 
1 hope no Gentleman of this VrofeJJion, will think btm'^ 
felf injured by this Reprefentation. I am fura I in-^ 

tend 



The Preface. 

fend it as a Vindication^ not as any Diffaragefnent % 
and frankly acknowledge it to be wy own Cafe, who 
4t this Day am forcd to look back upon my Papers to 
affure my J elf of fever al things. But it will be f aid, 
I expeSj that though no Schodmajler fhou d have Know^ 
-ledge in this Language equal to that of Natives in 
their own^ he may yet have enough to teach his Scho^ 
lar the main of it by Converfation only^ without Gram'- 
mar ^ and for the reji^ the Scholar may get it after*f 
ward of himfelf Jfellj I grant this :^ but what then ^ 
How fiall the Scholar be afjured^ that this Converfa^ 
tion of his Jiajier is according to th^ Ufe of the La* 
tin Authors, except he confirm it by Examples from 
them ? And this, in effeS, is a Grammar, now Jball 
the Publick bejatisfied of the Ability of each Mafler 
in this reJpeB f There are Schoolmafters, ko doubt , wb& 
can do as much as this ^ but the Proof that they foM 
do it, muft be by Grammar, or fomething equivalent 
to Grammar. And though fome can do it, yet others 
cannot 5' and therefore, as in the cafe of fraying i^m 
Publick, better one found Form for all, rather tham 
for the fake of a few gifted Men, leav^ all at Libera 
ty, gifted and ungifted, to fay what they pleafe. And' 
as for the {Remainder , which is to be gotten by tlm 
$£bolar, over and abovf what his Majier flail teat^ 
him, though I have granted that to be poffible, yet t 
nmft avow it to be difficulty and the Way nothing comr 
parable^ in paint of Eafe, to that of the Help of a 
good Grammar. It may be concluded therefore, thai 
Grammar is requifite for the attaining of this Lan^ 
gkage. fiut, fuppofit^ at lafi^ it cotCd be got without 
it, the Advantage of fuch an Attainment wond i^ 
far infer iour , to that of acquiring of it by a gQod 
prammar. A Language gmen by Ufe, woud he Jofi 
0gain for want of Ufe, there beittg no Converfation /» 
pe> had in that Lan^age fufficient to retain it t And 
^hen what Help to recover it but by a Grammar f Jf^huA 



The Pre FA ce. 

teifjg a new things and to he learn d by hearty is a- 
dtfcouraging Task at that Age ^ and that which the 
Generality will never go • throngb with. Whereas he • 
that has got it by Grammar^ may at any time reco^ . 
ver it by Grammar-^ which having been once learned, 
already^ wilt come afrefb to his Mind with a little Ap*. 
flicatiofk^ It may be faid^ that reading will fupply^ 
this wknt of Conver Cation : But it is plain, it has not 
done it rn tbofe, who have read mojl, and^rote moji. 
upon Ms Subject ^ or elfe we had not bad fo many 
Errours^ in their Writings at this Day. It hat then. 
fiyall they do, who have mt lei jure to be always read^\ 
ingfor this furfofe, and yet may have occ^Jion to write, 
in Latin ? Eefide, there is another Advantage of the. 
Ufa of Grammar in thircaje, which isextremely con-f'. 
fiderable. For he that has learn d one^ Language by a. 
Grammar, fuch as explains the Kztio of . Language, is. 
fo much the forwarder in his way to Any other ^ tbere-^ 
being a confiderable deal in the Ratio of Languagex 
that is common to all. And this is a mighty Advan-r^ 
tage above the way of attaining it by meer Converfa^ 
tion,. and fuch as alone wou\l turn the Scale, though 
where .the . Majier is able to fpeak it well, as many, 
arp, I doubt not, there is nothing comparable to botbx 
together. The next ^uefiirm is, if a Grammar, what 
fortof Grammar ? Doubt lefs fuch an one as may an-.^ 
fwer all the Ends of Gxamptar, that is by which this 
Language may be attained the nearefi way. To this 
end h muji Firft be comprebenfive, otberwife it can, 
never be fufficient for the .Attainment of the Latin 
Tongue.. iJecondly, It fpuji be certain^ Thirdly, Tt^ 
muji be plain. Fourthly, // muJi be as brief as will 
confifi with its being comprehenjive, or fufficient. Of 
thefe three lafi ^aliAcations , I do not underfland 
there is any Difpute ', Certainty, Brevity, and Perfpi- 
cuity being by all acknowledged to be neceffary Conjiit 
tuents of fuch a Work. But as for the firfi, namely, 

Con^T 



The Preface. 

ComJ^ehenfiofij the World is not fo well agreed about 
thltt Matter"^ many ff^ofin^ that a general Dy aught 
(fixfh^t is moft ordinary in the hanguag^is enrugh in 
thtA refp^B. I mnji coyjfefs^ I am not for jading tie 
Membrie's cf ycfrtng People^ . hy obliging them to run 
through too much in this tcay : But the Gramnar mnJl 
he fiMcient for all that^ or hoxo will they get what 
rbeyfmdnot there^ withorn abundance moie troubled 
Jm that is to he done in this cafe is^ to dijlinguifh 
h^tpeen things cf ordinary XJfe^ and fuch as rhe rare 
tmd extraordinary : To make the firft Matter of Rule 
tD^thy hearty together with fuch Exceftioyis as are 
any thing cofnmon ^ and tije latter Matter of Jnnota- 
tibn, ana that foy as to be the moft readily forwd upon 
tftCi^yi, as (by keeping to the Alphabetical Order ^ and 
Making moft (f the Words treated of to begin the Line, 
4fidjiand out beyond the reft) I have endeavourhd fo 
do in thefh Animadverfions. Now our common Grammar 
4s iHtblerable in all thefe fever al Particulars : Tie 
j^hs it gi'Oe^ do not contain one half of what is ne- 
t^^y to le knffwn in the Latin Tongue. Tloey are 
hefide that ih many things direBly falje, and contrary 
tb the Vfe of Authors. They are in many things ov- 
jfctire \ and though wanting in Necejfaries, yet abound- 
ing ih Vnnecejfaries, as often giving two Rules where 
Me woudferve, or a long and tedious one^ where a 
fh^ft oftewoud do the Hufinefs better, as is fufficiently 
fhewn in thefe Animadverfions. Now if Learning he a 
thing if any Confequence, what a Prejudice nmp it be 
fd a Nation^ tdmve their Toutb lie under fuch a Dif" 
advdntage in the attaining ft ? But this is not all : 
Pbr an ^Jbure and blundering Method of Study ^ in the 
ytunger fort ^fpecially, who art of themf elves but too 
' fnuch enclif^ d to Foolery and Lllenefs^ is tJje gt eat eft 
l^ifcouragemtnt^ that can be^ to Induftry :, And then 
the Mina being dijhearten^d from taking Pains ^ where 
it finds Labmr tdfo Uttk purpofe^ prejentiy turns its 

h A:Vvity 



The Preface. 

ASlivity another way^ and then betakes its felf to 
trifling (which is the firfi flep) and next to vitious 
^rpiployments. ji/id though the Occ^Jions of the mean* 
er fort^ andthofe tfthe middle Ranky by putting their 
ThoHgbts upon fome honeft Bufinefs, may chance to re* 
(cue them from this Neceljity ^ yet withfuchy as by the 
Largenefs of their Fortunes have their time upon their 
bands^ it is in a manner an infeparable Confetjuence. 
JSefide that J the very Mif^arriaze of Children in their 
Studies^ though it were notfo men attended with this 
fad EffeSl, were enough in all reafon to awaken the 
Cafe of all fuch as love their Country^ or have any 
Humanity for that tender Jge^ to Prevent it : That 
fn the Parents Money may not be pang away^ their 
Hopes defeated, the Time and Labour oj Touth mi^ent^ 
and a flop put to their Vrogrefs in Learning and Adr 
vancement in the World, by their not being fitted for 
any creditable and profitable Employment. But it will 
hefaid^ if this be the cafe, how come we to havefo mam 
Learned Men among us, who have all been brougot 
Up by this Grammar? Well, we have indeed a great 
Number of Learned Men -, but tJjere are different 
parts of Learning, fo that a Man may have a great 
deal of Learning without a great deal of Latin, and 
then the only ^iefiion is, how many Latinifis we have ? 
And it /j to be JufpeBed, there are not a great many^ 
from the fmall Number of Latin Books that have been 
written, among us in fo many Tears. So many excel' 
. lent Treat jfes as ive have in Divinity and Morality y 
befide otl^er Subjects, woud fome more of them in all 
likelyhood have been in Latin, if our Learned Men 
had been generally Mafters of that Language. The 
ge;ieral Good of Mankind woud have prompted them 
to have put them into that Language which is nnofi com^ 
municative. The eager Defire of converting Roman 
Catholicks, which has appear'*d fof fo many Tears^ 
Hfioud in all likelyhood have been much more furthered 



The Preface* 

hy this means. Some cfthofe Books wou'd in all Pro- 
Bability have lifted into the hands of feme fuch 
Leafned Men abroad^ as woud have conddered them 
imfartially, and have been corrvinc'd by them. And 
Tpphat a Number of Profelytes Tpond fuch a Com)erfio4 
have brought in after it ? The common Soldiers feldom 
ft and out long when the Chiefs furrender. But fupfofe 
it had mifs^d of this great End, it woud however 
have eftablifl)d the Glory of our Church abroad^ and 
gained her a Reputation^ which woud at one ti^ne or 
other have been ferviceable to her, and of which Jhe 
may come at one time or other to ft and in need. At 
leaft our Cafuiftry and Devotion wottd have been fer- 
viceable to many poor Souls there ^ as having the Ad- 
vantage of what they find there in point ofHonefty and . 
Fiety, which if we are in earneft, we Jkould be as de- 
firous offaving as our own : But granting^ as I cannot 
fay to the contrary, that our Men of Learning are 
learned likewife in the Latin Tongue -, all that vrill 
follow from thence is, that by their own Obfervation, or 
that of others. Men may ftipply the Defeils of this 
Grammar. And I know no Body that denys this, Bnt 
then how much more time will it take them^ than if they 
had had it at fir ft in their Grammar ? I am confident 
fuch Men will bear me witnefs, that it has coft them 
abundance ofPains^ and Time, which might have been 
Jpent much more ufefully in other things. And that 
to this Day they are forcd to make it great fart of 
their Bufmefr to retain this Language. For give me 
any Man has learn d only this Gramynar, and not f up- 
flyd the DefeHs of it this way^ and I dare undertake 
to convince him that he is deficient in fhis Matter^ 
and that, let his reading be what it will^ fo he has 
not made ufe of written Rules. And this I fancy any 
ingenuous Perjon will acknowledge upon reading the 
Book. Nay, befide all thefe Benefits of a good Gam- 
mar^ either for the Attainment of the Latin Languagey 

b 2 ^ or 






The Preface. 

or Jhortfiing the way to that of others^ I cannot bifM 
think it vpoud be of great A^lvofUagey both fw tb^ tn^ 
prove ment of Reajon in gemral (the Art of Sfcakinm 
having fiich an Affinity with that ofreafomngy whiaj 
it reprefents) and alfo for the exa3 Ufe of our omm 
Language ^ which for want of Rule is fniljeS to Uncer^^ 
taiytty\ and the Occafion of frequent Contentions. Jnd 
upon this account, it has been the B^oiSece offnmat 
wife Nations^ fuch of thern^ I me any asba^haiatbo^ 
rmgh Education^ to learn even their own LangfiOfp 
by Stated Rulesj to avoid that Confufion^ that mmfi 
needs follow from leaving it wholly to vulgar tyi* 
Sure no Body need think long upon this SubjeSl to ba 
convincd^ that if there zo fo much Art to right f€4i* 
foningy there nmfl go Jome alfo to right ffeakin^. t 
mean to a clear ^ and certain nxpreffion of that Kca^ 
fun^ which is the Biifinefs of Grammar, Certainfy 
Chance can never equal Rule and JUethod in a thin^ 
of this Moment and Curiofity. Tfje SnbjeS therefore 
of this Treat ife^ is no Matter of little Concernment^ fy 
which fo much Good may be done in the World. And' 
the Reader^ with a little good Nature^ may excufe me 
for (pending fo much time about it^ or expeSing he 
jborid^enda little ofbiSy if his Circumfiances require iti^ 
jrherefore Latin being necejfary^ and Grammar being w- 
cejfaryy and a perfect Grammar neceffary^ fomething of 
this kind mnji be necejfary ^ the Grammar we uje at. 
prefent being infufficient for the Purpofes ofGrannnar. 
To prove it fo here^ wou d be to bring the Book inta 
the Preface^ and therefore I muft refer the Reader thi^ 
ther for that. All that remains to be faidj is fonte* 
thing ofmyfelf by way of Vindication of my ConduS^ 
in this Work. And thisy I hope, is no other^ than 
what the Nature of the thing caud for. One. of tbejh 
four ways was of Neceffity to be taken. Firft, Either 
fo to add to and alter the Text of the Grammar y as to 
make it Compleat without it : Or^ Secondly:^ to cor^ 

rea 



Thje PRErACE- 

r^ and fiifflyi tb^ Notes, that axe turn extant upon 

it J or make othexs, : Qr^ Thicdly, Without more ta do^ 

tQ Mf^ke a nerp^ Grammar : Qr^ Fourthly, To hegiu 

wkh^ewin^ the Neaeffity of a new Grammar^ by atf- 

cQverim tbje Faults of the old on^^ JU to the Firji 

W^aj of(^omfleaAing the common Grammai^ by. Jdditions^ 

^iui Jjteratious in the Texty fijoJo a ChoJSge moudnot 

kaoe keen xeceiud without exprefs Juthnities^ and 

piQfer JrwrnentSj which woiud have been very imfro' 

ger in oBook 4e^^ d for the common Ufe of Sd>ools j 

and which b^ that means won d have been dearer^ than, 

the Gemraup. (f tbpfe concerned can well afford. Be^ 

j$ai?, that if that were well done^ there woud be but 

little left of the common Granmior. As to the Second 

Vay ofcorre3in^ andfiMlying the Notes that are nom 

extant upon it^ or making others it woud have been 

done I not only becaufe it woud make the Book dearer^ 

than the former way offt^pplyingand altering theTexty 

but becaufe if the Authorities and Reafpnings (upon 

which fuch a Comntent muft have been built^ fo as tq 

be receivd) had gone along with them^ the Work 

imoud have been abundantly too Voluminous for the 

common Ulfe of Children: Befide^ that the perpetual 

clajhpjfg between the Rule and the Comment wou d dif 

courage them. As to the Third Way^ of making a new 

Grammar without more to do, it might have been proper 

enough to have begun there, had fiot many been Jo un- 

r^a^abh prepojfefs'd in favQ7$r of the old one, that 

notbix^ but the moji particular exfofmg the Faults of 

tbaty could have been fufficient to dljpofe them to a 

Cbame. There remain d. therefore only tloe Fourth Way^ 

offirft Jiewing the Necejfty of a new Grammar, by dif- 

cfTverim the Faults of the old.one^ which I have taken : 

And thatfo, as to lay down not only the Reafons of 

fiicb a Cbaf^e^ but aljo the Foundation, and Materials 

cfit. This is the felf fame thing that Voifius did for 

Ui$ Belief of his Country, when it labmi'd likewife 

under 



The Preface. 

under a bad Grammar^ namely j firft topubtijh what ht 
tbouzjjt the whole of Latin Grammar^ examining at 
the fame time what was then receivd^ and then from 
that to make a Compendium for common life. And f 
confefsj I could not think either of a better Method^ 
or a better Precedent. This Method has of NeceJJity 
drawn me into this Lengthy of which though fq$bly 
fonie thing here and there might have been contra8ed 
in the reafoning party yet I think it coud have been 
but little^ and I hofe it will not be expeBed that I 
fhoud have been over folicitous^ or have added much 
to that Trouble, which was of NeceJJity to be undergone^ 
to have made the Book two^nce cheaper. In the Com-^ 
pendium, if Ijhall be encouraged to undertake ity / 
Jhall be asjhort as fojfible: And I may be fo much the 
ft>orter there, for havinz been Jo long here. Becaufe 
nothing will be required there but plain Precept, and 
References hither by Figures for Pi oof There are feme 
that think many things might have been J^ared here^ 
as being rare and umifual, but I thought them the 
more necejjary to be taken notice of for that, for fear 
the Novice Jbould be at a Jl and when be meets them, if 
he were not appri^dof them before-hand. And as this 
was necejfary for the underjianding thofe Authors where 
they are found, fo it was necejjary likewife for them 
that Jboud write in this Language, that they might 
fee upon what Authority they Jiood, and how far it 
was fitting to venture upon the Ufe of them. There 
is indeed one thing which woud very much hifve Jhorten-^ 
ed this Work, and woud contra^ Grammar in general^ 
if it were allow d, and that is the Liberty of Analo^ 
gical Formations. I mean offupplying thofe Numbers 
and Cafes of Nouns, thofe Comparifons of AdjeSivesj 
Tenfes and Supines of Verbs, that are not to be found^ 
by their feveral Analogies to thofe which are. But 
this is a Liberty, which Learned Men woud never 
yet be brought to allow, for fear of introducing a Con* 

fufion 



The Preface. 

fufion in the Language^ by abufing this Liberty^ Ift^p" 
fqfe^ to a further Departure from the Ufe of Authors^ 
and fo breaking the Standard of a Univerfal Language^ 
which muft end in the Lofs of it, and by Confeqjience 
in the general Dif advantage of Mankind. Atul till 
they are agreed in this Matter, for which 1 think I 
have given better Reafon than has yet appeared, he 
that jhall take this Liberty, -will find it to his Cojf, 
that he will but expofe himfelf, and that as the Cafe 
fiands at prefent, if a Writer will have his Book 
well receiv d, be muft fleafe in Language, as well as 
Argument : And for this Reafon I have beoifo much 
the larger upon thefe fever al Heads. For if nothing 
he to be attempted of this kind, but xvhat the Ufe qf 
Authors will bear us out in, it is fit we fboud be ac- 
quainted with that Ufe of Authors, and not left by 
Grammarians with fuch fhort DireSlions, in a thing Jb 
neceffary by their own DoBrine. I have therefore in-: 
troduca nothing new as necejfary in Grammar, nor 
made it more difficult than^ it was before, but only giv- 
en a fuller Account of Particulars, which have hitherto 
beenffoken of but at large, and in the general, or if by 
any particularly ^ yet Jo fborily, and fo uncertainly, 
that the Reader coud have no Affurance what was 
warrantable, and what not, by thofe Accounts \ as 
will appear by comparing the Lifts here given with the 
Accounts given by the compleateft Grammarians of the 
feveral SubjeSis. There is not indeed an equal Ne- 
cejfity of knowing all the things here treated of Some 
are necejfary for the afcertaining of the Language, 
others in point of Elegance, of which learned Gramma- 
rians ana Criticks muft be allowed the beft Judges. 
Of the fir ft fort are Definition, Divifion, Declenfion, 
and Gender ; a Miftake in either of which, will at leaft 
fu%%le the Reader, if not lead him into Err our. Ofth^ 
fecond fort are Comparifon ofAdjeBives andParticipials, 
Supines^ and DefeSlives in Caje^ or Number, as by 

the 



The Preface. 

large ^ as I found generally done before me to my great 
Trouble : but to ^ive the Reader all the Help I can to 
judge for bimfeJf I have been fo exprefs in my ^w- 
tationsy as to Booky Chapter ^ Aci^ Scene^ Poem^ and even 
Vage or Verfe (except in fame very few Places xchtch 
flood digejied before IhadTbougbts of being fo exaEl^ and 
which is all of this kind that I defire the Reader woud 
take my rcord for) that he may with the leaji Trouble 
recur to them. Iconfefs the Editions I quote from are 
fiot alwa(ys the beft^ but I have taken fuch Care to col- 
late them with thofe that are fo, that I hope there 
will be little to be objeBed upon this Account. And 
for the farther Eafe of the Reader, and efpecially the 
young Reader, I have digejied the Words treated of 
into Alphabetical Order, and for the mojlpartfet them 
out before the reft of the Matter in the beginning of 
the Line, or elfe indented them as was moji 'conveni- 
ent in point of room. Some fevp there are, which for 
that Reafon are put into the Body of the Page. 
Wherefore, when he finds a Word in the Index, let 
him look down the fide of the Page for Words indented, 
or flanding out, and if he find it not there, it is in 
the middle. ^Tis for the fake alfo of the young Scho" 
lar, that I have made the Index fo exprefs and par- 
ticular, that. I have chofen many times to mention the 
fame thin^ under fever al Heads, rather than hefboud 
mifs it, for want of confidering the fever al Heads it 
might be expeSled under. For Order, I have followed 
tJjiZt of the Grammar, as often as the Englifb and tJ}€ 
Latin agreed, and when they did not, I have taken 
that which I thought the moJi natural. I have now 
only to reqnejl of the Reader^ that he woud confider 
the Difficulty of fuch an Undertaking, and make fuit" 
able Allowances for any Errours, or Ove? fights which 
I may have been guilty of efpecially in aSnbjeSl where 
fo many much greater Men have mifcarried before tne^ 
I hope I have at leafl made good my Charge againfi 

this 



thfe Prefacjb* 

this tjrdfpnmvtj nmmefyj that is in fnoftf' things falp 
in many obfcurej dhounding in things unneceffary^ and 
Tmy defeSive in things mceffary^ and by Confequdnc^ 
an inpffferahk Imfe£ment to the Progrefs afTonth 
Jndff dfter all thisy facb d Syftm he fit forfuhlici 
Ufe^ then as Horace fays upon a Uhe Confiquame^ 
Kinii eft quod amplius ad<kin % 

KU intra efi oleam, nil extra efl in nuce durL 

jlnd in this f&veral learned {j^ntlemen agree with nttj 
tithtr exff^fsly^ or hnfUcitely^ as appears by their Te- 
Jlimniats^ wbofe Judgment (except in their too fa- 
durable CharaBer of my 'Performance) cannot be que- 
fiioned. 



■P— ■^■^■il^i-^^— — MW^— — *— i^— ■! I Bill I 



Advertisement. 

AvtR. i>Aiihas pubKftiedby Advertifement, That I hat^e 
^^ miftaken his Meaning in the Specimen, upon the 
Word tkmo^ which I therelay he will not allow to figni- 
fie a WonUn : Whethtr I have, or no, lee the Reader judge 
by what he fays in his J^ofjius contrdtaSy p. 22. He owns 
in bis Letter to me, that he was fo apprehenfive it wou'd 
' be taJecn as I take it, that he had relolved to reprint the 
Book) and alter that Paflage to prevent it. I have indeed 
mifreprefented him there upon the Word Thusj. as well as 
PoJJtHSy 2ind Stephens y in faying that ihcy deny it 10 fig- 
nirie tlie Tr^f. But having had twenty Grammarians and 
Criticks before at the working off ot every Rule, I find 
that Multiplicity led mc into this Miftake, as apprehend- 
in^ I pou'd diftindlly carry in mind what they all faid, 
without writing it down, which way I have fince taken ; 
lb that I hope there is no Fault here of this kind. And for 
that Overfight in the Specimen, I beg that Learned Gentle- 
man's Pardon« 

c ^ Dr. 



Dr. KNtPE's Teftimoniar. 

IHave perufed Mr. JohnfonV Grammatical Cm* 
mentarieSj and find it is a very laboriouSy learned^ 
and uftful Work •, and I think the Book will be well 
worthy to be had by the Eminent Ft of effort of Grammar^ 
and neceffaryfor thofe that would be Jo. 

Tho. Knipe, D. D. 

Nov. 1 5. 1705', 

Jflajler ^Weftminfter SebooL 



rMifa 



Dr. S H o R T I N g's TelUmonial. 

> 

MR. JohnOmfent me the Sheets of his Gramma* 
tical Commentaries y as they came from the 
Prefs. And though for want of nealth I have Mt 
been able to examine fo laborious a Worh^ cofjfifting 
^f fucb a vaft Number of Rotations ^ yet by what I 
have had time to examine^ and by his Performance in 
the Specimen formerly fuhlifli'dy I believe it is a Work 
of very great Ufe for the Improvement of Touth in the 
Latin Tongue J and a great BenefaSlion to the Publick^ 
as containing the beft Materials for a perfeSl Publick 
Grammar^ 

Matt. ShortIxVg, D. D. 

Mafter /?/ Merchant-Taylor's 
School^ London, 



Dr, 



Dr. Cheyney's Teftimooial 

I Think Mr. JohnibnV Grammatical Commentaries 
to be a Work of great Care and ExaBnefs 5 and to 
contain the heft Materials for a ferfeS and compleat 
Grammar^ and therefore hope it will meet with all 
that Encomagenient from the Vuhlick^ which fo ufefid 
a Verformance doth deferve. 

Tho. Cheyney, D. D- 

Nov. 16. 1 70 J. 

Mafter r^ Wiiichefter School. 



Dn Walker's Teftimonial. 

HJvingfeen the Sheets of Mr.^ohn^oxis Grannna\ 
tical Commentaries^ as they came from the Prep y 
I cannot but declare that I am jully fatisfied with the 
Ufefulnefs of his Defign^ and the Excellence of the Fer- 
formance. There have been other laudable Attempts to 
reform what has been amifs in Syftems of this Na- 
turei but, none y that I know of like this of his^ eithef 
for ExaUnefs^ or Contprehenfion. For be has correSei 
the Errors of other Grammarians^ and thofs of tjj^ 
higheft andmoft eftablijhed Reputation , with the grea^ 
teft Care and Exaclnefs : And fupplied, whatjoever 
was waffting in them, fo that if the Vublick fhall 
think fit to encourage him. in the purftiing this labo^- 
rious and ufeful Work, we may expeSl^ for ought I can, 
fi^f a CoMfleater Latin Grammar than atiy other yet 
ext^mt^ Hei muft needs, have been, as ,at vaft Pains ^ 
fo 0t a gr€at Charge alfoyin carrying ,on this Work^ 

and 



and therefore it is highly reafonahkj he jhouU have 
fuitable Returns made him : And that thofe effecialfy^ 
who are more nearly concerned in this Affair^ Jhomd 
afford him that Afftfiance he jufth deferves for his la* 
forious Endeavours to ferve the rublick^ which it mnfi 
be confeffed^ will tend very much to the Eafe of Ma- 
fiers^ and the fingular Advantage of thofe with whofe 
Education they Jball be entrujiea. 

Tho. Walker, LL. D. 

Nov. 1 5. 1 70 J. 

Majler (t^ Charter-houfe SchooL 



Mr. Mountfort was pleas'd to excufe himfelf from 
perufing this Work as the Sheets came from the Prefs, 
for want of time, but of the Specimen, which makes 
three Sheets and a half of it, hp gave the following 
TeftimoniaL 

Mr. Mottntfort's TeftimonaL 

CbriJTs'Ho^italy May 6. 1 704. 

SIR, 

HO W ufeful foever the Eftablifiod Grammar^ com^ 
monly calfd Mr. Lilly 'j, may have hitherto been 
to the Publick \ it cannot he denied^ that for the bet'' 
ter Improvement of our Englifh Touth in the Knowledge 
of the Latin Tongue y there feems juH reafon for a Re- 
view ami CorreSHon thereof-^ or for the Subftitution of 
another more Accurate arid Compleat : That manifeftly 
labouring under fo many Falfities^ Obfcurities^ Reaun- 
dancies^ andDefeSs. The ingenious and Learned Au- 
thor of the late Specimen of Grammatical Commentaries^ 
-i/r. Johnlbn, basfo nicety Remarked tbem^ and in his 

Animad" 



Animadverfions upon part of it fojudicioufly Corre&ed^ 
Illujlrated^ Refcinded, and Supply d them j that it ou^ht 
to be acknowledgd^ that he has defervd very well of all 
JUaJiers of Schools^ and JTell-wi/hers to Roman Learn- 
ing, His immenfe Fains in reading over^ and examin- 
ing the ClaJ/icis^ and other Juthors necejjary and pro- 
per for his liefign^ if very apparent. I cannot but de- 
clare tny great SatisfaBion tn what he has already done^ 
and by you return him my Thanks ^ heartily wijhing 
him the Continuance of fuch Health and Leifure^ as may 
he requiftte to carry on^ andfinifbfo great a Work : We 
have fair ground to hope be will anfwer ExpeSiation^ 
having given usfo good a Froofof his AJpduity^ Faith- 
fulnejs and Skill IJhould be glad to hear he meets 
with due Encouragement^ and a Compenfation fui table 
to fo Laborious a Toil ^ and this not only for the Wor- 
thy Author s fake^ but as an incitement alfo to the 
Induftry of others^ in like Beneficial Undertakings, 
lanjy 

Sir, 

Your very Humble Servant, 

Sam. Mounfbrti 

Mafter of the School at 

Chrift'j-Hofpital. 



Mr. Tooke's Teftimonial. 

I Have perufed Mr. Johnfon' j Grammatical Commen- 
taries with great SatisfaFHon^ and ejieem them the 
pwft Vfefulj PeifeB^ and Compleat of any that I have 
yetfeen extant in any Language. 

Nov. i^f 170 J. And. T o o k e. 

Geometry Profefor at Grefham-College. 

Mr. 



Mr. B A X T E r's Teftimonial. 

I Have with a great deal of SatisfaSlion pemfed 
Mr. JohnlbnV Granimatical Commentaries ^ as the 
Sheets were print ed^ and tranfmitted to me, and find 
my feJf obliged to be fo juft , as to fay , that I 
am of Opinion^ that they will obtain among the jn- 
dicious and learned: Nothing in this nature having 
hitherto been written with that Elaboratenefsy Accu- 
racy^ and true Judgment. So that I believe, that 
tvhen this Work is ferfeSedy it will be a comfleat 
Apparatus to a new National Grammar, fo much 
wiped for by all that are fenfible of the Err ours. De- 
ficiencies, Redundances, not to fay Blunders, of our 
Legal Grammar. I am therefore one, that mufi join 
with the many more eminent in the Vrofeffion in hear- 
tily wijbing the Book may meet with that Reception, 
when fublick, which is Jo due to its JUerit. This is 
the real Sentiment of 

''N^T.Aft'':??' William Baxter. 



,#. 



O F 



(O 






Grammatical 

COMMENTARIES, &c. 



O F T H E 

Definition of Grammar. 

Latin Grammar^ p. i. 

CrdmmdticAeH reiie loquendi atq\fcribendi Ars^ 

Animadversion L 

THIS way of Defining the Subje<fl at the Beginning of 
Treatifes of this Kature, is of excellent ufe, and rccom- 
mended by Cicero^ as a neceffary Introducftion to all 
Sorts (>f ArglunerttS. Omnis enim qu^t a rationc fufciyitnr 
'de re uliquA itiftuutio^ Met k defiuitione proficifci^ ut intdli^atur quid fit 
idy de quo difputetur^ Off» lib. i. p. 4. For by this means, if any, the 
Author wiU be moft effecftually ftalc'd down to his Point, arid kept 
from AbfUrdity and Impertinence : and the Reader alfo will the 
better know whither to refer, what he meets with m his Reading, 
and judge whether or no it be to the pur^ofe. But then, to maks 
this Advantage of a Definition, it is abiolutely nccefTar^', that it 
clearly and fully rcprefent the thing defined, and fufficiently di- 
Jtinguidi it from all others. That it do involuta evolverey as Tully 
iays *, or be Ludda^ ^ fuccinH^A rAdefcril>tWy SiS je^inttliati. And to 
this end there muft be no ambiguous Word, or doubtful Terms 
in it ; that is, fuch as have two, or more Signiiications : Becaufe 
then the Reader has but an equal Lay for his being in the ri^t ; 
'afid the more Signiiications the Term has, the greater are the odds 
that hemiftakes his Author. Much lefs mufl there be any Term 
'ufed in ^.Schfe diftiii<fl, and peculiar to Authors that write upon 
; xh^t SubjcA ^, Bcc^fufe the Reader being fuppofcd to come raw and 
' ■ ' . B ignoraat 



^ Of the Dtfnition of Gummiut. 

will appear upon Examination, to his not precifely defining , ot 
determining with himfelf befbre*hand , what he was %o write 
about. For had he coniiderM, that Grammar tons the %Art of exfrrjfu^ 
the Relation of Wards in Sentences to one itnother^ he could never have 
given fo many Rules, as he has done, without any mention at all 
of the Relation of the WordeOvem'd, which, upon a right No- 
tion of Gramniar, is foneceflary, and for want of which, there 
is fo much room left for MiAakesin Children by their Gramnun 
'Tis a common thing with them to fay. Do libro M^j/b^Mn , for Do 
lih/um Magijhro^by the Kult^erba Aandi & reddendi r^unt IXciiWm ; be- 
caufc there is no notice taken of the Relation the Dative Caie tnufb 
have to the Verb of Giving. And fo in a number of many other 
Rules. And as he would not have given Rules, without mentioning 
the Relation of the Word governed^ if he had coniidered that the 
Subjcd he was Writing about, conUfted in reprefenting the Rela- 
tions of Words ; So it is not likely, that he would in others have 
fo miftakcn the Relation, he attempted to affign, as he has done, 
to mention no more at prefent, in his Rule of the Genitive Cufe jo« 
verned of « Sniftantive^ and in the Rule, Iahs (Sr Vitupierium XrXj a$ 
ihall be made put in the Examination of thofe Rules. 

I have been the larger upon this Point, becauie 'tis a I^undamen-' 
tal one ; in which an Errour, like that in the FirA: Concotflioo, 
is not to be mended : I ihould now dilmifi it , but that I foreiee 
f he Pofftbility of an Objedion, That I am kuilty of the (ame 
thing I condemn, in putting an ambiguous Term into my own 
i)efinition, v(\. the Word Relation ; for that alfb fbmetimes figni- 
fies fomething elfe, than what I here intend by icThis I own with-* 
out more to do, that the Word Relation has other Senies, taken t>y 
It felf ; but yet the R^ation of Words one to another , in SentestceSy has 
no other Signification, than what I intend by it, namely of Ca^e^ 
■Effelh^ Meunsy £«*/, Manner^ Ti^rumentyObieff-y otdjun^^ ana the like ; 
which are Names given by Logicians to thofe Relations, under 
which the Mind comprehends things, and therefore the moil; pro* 
per to difcover them by, or fpcak of them to others. Aad if th^ 
be too hard for Children, then Grammar is too hard ; for theiie 
neither is, nor can be, any Grammar without ^em* And a littk 
Fxperienpe will iatisfie any Man, that they willas eafily apprehend 
them, SLS GenAtnr^ Number y Declcpfion^ and Other GrammaT'-Termif 

And thus much for the Definition of Grammar* 



■■^ K 



Ot 



tJ) 



• 1 ■ 



OF THE 



9 ARTS of ST EEC m 



I 



Grammar 9 Eng. p.i. 
N Speech be thefe Eight Parts foHo\^ing j 



'Noudy 
^Pronoun, 
iVerb, 
.Participle, 



tjT Adverb^ ^ Cg^ 

R^C Conjunftion, 3 & 
Prepofition, j§^\ 
Inteijeftion, 



D 

cu 



Animadversion II. 

IT. had ben littlJer,!!! the Enmneratiottof the Ptrts o\( Speech; 
to haW'Hude the Subftanttve) and the Ad^^ve two diftiiv^fc 
Parts ^Speech, and to have comprehended, the Participle 
under -the Adie(^ive. For the SubftantiTe, and the Adje- 
etivc are two very different Parts of Speech. The Subftantive iipip- 

Sing a Thing, ttie :Adje<^iye only the Denomination of the Sub- 
anthre from fome Accident, in which the Participle agrees ex' 
d^ly with the Adje^iye; as ibatt more folly appear^ from the Con- 
fideration of Subftantivie, and Adjeiftiye ^ in their feverai De&i 
liifions. 



OF 



(«) 



OF THE 



' -'-* 



/ 



definition of a Suhftantiviy 

Cmnmuirj Eng. P^^. t^ Lat. P#ff. 8. 

A Noun Subftantive is, Juppofe the Kame tf f Thing^ 
tt\ ^^ ftandeth by himlelf, and requtrrth not ano^ 
riicr AVord to be joined with him, to fliew \is Signi- 
fication, as Homo a Man. In LAtin thus ; Sub(i4ntivum 
eft J fut^udi nomen xAj quod nihil addifoftuUi adfmm 
Jpgnificationem exfrimendamJ 
t " 

m 

Animadyehsion IIL 

AS Subftimce in the Categories is that, which fubfiili in 
Nature by it felf ; fo Subftantive in the Parts of Speech 
fi^ei that, which fubfifts of it ielf in the Underfbtf- 
ding ; that is, which fo fubfifts there, as that^tijdiay be 
the Subje^ of anAifirmatio%or Negation: From whence it is caH'd 
Sub/iantivum^ from SiAfUrey becaufe it is the Foundation, Qr £rft 
thing laid down in the Mind, and does SiAft4re^ or ftand under 
the Predicate as it were^ in^eech, which is tertas'd Conjbru|^Uim. 
And tho' fome Subftantives be found in oblique Cafes only, and 
fb for that Reafbn cannot be made Subje^s, which Relation 
is determined by ufe to the Nominative Cafe, yet this ino^d- 
ty does not proceed firom the Nature of their fignification, which 
is ail one as m other Subftantives, that are entire in their Deden- 
lions, but from the accidental difference of Ufe in thcfe Subftan- 
tives, which are equally capable by their fignifications to become 
Subje<Ss, as well as others. For inftance, NoEtu by Night, is found 
pnlyinthe Ablative Cafe, and therefore cannot become the Sub- 
jed of Predication, but there is nothing in the fignification of 
^o^u^ that b^rrs it from having a Nominative Cafe, and beconiing 
^ Subject, as well as other Ablatives. For as V[ai^ has Mammrimk 
Cornu Cornus in the Nominative, fo NoStu might have had No»us 
or Nolfu^ for its Nominative, agreeable enough to the Genius of the 
Zatin Tongue. And where ever there is fuch dcfe<ft by Ufe, fome 
other Subftantive of like general iignification fupplies it, as Nw^ 
for No^u : This is the true and proper Notion or a Subftantive ; 
and from this Notion it will follow, that Relative Subftantives, 
dlo nevertheleJs properly fubfift in the underftanding by them- 
ftl vcs, though they do, as it were, draw in the Notion of the Cor- 
relative, fincc they fo fubfift^ as to be capable; of being Subject 



Of tbeDepMthft^ d SubJldMive: f 

by themfelves. Fortho' jAaritusdo m fomefort imply, ordraw^ 
in the Notion of Vxor^ yet Marxtus is capable of being the Sub* 
jc^ of Pr^ication by it 4i:lf9.as, Mari^us 6r Vxor accufati funty 
Maritus folus condemttatus. Secondly, That whatever does fb fubfifl: 
in the underftandinj, and may be the Subjed of Predication in 
Difcourfe, is a Subftantive, and the. Name of it confldtr'din 
Speech as a dubftantiv^, whethei^ it be a Thing, ats Jubtr \ or an 
Adion, MsSurgere \ or a Propofition, as %Amhos futricios confuUs cre^i^ 
or, ut nAmbofutricii confuUs cre^trentur. Of the fir ft there is no doubt. 
For the fecond it is plain by that Example in the Orammar^ not to 
mention others* Diluculo Surgere faluberrtmum eft, VJher^Surfereis 
the Subjafk ot the Predicate, or, which is all one, the Subijtan- 
tiveof ttie Ad'y^iye fdubenimum* And as for the thflfd I mean 
the Propofition, 'tis plain livj confidet'd it as a Subftantive, i^ 
making it the Subjecft of a Sentence, and joyning a Participle, <^ 
Ad'ie^lVe with it in that Pal!age, Tentatum, ui tAmbo fatridi con^ 
fulef crearentuTy rem ad interregnum ferduxit Liv. Xit. 7, f. 202, 
For 'tis plain, that the Propofition, Vt, tAmho patricH confules cre^t^ 
rentuTy with the Ad je<ftive Tentatumj is the Subjc<ft of Ferduxit. The 
true Definition then of a Subftantive is, I mean, the Grammatical 
Subftantive, as the Lttins feem to have underftood it. The Name </«' 
Thing thai mayfubfifi by itfelfin the underflanding, fo as to he the SuhjeiB 
tf Predication. And not that given by the Grammar ; of requiring 
no other Word to be jtytted with %t to jhete its Sigmfication^ For that 
is common to the Adjedlive, which fignifies fomething of it felf^ 
and as far as Jt fignifies, requires no other Word to hejoyned vn^ 
it to fketo that Significaiwn. The Adjecflive indeed cannot ftand 
by it felf in DiTcourfe, but muft be joyned with a Subftantive 
to make Sehfe ;' but it fignifies fomething for all that, tho' not 
diftindly* and particularly, and that fomething, fo much as ic 
is, is to oe known, without the Addition of any other Wor£ 
For Example, the words Good^ and tair^ inftanced in by the Au* 
thor ; fignifie fomething of themfelves, and that is, the d^no* 
cing thine Qualities to be in fpme Subftantive, but what that tiling 
is in^articulaiVis n6t to be known, but by the Addition of fi>me 
Subftantive. That is, it cannot be fb properly faid, to require ano^ 
$her Word to be joyned with it^ tojhew its Sign^catton, as to /hew the 
Thing, that that fignification muft be apply'd to, or in which the 
Quality or Property fo denoted, fubfifts. I come now to confider 
the Nature and Definition of an Adjedive, and to fhew, that ic 
is a quite different Part of Speech from a Subftantive, but jiot 
^^m a Participle, which is comprehended under it« 



OF 



OF THE 

^Oefinitim of an ^djeBive. 

Grammar i Eng. f. i. Lat. f, 8. 

A Noun Adje£^ive cannot ftand alone, m Reafbn of 
Signification, but re^iurcth to be joined with an- 
other Word, to (hew its Signification , as Bow w, Go^rf; 
Pulchery Fair, And in Latin thus ; AdjeEihum eftj (fuhaudi 
nomen rely becaufe it was one Member of the Divifion; 
by whidi Nomen was divided ) quod Subflantivo indiget^ 
cui in Oraiivne adJjdreat. 



Animadversion IV. 



f I 1 



IH£ tActje^ive, iio doubt of it, requires a Subftantive u 
he joyMcd vnth it in Sfeechy to vfbich it may aJbtrn'^ but 
the XJueftion is, whether it be a N^uny or Name of 4l 
Thinly that is, whether it he equally £6 with the «M- 
fiuntive 5 for if it be not, there is<n unequal fartictpoHou ef the Genus 
between thefe two, and fo the Divifion is imperfect and Mqmva- 
col ; that is, thefe two have not the fame Qenus^ and thereJ^re caur* 
not be the fame ?«3rt of Speech^ Now, I fuppofe. no body will iiy, 
the xA^&ive is equally, or as much, the Natne 9f <t Tkvgy as the 
Subftantive ; The Subjiantive re|irefents ail, that i&eifential to the K«» 
ture of the things as Homo, or Man^ reprefents %Anmal rationoLeyOXy t, 
KationaL livir^Creature» But Rotmsy Goody r^rcients only an accidsRtal 
Quality, which tho* morally neceffiury^ is not natucaliy^ bat 
meerly accidental* So that though a Kut may be calPd Good^ and 
thevefore Goo^, in ibncie Senile, may be iaid to he his N^mty yet 
it is not equally>Qras much his. ^<u»e, as Man -^ this IstSt reeve- 
fcnting all that IS Eflential to his Nature, the other only what is 
Accidental. For xMjeEfivum from tAdjicioy and there can be no 
need of addipg any thing to the Subfiantivey but what is accidental; 
ft)r what is necelTary and efTential, is in the Subftantive already, 
^Tis therefore a fuflicient Definition of a Subftantivey that it is, the 
Nume of u Thingy but that it may be known, what is meant by 
Thing, I have added, which may fo fubftft in the Vnderflandingy as 
to he the Suhje£t vf fredkation. And the true Definition of an c/Jr^- 
jilHve is, that, It is a Wor.i added to a Subftantivey to declare fome %Addi- 
tional tAccidcnt of the Subftantive conftder^d by it felfy as of j^wa/zVy, 
Vrofcrty^ Relattony tAStiony Tajfion^ or Manner of being, I have added, 
confide} ed by it felfy becaufe the Relations of Subftanttves^ as confider'd 
in Sentences, is dcclated by Prepofitionsy and not by KAdjeSHves. 

Hero 



Cf the Dejnition cf stf Adje^hel 9 

tttre is then a very difierent End, and Incencian in the Ufe of thde 
Words, and thai is Me good ground of confticuting difTetent 
Parts of Speech. But then not onty the end in Significacioi^ but 
the end alio in Conftrutftion is very different, ana thic is the &• 
therground of making different F^rii of Sfifch. For.IJcnow nci 
rea{Ki,.^hy aiiy Iftdy ffiouU be ^roidiled witK]he dift&iSi(^c(f 
the f«t«al F<-hi a Sf^h, hftl 10 tri6V theff diffltrcnt . Sigmfica'i|t- 
(tas? aixf Conflrnfiions in ^eneraf, or how ^^raliyto raakcuft 
of cheminSpeeeh. Now the Conltrutfiion of a S-hflaaiivc is it» 
government, by which it is gov^rn'd^ in fuch care^s.iifdepencl^mf^ 
leiluirel,, in jla fevcrjS Relition^. that it may hive in a Gen^ 
tcnce : whereas the on>y ConilrudUon pf the ^ijiaivi is its agree-^ 
flient with its Sutjliniiye, or being gOvertcd by it, fa as to agree 
with it in Cafe, Gender^ and I7(im'ber. Whatever Relation it 
be in, and whatever Cafe it be in, by that Relation. And iho' 
Si^aniivfs be put in AppofitioD with oiherJ'ii(^>iiiCivn,and agree with 
them, yet thisis no real Objec9iont fuch ^'n^dniivr^beconiingvU'. 
jiUh'ti., by that very ufe, as an JlAjeffivt, or any other Pare of 
Speech becomes a Sulfiamive, when it is us'd like a Suhft.mtivi, that 
ij, conlidercd a^ a Things Norf ii<th.UfhiFJi!Hfli, and theM- 
iiSi>e both agree, as well in Signification, as Conftnn9iO]i. The 
i^VjVrtivfdedares an accidental difference of lJieJi^«aiiv(j fo doe* 
ttii Furih-ifU. The MjtSlvt denominates the Sutjhimivf by that 
accidental difference^ and lb in fome Serle (>e&nics its rf^mr, fo 
doc5 the PariiapU ; unlefs any one will fay, that a Trotting Horfe 
66it not as much denominate the SJfijHtive,- ai a White Horle. 
The lyMi'"'''' agrees with its Si.i4aHiive in ConftruAion, aiid fo 
dWs thd Tjrtiiiflr. The only differMice between theniis, that the 
P.i/tiMt is (aid to ITgnify Ibme diftinift time : I fliall confider that 
hereafter, biit if chat difference be fufScient to make th(!m two 
different Parts of Speech, the ^i,.aive, and Sut^niive muft b« 
mo different P^rts, becauie of a greater di£;rence. But, that 
that difference is not fuScient to make them different Partt ofSfeccbt 
I DlaJ! fliew in my Animadverfion upon the Iii^miyfl^Md, which, 
nOtwithftmding its conlieniiication of time, I fliall prove to be 
a.SnbSi.in!w. And ihereftrc if confipnificaeion of time wiil not 
Unfubflantivc that, as agreeing in the- general Signification, and. 
ufe of a yiifc/ljhrivc .- fo neither will die like conlignification of 
tinie, Unadjedlive the Piii-(icif(r, which agrees in general Significa- 
tion, and Conftrufiion with the ^Oiitnt. All tTiat can bi: pre^ 
tended upon this Account is, that it Ihou'd be call'd for diftiniSion» 
arivWiri'iv<^P«rririf/r. to which I agree. I Itilow Co/™., is againfti 
tat in this diftiniftSon of Suhjlamnt and MitiUvt, but I mwft 
Icive my Rcafonj with the Reader. 



0? 



(lo) 



OF A 



PRONOUN, 

Whether it he a diJlM Tart 

of Speech 



p 



Grammar^ Hxi^. f, i. 

Animadversion V. 

Konwn quafi fro nomine, -It is put for a Noun then, it 
feems, by the Name, and our Author fays it U much 
li\e 4 Koun in his Definition of it, fo like inaeed that it is 

the fame •, the only ditference between it, and other Kouns 

is, that it iignifies a Pcrfon Primarily, and Secondarily a Thing, 
which is Voffiuis Definition of it. friniariQ nomen rffficit , I fup- 
poie, nomen Perfomt^ ftcundario vero rem , Anal<^. 1, i ^« 3« And 
if it figniRcs a Perfon, it muf^ come under the notion of aNoun, 
for a Perfon is a Thin^, fuch a Thing, as may be confidered a* 
lone by the under flandmg, and be the Subjeif of a Predicatey I mean, 
the \SuhJiantive Pronoun^ for there are alfb Prvnouns ^AdjeEtive, Indeed 
this Part of Speech is in order of Nature the firfb Noun. For 
fvhilfl %Aiam and Eve were only in the World, they needed no 
other Name but /, thou^ to Speak to one another ; and thofe Names 
were not given them out of Neceffity. The Pronoun therefore is 
a Noun, only a Perfbnal one, to be iis'd when we fpeak of Things 
Perfbnally, to which upon the Multiplication of Mankind was ad' 
ded the Proper Name, to diftingufh Perfons by, andalfo parti- 
cular things, which are, as it were, fpoken of Perfpnally, when 
they ar« ^ken of particularly. And thus we find Nouns us'd in 
the Firfl Perfon, as R<m^lus rex regU arma offero, Liv. 1. I. alfb 
^Anmbal feto pacem. Id. I. 30. and CulUofius recenfui^ at the end of 
Terence's Plays. I fhall referve, what I have more to fay of a 
Jronoun^ till I come, according to our Author's method, to that Part, 
Mrkorc he Treats of it, a$ a diftin^^ Part of Speech. 



O F 



(II ) 



O F TH E 

Genders of Nouns. 

Of Gender, andfirfi of the Definition, 

i 

Grammar*^ Latiiit p. ii. 

Cetfus efi Sexus Difiretio. 

Animadversion VI. 

GE KV S from Geno^ in later Writers G^no to hrgety which be- 
ing done by Male and Female , thoie Nouns that fignifie 
the Male, are call'd M^fculine, and thofe that iigiiifie the 
Female, are call'd Feminine. But then the greateft part of Nouns 
fignifying fuch things, as have none of this Philufophical Gender, 
that is, no Diftindion of Sex, or Male and Female, as Liber, Domus^ 
Mufa ; or none difcern'd, and therefore none coniider'd, as Vermis^ 
Mufcaj and other Names of Infedsand Fifhes j it rauft follow, that 
Gender in this Senfe, is no general Affecflion, or Property of a 
Koun to be conlider'd by a Grammarian, iince the greateft part of 
Jblbuntr haye it not : tho', in fuch as have, it may be a means to find 
out iome A^ed^ion, or Property, which the Grammarian may 
have' bccafien to make ufe of. For Inftance -, The Grammarian 
will find himfelf oblig'd to confider, that fome Ad jeiflives have fe- 
veral Terminations in the fame Cafe, and that of thofe Termina- 
tions, fome jSubftantives require one, fome another : and in finding 
out which- Will* require one, which another, he wili find himfelf 
helped in fome me^mire, by t^e confideration of Gq^der ; in as much . 
as tiiey^that'lfi^'ilifie ]^ales, will have the Mafculiiie^ or firi^ Termi- 
nation, if there be three, or but two; they, that ^gnifie Females, 
xw 10 have the fecond of tHrce, or the Bt(k of two*, but they that ligni^ 
£e heither Male nor Femak, will not alway.s have another Termina- 
tion diftindl from the Mafculine^ an4 Feininine. Tliis, indeed, Kea- 
fon would require for Dif^indion fake,wjiere difference of Gender is 
confider'd : But here Ufe has overborn B-eafon, and thcfc Neuters, 
as they are call'd, do not always require a diftindl Termination 
from the Mafculine, and Feminine. Thus Liber is by Signification 
Neuter, by Ufe Mafculine : Domus is by Signification Neuter, by 
life Feminine -, and fo in Numbers of others. 'Tis plain then that 



1 « Of the Enumtrdtion of Genders. 

CttwitOTStiatiD'ilcrttiii, atit is dafin'ti by the Author, 1) not Age- 
petal AffediottoraNountabepEiiidpaUycou&ler'db]' a Gram- 
iiurian,ai is imply'd by the Term Neuter Gender, ("hifh fotning 
Kvm iNwiriin, tignifiei niitber^ and is a meer ' Negation of 'Etotn 
Genders) but a Means to find out Tame general AiFedioii, namely, 
fke Inclination of the Subflantive to this, or that Termination in 
the fame Cafeof its Adjedive, Which, bec^ufe Tome Subftantives 
have Gender, and in f)tch this Inclinaiiot>i> found out by the Gen- 
der, the GranjMai' ' ' ■ " ""' -' ■' 

Gender -, *hich I f 
defiling the Kcadcr 



O F T H E 

Divifiott or Enumeration 

GENDERS, 

Gr«qm)«r, Eni- p. ^. Lmi. p. i i. 

CT Endcrs of NPUTis bp fcyen ; the Maiculloe, ^e Fe^ 
I mioine, the Neuter, dieConunon of Two, the 
eomniMi of Three, the Doubtful, aodthe Epkene. 

Animadversion VII. 

FROM "Kat hath be=n Taid in the former Animadverfion of 
CtHitr, it appears there arc but two Genders in Nature ; fo 
that the other Five, are either a Complication of fcveral 
Gendet^ as the eommon of two, and the Common of three, and 
the Doubtful, as this Grammar calls Doubtful; or a NeeatiocI 
6f cither Gender, astheKeuter; orlaftly, no Diftiniftion at all, . 
inptMDtDf Gender, from the tcft, aa the EpJMcic.- under which 
are eontain'd the Name; of all living Creatures, bucMan, which 
are cither not at all diftinguifli'd inth<irSe)i, as to tl^ir Gramma- 
tical Gender, or no otherwiie diilinguifli'd, than other Subftajo- 
rivet, when they fignifie this, or that Sex. Thus PWfrr, a Sf^ry^ . ' 
faa yt'tfi, a Pw, have no regard to Sex in their Gender, or choice 



Qf the EntmerAtion of Genders^ 1 1 

(if the Tcrminafipn of their Adjccftivc. And Ctvva^ a hM^ and 
X«iiM, a Lionfp, have no other Diftindion, than other Subftan. 
jtives tl)at Hgnifif tKe Female Sex ; fo that in a Division of fevca, 
he reckpns upbuilt two, that helong <iiftin<ftly to the Head, whtcfc 
Hcwas'diyidtng. Theft Ahfurditics will follow; according as tbk 
AutBor'has Iwndlcd the Matter. For if 4itfHus he SexusJ^ifiretio^ 
^eii feveh Genders will he fevcn Differences of Sex, and yet there are 
really but Two m Nature; to wit the Mafculine, and tlw Feminine. 
' y^jmsyto avoiq thefe l&lupders, and Abfurditics, defines Genus to 
hCyi^Bf^cntiatn nprnims fecun^um Sexus not amy meaning by Sexus notasn^ 
the Tcr^maif jon of the Adjective. It Would therefore be a plai- 
her Qefiiiition t^ fay at ouce, Grni^r, Gramniaf ically tajjten, or ra-i 
ther the AffeAioq of a Noun, which the Grammarian is P-ra<fti- 
^ly CQncern!(f with;, inf^ead o£ Gendtry it the JHcli^tion of u S*th* 
Jtunfjyeto hine^ PT niffrt Termtnations i,n thefime Cufa of its Jldjc^lve, For 
die Ihott of the Matter is no more thfSm iphis : The feveral Tcrmi-i^ 




]Krs, br'fuch as iign^fic"i\tither Male, nor Fem/ife, hadhaioap 
idjftinijft'fWm'tl^e ojphertw^^ there had Ksen i^iort Work^ 

Bi^tliere tlfe has'br^eh in upon R^afo;i, 4s J faid, and many of 
thefe Keu^'rs iii Signification^ either upon accoiiiit oif the Gistii 
TerminatiQii with Maiqiliiies, or Feminities, or fome other ^ Ana- 
logy (o'tjiem in Sigixificatipn, are ^afculinie, 0^ Peininjyric in Con- 
flrii^^bn, and fomel^tii. " Tnus It^r ^aviiig the fame Tcrminii^ 
iioti^ with Piter^ Xl^ji/llrr, for Example, whjicn are ^afculines, ii 
Mafculine. And %Arbor having a icind of Analogy to Vemhta\ 
^c^ufe it brings, forth pruit, ^ JpcmYiine^ A Man has therefore 
no vdoj^ \Q di t9 ipcak^ or reajiji Latin witl^ f^^^,*^ ^o Gender, 
|Han to conlider, that oTAdjetflives,* tfiat have many Termihatioiisf 
in a Cafe, fome Subftantives require one, fome another : and if he 
knows which is which, {o as t9 accommodate them accordingly, 
any other way (as he may do by Iv^enioryalbne) 'tis hot a Pin mat- 
ter to this purpofe, whether he ever thin|c of fuch a thing as Gender. 
And if there were no fuch Difference of Terminations in Adjc- 
drives, ( as there is not, for Example, in the Englifli Tongue ) he 
that in fuch a Cafe fhou'd trouble himfelf about, Diilindion of 
Genders, in ppint of Grammar, wou'd Mugno conntu mannas nug^s 
«^err. But as the Cafe ibands, in the Latin Tongue, where there arc 
fiiverfit^ of Terminations in Adjcdives, this Accommodation of 
Subftantive and Adjecftive will be made much Hiorter, by taking it 
for a Rule, That Diverfity of Sex, or Gender, in the Subflantive 
will require Diverfity of Termination in the Adjective : And, 
from Kence'it h'as' arifch,'thal tKis'^Sffei^ion of the Siibftantivc 1t4s 
been treated of by Grammarians, under the Notion and Term of 
Gender : Of which tho* there are but two in Nature,^ and thcrc^ 
fore in Nouns Subftantives, which are the Names of things in Na- 
ture, there caiuiot but be two Genders, as defined by the Author to 
be Sexut Dijcretio^ which is the Natural or Philofophical Gender ; 
yet thefe Subftantives may be corifidered varioufly with rejpe(fl to 
this Inclina^ipn to the Adje(^ive, or Grammatical Gendei^: And 
Hois his Seen the occafion of making fo many Geuders. For £x- 
V ample J 



14 Of the EnumerAtion of Qenders. 

ample y A Subftantive may be confidered as the Name of a Mafv» 
andfo be Mafculine ; or as the Name of a Female, and fo be Fe- 
minine ; or as comprehending both Male and Female, and ib to be 
the Common of Two ; or as fignifying neither Male nor Female, 
2nd fo be Neuter by Signification, and Neuter by tlfe ; or Neuter 
jn Signification, and Mafculine by life ; or Neuter in Signification, 
and Feminine by Ufe ; or Neuter in Signification, and both by life ; 
or Neuter in Signification, and ajl three by Ufe, as PrwM/, and Spe--- 
€us : tho' the firft of thefe is indeed of a different Declenfioni, when 
it is Neuter, and fo in a manner a di^erent Word, as ihall be 
ihewn under Incerti Generis, For all Subftantives incline to one Ter- 
snination, or to more ; if to one only, it mufb be Mafculine, Fe« 
joinine, or Neuter ; if to more, it muft Jbe Mafculine and Fe- 
minine, or Mafculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Subftantives there* 
iR>re have but thefe Five Genders, the Mafculine, the Fei^in^ne, the 
Neater, the Common of Two, the Common of Three : Neither 
IS it poflible by the Nature of things to have any more. For the 
JOoaotful is not a different Gender from the Common of Two, 
but a di£Eerent K-edTon, or Confideratiou of the fame Gender ^ 
the Ufe of which I ijiall 0iew in S^ax under Concord, And as for 
the Epicene, all Grammarians of any Note deny its beix^ a di- 
ftini^ Gender, ' ISiayt even this Author haying firfii reckon 'd it a- 
nong the Qenders, ftrikes pt afterwards out of the Number. But 
their I muft defire it nuy be rejpiembred, that to make even 
thefe five Grammatical Genders, or Afie^lions of Subftantives 
vith refped to Gender, it muft be defin'd as Voffius or I define it, 
9iid not as our Author, to be Sexus Dtfcretio : For of that Sort there 
be but Two Genders. 



T come now to exaniine the Rules of Gender in particular ; in 
irhkh I am tied to foUbw the Author in his own Method.Wherefore 



'Ego^ ut contendere durum eH 



Cum ViElore, fequar. 



RfiGU-f 



rio 



Regulj£ Generales 

PROPRIORUJM 



drAfXmary Ldt, p, tx. 

PHropria quA Maribus tribuuntur Mdfcula Jlcds^ 
Vt funt Divorum ; Mars^ Bacchus^ AfoUo : Virorum j 
X^t-Cdto^Virgilius : Fluviorum j utTybris^OrotUes ; 
jMe9^umi utOHober: Ventorumi ut Lybs^Kotus^Aufier. 

De Foemininis. 

P(Rpfrta Tonfiifieum refcrentia nomina Sexum 
Fcemineo generi tribuuntur : five Dearum 
Sunt J ut Juns^ Venus : Mulierum j ceu Anna^ Philoti z 
%)rbium J ut Elisj Of us : Heghnum ; ut Gr£cia Perjis : 
Jnfula item nomen y ceu Creta^ Britannia^ Cyprus. 
Excif itndat amen qu(t dam funtVrbium*^ ut ifia 
Mafiuldj Sulmoy Agragas y quadum Neutralia ut Argos^ 
Tybufy Pranejie^ (^genusj Anxury quod dat utrumquu 

Animadversion VIIL 

Gainft thefe Rules I have feveral Exceptions. As firll;,tlxaft 
they arc given in Latin ; which, coafidennp the Time duT 
Children are to learn t^em in^ that is, befiSre they nnAa:* 
:ftand an)r thing of the Latin Tongue, (for nothing can be luH»wm 
40f that, in a grammatical way, without Gender ) is not only im» 
proper, but ridiculous, 'TisJ^»ot»m fer Ignotum^ than wfhichtio- 
thtng can be more abfurd. If it be faid, that this Latin h explai- 
ned CO them in Englifh -, then I fay again, 'tis the Eneliih <hey 
learn them by, and they -wouULfooner do it by the £ngliSi wixhotor 




I 



j6 'Proper Names »f Mdanuias. 

the Latin. And this Exception is good againfc the whole 3Latfn 
Grammar ; and I here mAi: it ontc for »i[, 

. SecCHuJly,Tii aKiunder inpoitttof Oi^er,cocren of the OcH' 
^erof Prt^rNounsinfhefirlcPIacc. For the Gender of Prow* 
Nouns depending upon the Gender nf Common Nouns, to which 
they arc appropriated, and to luhich they a*c but Adjetftives, (a» 
appears by the Subltanfives being joined with them, in MtKfi Otirm- 
kf,, Mo-He 7nra,Ga!»m.,j.Kit*ih,/,ijti the lilce) thti Gendoi of itiefc 
latter nioiild have been Created of firfc, as giving Law co them, and 
{a is out of Order. Now Order in Teaching, contributing mainlv 
taOrderiHUl^erflaiidinKfbftf asinftld^ iseuf of Orjcr; & 
far/(i(outofaewiy,offcin«u(*derjfe6d. 
"rHetcngffiof ilieitules is a tliircl ETtcepTIbn. Here irefwelve 
VcTres to ihew the Gender of Proper Nouns, which might have 
been done more comprehenfively, as well as mote plainly, in jiift fo' 
muiy words, as, fo^ inftance in thele two VetTes : 

That is, Iffo plain a Rule iieed any EsplanaticnijCiroit Maicti' 
line, bccaufel^' is Mafcuiine. fjtrii is Mafculine, beeaufe H»vi"bi ii 
Mafculine, Fbilatii ii Feminine, becanfe Uular it Feminine. Sib ^ 
Feminine, beeaufe 7/rbi is Feminine. 

This Rule is both more plain, and more comprehenlive. 1 ei- 
peA ihisl^t will beobjcAcdas afautt in it, namclji that it is too 
compreheniive, as cakbgin the names of Mountains alfo, which 
according to Ko^Bi take their Gender from the Termination, and 
not from Mq-j. This Rule of Ko^fr-r is not univerfally true,as Ih^ 
be Diewn by and by, and this ia no more, than what falls ont in ttie 
Proper Names of Cities, and Rivers, which alfo frequently lakA 
their Gender from the Termination : and fo the Gender of tE^ 
Proper Names of Mountains, where thty vary from the gennaj 
Rule, might have been brought in by way of Exception, ai wdL id 
of Cities, and Rivers. This then is a fourth Ohjedion, Tha< 
whereas the Author has fpun out his Rule into chit len'gtit by re^-'. 
Zoning up of particulars, he has yet omitted not only the lumC^^ 
Mountains, but gffeveral other things, as of Bfutes, under wbidr 
are comprehended the Proper Names' of HOrfe^ Mares, Doi^ 
Bitches : as alfo the Names of Ships, Plays, or Fables, which art 
all of the Gender of the Common Noun, 

Proper Name) of Mmtitalns. 

»r^^IsFrue,tbB Proper Names of Mountains dti, fome fiw of 
t tlietnatwiys, and a few other moft ufiially, take their 
i. Gender "Oia the Termination. Thusul/fw, which i« 
tluiagln,but erMneuuily, to l)c only plural, asihall^ie Ihcwa i». 
thcH^irocJiiri^coming from^ff or i^/fw, or ui/fc/ in the Slhgiilar, 
itFemiiune,IibeOthiCr Nouns of that Termination. Alfo Xindy 
iJjf Ott-it, 0011, Ctlfe, ?yrne, Rboiopt., of the firft J3etleiifion arc 

liiM alwajij oii^n molt ufually Fcmintne.' 



IV^r MdUies (of Meant ah s. 



'C4»dm {fugfirviddmotu. 



JEftuet JEtfu. Corn. Sev. de ^t. 
^t frimkgreffus molitur ah Mtna. Claud.de Rapt. PrQf. 1. }. V. 439* 
PbrygH^ldd, Vitg. iKR«3.p* 1394 Media Oeta, Ov. Ep. Deian. Htrc^ 
Stifif imffofiu PeliM O0a* Sen. Agam Chor. 2. Hefperiam Catfen. Luc« 
1. !• V. 555. Celfim Pyrenen, Auf. Idylk xo. iAltum Rhodofen, Oy. Met. 
1. 10. p. 204. Soraife is of the third and Kciiter. Pelion alfo is Neu- 
ter, as ending in on from or in Greek, which is a Neut^ Termina^ 

tion, as, 

](gmbut Offa n^visj 6" Pelion altius OJfa 
tArfiu Ov. Paft* 1. 3* p. <o. 

But then OriS^i, whieh is Feminine by Termination, is alwayi 
Mafcaline by CoiutriK^ion,as far as I can find, although it be Femi« 
nine in Greek, as To^j himfelf owns. He quotes it in two places 
in the MafcuUne. Luc. U 6. Stat, xAchiU i. and feems to; think there 
are no more, but I find* 

Vltraq'^nubesOtbrys edu^us ri^et. Sen. Here. Oet. Ac. 2. Sc I. and 
again, Totus Otbrys, Here. Oet. . Ac« 4. Sc. i. and PTubilus Othrys. Stat. 
Achil. 2. V. 41. and Sudus Othrys. Ov. Met. p. 259. but have nevetf 
ieen it, or elie overlook'd it, in thjs Feminine. 

So nAthosy Eryxy Cytberony Lt^ucatesj^ are always Mafculinc. Grundine 
canus nAtbos* Ov. in Ibin. p. 2S9.Celfus Eryx. Id. Rem. Am. 1, 2« 
jp. 199. Hat»fatte ad Sacra ^ytoeron. Id. Met. 1.2. p. 32. De ntmbofo 
JLeucaie. Auf. Idyll. 6* 

Kay, fome of thofe in 4, as Oet a and Ojfoy though niore fretjuent- 
Iv Feminines, are yet ibmetimes found to take the MafcUline Gen- 
aer from the general word Mon§, Vojfius allows of two Quotations 
of them in the Mafculine, one of Oetoy and one of Offa, 

TfUnfumntumfrefticitOetam, Sen.Her. Pur. A<ft. i. Chor. 
Vtijue dedii/altus ejummoTheffaltts Offa. Ov. in Ibiii; 
Lucan alio makes it Mafculine, according to fome Editions, and 
particularly EiriMigf's. 

S04Uttus fimferi Boreas cum Thracius Offdy 
Rupibus tncubuit, L. i.Y. 390. 
But it feems in VtSus\ Book, it was finif^ra^ for ib he quotes it« 
But there is another Eipunple alio o£Otta or Oete in the Mafculine* 
CU»d» Gi^4ntom» Hie rottit JEmonium praduris viribus Oeten, Nay, A^tru 
tOK), Wmeh Foffius fays is never Mafculine, is once ufed fo by OviHy in 
/ti«. Sffkflammas Sicanus Mtna vomit, t own, in Heinfius^s Edition, 
which I make ufe of in this place, 'tis SicunUy and that is Feminine^ 
as well as Mafculine. But this is not the only freak of Heinftus in this 
Edition : ;md his Authority cannot reafonably be infifted on in be- 
half of ^Jj^j, for he has alfo altered the above-mentioned Quotati- 
on ofOffoy which Voffius allowed of, and made it e Summa Offa, But it 
ftands in Defpauteriws as I have quoted it, Sicanus JEtna^ which 
yojfiuroycr-look'dy by his neither approving, nor cenfuring it, one 
of which he would have done, according to his Cuftom, if he had' 
•bferv*d the Quotation. 

Indeed Names of Mountains in a^ of the Plural number, arc all 
Neuters, likeother words of like Termination, as Dyndimoy Gurga- 
ray Ifmaray Majfica^ Tanuray being taken as Adjedives to.ytt^4, orC^* 
cumtna underftood^ which Sil, exprefTes in Gargana Cacummty and Ve- 
fevajttga, %JbiUy Juray SLiid Gebenna Avcnot to he found in thefe Au- 

thws with an Adjedlive; unlcis in Conjun^ion with Mons. and in 

D ' th*t 



i8 Vrofif NAfnes of Brutes^ Shifs^ &C. 

tbat Cafe even /Eiw^ it felf is Mafculinc, or rather thcAdjc<ftive 
refpeds MonSy as Mons AtnA miturnH mirus incendiis. Pi. N. H, 
1. 2. €. 8. 

But rdioH^ thou£;h Neuter by Termination, and by Original too, 
as coming fromniVef in Greek, has alfo the Gender of the general 
\\ ord Mo»j in Ovit/, Met. 7. p. 158. 

Et anas Oja tulit^ quaffjue altus Pelion herhxs^ 

0,tirryfq\ 6* Pindus^ mujcrque ambobus Olymj us^ 

Perfpicit, 

And yet ^o^i/n, takes no notice of this exccption,norMr.i:frt// neither, 
and Difpuuterius is pofitive that it is never found but in the Neuter 
Gender. The Proper Names of Mountains therefore might ^s 
weJI have been included in the general Rule, as of Cities, and Ri* 
vers ; the iirft of which has more, and the lalt at leaft as many Ex- 
ceptions, as thofe of Mountains, 

Prefer Names of Brutes j Shifs^ and Tables. 



THe Proper Names of Brutes is another Omiflion, for in thefe 
alfo, \vhere diftindion of Sex is confidered, the Proper 
Name takes its Gender from the Common, as in Horfes, 
Marcs, Dogs, and Bitches. And this is the reafon why Voffius fays 
he gave his Rule in thefe Terms, Propers ofMaleSy not of Men, His 
>\'ords are ; /)«• Mutorum tAnimantium Propriis vix att'met dicer Cy cum ^e- 
que iisfixus infit^ ac bomini, Itaque ut ta completer emur , non Viri^ fed 
Miiria propria, dicebamus, Hujus i^itur Locifunt EquuSy Hircuj^ Leo, Et 
Froprtay ut Hyltfy MeUmpuSy canum nomina : Item PegafuSy Bucephulusy 
Rebusy qui Me\entii Equus 10. An, fortiffimus appelUtur. And as the 
Proper Names of Horfes are Mafculines, fo thofe of Mares are Fe- 
minme, as Corithay Podurgesy as Virep^us obferves. The Proper 
Names of Dogs are alfo Mafculine, and of Bitches Feminine, as 
appears by Ovidyin the Story of c^«o», where he reckons up the 
Pack. 

The Names of Ships arc Feminine alfo, on account of JVav», 
as Sacrum confcendit in oirgo, Ov. Hypf, Jaf. And in this Gen> 
dcr alfo Cicero ufcs it, as, Et eus an^uflias pemtravit ea qus eftotrgo »o- 
minata, Tuf. Qil. !• Centauro inVehitur Magna, Virg. ^n. 5, 

Laftly, the Names of Fables, i, e. Plays, or Poems^ are Fe- 
minine, with refpeA to VabuUy as Eus fe non negat perfonastran/iulijfe 
zn Euuuchum fuam, Ter, Eun. Prol. 

Nee tu Divinam Mneidu tenta, Stat. Theb. 12. V. 8 1 5. 
But in Hiftorical Fables, that arc called by the very Name of the 
Perfon, the Name of the Fable feems to follow the Gender of the 
Perfon, not of FubuU, Deffauterius quotes an Example to the con- 
trary out of ^intiliany Varii Thyeftes cuilibet Gracorum comparanda efi. 
He names no place, but I find it, Infl, I, 10. c i. thus; Jam 
Vurd Thjefles cuilihet Gracorum comparari Poteft, So that I am in ibme 
doubt, whether the Name of an Hiitorical Play, entitled by the 
verj' Name of a Man, may be the Feminine Gender^ becauie of that 

paflage of Juvenaly Sat^ i, 

Scriptus 6* in tergo nee dttmfinituf Orejies, 

■' **'■"- As 



Prefer Names of Cities y and Countries ^ 8c c. 19 

As well as that of Suetonius^ in the Life of vAugnftuf^ Inurrogutus 
quidtMm tAj'tx fuus ttgercty dixit eum in fpongiam incuhuiift'. 1 know 
both tAlvarexy and Dejpauttriusy diftinguifli upon thefc PafTagcs, as 
fpoken with a particular rcfpecft to the Pcrfon. But I cannot fee, 
I confefs, what more particular refped there is to the Perfbn in 
thefe Places, than there may be in any mention of Fables that are 
cntitl'd by the yery Name of an Hiftorical Perfon. Ttrence*% ufing 
Colux in the Feminine in the Prologue to Eunudyus^ will not clear 
the point, becaufe that is a Name of Mcnaudrr's own making to 
txprefs the fubjccft of his Fable, and of fuch there is no difpute. I 
iliallleave it with the Reader,' having neither Books by me, where 
I now am> nor leifure if I had, to look for a thing fo rare to be 
found ; and therefore Hiall rather confefs my toiorance, than im- 
pofe upon my Reader, mjr own Fancies, or thofe of others unfup* 
ported by Authority, which has been too commwi a vanity in this 
piece of Learitin^, and the ground of many fhamcful Mifbakes; 
Now I cann.bt imagin, why Mr. Leeds has omitted thefe conlidera- 
tic^hs ; 'tis certain, there is a peculiar life in the Canftruc'tion of 
theie Words, which Boys can no more fail in with, without having 
it obfcrv'd to them, than in other Proper Names. There is yet a 
£fch Objedlion, and that is. That he has not been full enough in 
fome things, and in others again he his not fuiHciently rclcrain'd 
the general Rule by juft Exceptions. 

yifsUatives of Men and Hlinor* 

IN the N^mcs of Men and Women he has been too fliort, ia 
confining them to the Proper Names of particular Perfbns ; 
whereas luch Appellations as are proper to the whole Spedef^ 
with refped to any Ollicc, Circumftance, or Relation, are Mafcu- 
lines, as Scjribu, nAjfecU^ Lunifta^ Kex, Pater^ Fratt^, And thofe of 
like kind, which are proper to Women, are Feminine, as Soror^ 
Vxor^ yir^Oy dec, "Except Ajiodia^ UxctbiA^ Opcra^ ^ v^.r]^ng Servant, 
yigilU^ Mancipiump Proflibtdum^ Sen'itium, a Slaye^SLP.d Scormm^ which 
iall have the Gender of the Termination. 

I • ■ » 1 * ' 

Prefer Names of Cities^ Ccuntrlcsy niid BJvcrs* 

IN the Names of Cities, Countries, and Rivers, he has been 
too general. For whereas the Names of Cities, and Rivers, 
are often us*d by Authors in another Gender, than that dire- 
<fted by the Rule, he has nam'd but a few of many of the firlt 
ibrt, and none at all of the latter. Belide that there is one Name 
of a Country always of the Maiculinc, and yet uncxccptcd, name- 
ly Po«////, as iliall be flic wn in its place. 



Uk'« 



22 Frofer Ndmes of Cities^ and T<w»Sy 8:c. 

Hie iaf Jo afftnrto nuper Marathone fuptrhum 
Thcfeof .Vidimus, Thcb. 5. V. 44.1. 

Ei HOndum Eoo darutn Maruthonj, triumpho, Thcb. 12. ¥#^17. and 
this exception Mr. Leeds takes no notice of. 

llion is Neuter, as coming from the Greek in c», yet there is an 
Example of this aUb in the Gender of the General Noun Z/rbi, 

Tunc cum triftf» erat defenfu eft llion armis. Ov. de Art. L. i. p. 149. 
So Ef.Pen.vhff', in fome Books. Hor, £/>, 14. Mr, Leeds therefore 
Ihouid have iaid ibmething of this Exception. 

Thofe that end in r are Neuters, as well as Tibur ; only tAnxur is 
MaTculine, as well as Neuter, as in the Rule, becaufe the Termi- 
nation ur is in fome Words Mafculine, as Turtur^ Vultur^ in others 
Keuter, as Jecur, Murmur^ but nevcr Feminine. Thus Gaddir and 
Tttt{c>, are us'd in the Neuter, the firft by SJ, Hift, I, 2, f, 148. 
Tarteffum HtfpauiM civitatem^ quam nunc Tyii mutato nomine (juddir b,f 
hemt. And, 

. Excelfum frnnmo qitu Venice montii 

Devexum Uteri pendet Tuder, SiL 1. 6, p. 104. 
Yet the firft of thefc is quoted by l/ojjius in the Feminine, oiit of 
tefim tAvienw, 

Gaddir primAfrttumfolitafupereminet arce, 
Thofe that end in /, with a Vowel before it, as a/, rx, t/, o/, usj 
§o\\o^N the general Rule, and are Feminines, except %A^ragM iAzx-^ 
culine, as in the Rule, and Tcr^, Lucm 1. 3. v. -^26. One in «w is 
always Mafculine, namely Cunoputy tho' unobferv'd by Vojftusy ^d 
sdi that I know o£ 

j Q fuperi ! Nilufney ^ harbor a Memphis^ 
£t Pelufiaci tarn mollis turba Canopi 
Hos animos f Luc. 8. V. 543. 
Barbara famofo non cedit turba Canopo, Juv. Sat* 1 5. p. 2^. Afld 
tAmycUo Canopo, Sil. 1. II. p. 1 7 5. Pelujiaci Canofi, Stat. Sylvl 2. 
Geneth. Luc. Therapnai Canopi. Stat. Sylv. 3. Prop. Met, Cel. 
And in like manner, Ov, Met, I, 15. p, 335, virg, George 4. p, 84. 
Stat, /. 3. Car, to, only Mela has Parva Canopos. 1. 2. p. 66^ So Cori^ 
clujy or Coriolausy is Mafculine in Vlorus in the beft Editions, L.i. 
^.11. Coriolm quoque (pioh pudor) vi^m adeo gloria fuit *, which. Vojfim 
blames Beroaldm for changing into roWo/o/, in fpight of the Audio- 
Tjtyof thebeft Editions, notwithftanding Livy calls it CorioU \n 
the Plural. And the reafon of this feems to be, that they boni 
retain'd the Names of Men, by whom, or in whofe honour they 
were built. Lesbas^ and oibydos, are ufed both in the Mafculine and 
Feminine ; of the latter there is no doubt, and for the Mafculinb 
it appears by that of Ov, Met. 1, 11, p, 224. ' * 

Et Methymnai potiuntnr litore Lesbi, 
And of %Mydos^ in that of Virg, Geog, 1. p, 34, 

Pontus^ ^ oftriferi fauces tentaniur ofbydi. 
Which oiufonius alio has imitated, tho' unobferv'd by Vojfius and 
his Followers. 

Hellefpontiaci tfua protegit aquor %Ahydi, Epift, y. 
And tho' in fome Book, that of Ovid be Methymnea Lesbiy yet Vof' 
Jiu6 ftands for this Reading. 

JMeJfieurs de Port RoyaLy or Vitre^ and the %Annotators^ who follow 
them throughout, both of them Correcf^ Z/o^tw for a miftake, as 
they think, in the Word Colchos ; but the/miitakc is in them, not in 

Voffus 



Frofer Ndmes of Cities ^ and Towm^ &c. 2 1 

auM JUha^ Ebura^ tptd Cereulsg^ jUihniy quod liherini^ Ilifula^ qu4t tam^ 
otrtisiy quod JulienfeSy vefci^ quod FoVcwritf , Sin^tlUy HepMy tArialdunumy 
t^Uminory Bdbro^ Caflra. vinartUy Epifibriumy Hifponcva^ IllurcOy Ofca^ 
Ejcua^ Succuhoy Nuditanumy Tucct vetusy cmnia. BujUtanid Ver^entis ad 
mare, CoHVentus vero Cordubtnjis circa flumen iffum Ojfigiy quod ct^- 
nominafur lAConicumy Ulifurgiy quod Vorum Juiiamy If(^rgiy quod Tri" 
omfhalfy Sitioy 6* xiiii M. fajfuum rtmotum in Mediterrdneo ObulcOy qitod 
fontificenfe appellatur, Cro'to is reckoned by Varnabyy and Mr. Walter ^ 
amongtheMafculincs of this Termination, but they neither of 
]them quote any Authority for it ; nor do I know of any : but 
iCfotony which is the fame, is Feminine, as ihall be fliewn in the Ter- 
mination on. There are many others in a, but thcfe are all that I 
^ve ever obferved with an Adjedive. 

Thus much for the Vowels -, now for fuch as end in Confb- 
nants. 

Thofe that end in / arc Neuters, as Uifpaly Suthut, Et cehbre O- 
ceanoj atwe alternis dflibus Hifpal, Sil. 1. 3. p. 50. %Ad oppidf^m Suthul 
frrv^mV.'SalL Bell. Jug. p. 75. 

Thofe in m are all Neuter, with relbed to Oppidum^ as I«^- 
dunumy lliumy OX elfe the ufe of them in Greek, from whence they 
come. Yet Vojjiuf quotes Lugdunumin the Feminine out aiSidomus. 
Zu^dimmnque tuam dttm prater is afpice vllfor. Car. 5. And not only 
f he Poets, as Vojfiiu thought, but alfo the Profe Writers ufe fonic 
of thofe Proper Names in um in the Feminine, as tAmpllor VrgOy 6* CaJ, 
frariay quam Graci MgUion dixere. Item Mgilium for as Giffaniut^ J^t- 
lium) quam %Artemifiamy amb^ contra Cofanum litus. Pi, N. H. 1. 3. C ^. 
And again, Vltra Palmyram quoque ex Jolitudinibus lis uliquid cbtinet 
Hemefay or Efnefa ; item Elatium dimidio proprior Petr^y quam Damafcm, 
Pl. N. H. 1. 5. C. 26» Campana in Benevento, Auf. Ev,6S. So that all in 
i*m are pot always Neuter, as would appear by Mr. Leedfy who 
inakes no Exception. 

Ia n there are three feveral Endings, according to the Vowels 
pracedine ,.vt\. eny yn, on, ^ 

En ^i yn arc both Feminines, as Thcfeia Tra\en, Stat. Theb. 4, 
V. 8i« Lafidofa Trachyn, Sen. Troad. Chor. 2. 

In ony all follow tne General Rule j as, Dorica tAncon, }uv. Sat. 4^ 
S»ptth»i Babylon, Luc. 1. i. v. 10. tAlta Cahdon, Ov. Met. 1. 8. p. 17Q. 
SthtmOremyona, Ov. Met. 1. 7» P. 144. t^^ Croton, Sil. I. 11. p. i66r 
Mir^ittt eft Marathon, Ov. Met. 1. 7. p. 144. But CYoto, which is al] 
one with Crpton^ is made by Farnaby and Mr. WaU^er to be Maf cu- 
line, as I have obferv'd under the Termination : I have not, as 
i faid there, obferv'd any fuch thing, but coniidering it takes its 
Name from a Man buried there, or hard by, as appears by Ovid, 
Met, 15. />. 314. 'tis poffible fome Author may have ufed it in 
the Malculine, but it had been well, if they hatl given fome Au- 
fhority. They might much better have faid the fame of Marathony 
which Stat, uies twice in the Mafculinc, as Strabo alfo ufes it in 



FL' 



^4 Proper Nanus of Rhefs. 

here ate three Examples of Words of this Termination in the 
Mafculinc, and but one in the Fleminine. And of the Mafculine 
Gender, the Grammarians generally make it, sLtVoffiiu fays, Purem 
rationem ej[e aiunt in tAnruthuSy Trape\HJ^ Ofusy HjdmSy PhltUfy €r /- 

All Proper Karnes of Cities ending in Confonants, other than 
thofe above-mentioned, or in the Vowels u and jp, which are moft- 
ly fome few xAfricany xArabuny or Indiun Names, as BoguA^ Ncpety DL 
brtach^ Cullu^ Uolj^ JEfy^ arc to be look'd upon as Neuters, though 
I find no Adjedive with any of them, but the laft in Sua. Thth, 4. 
Et fummis in^eflum montibus JEfy. Only CalUt is nfed by Fliny in the 
Gender of Vrbsy 1. 3. c. i. StipenAaria. edict. 

In the Proper Names of Countries, there is one Exception, 
namely, Tontm^ which is always Mafculine, whether it be put fbr 
the Country where Ovid was in Baniihment, or for the Kingdom of 
Mithridutes, as Jnvifm nobis qu^t du6 Vontus habety Ov. dc Pont. 1. 4« 
El. 12. And Vt ex eodem Ponto Medea, frtfugiffe dicituTy Cic. pro Leg. 
Man. This Vojfius takes exprefs Notice o^ and Mr. Ixeds has iiot 
done him jufticc in omitting it. . 



Prefer Names if f{poers. 

IN the Proper Names of Rivers, the Author has not given fk 
much as one Exception, in which yet there are many, inib* 
much tYutVojJiut is of opinion, they take their Gender from the 
Termination, not from Vluvius \ but this is not generally true, at 
appears by c4/fc», GclbUy nalys^ Pbafsy Tj^isy and others in 1/, which 
arc by Termination Feminine, and vet always Mafculine in Con* 
ft ruction, as every Body knows, and it would be meer impertinence 
to go about CO prove it. A.Ifo thofe that end in r/, as xArtuces^ Eupbru-' 
tesy GungtSy Orontesy are all Mafculines, as coming from the firft De- 
cleniion in Greek, though rx n<m Crefcens in the Latin form, is Hkofl; 
generally feminine. Neither are thoie that end in 4 all excepted^ 
as VoJJiut imagines. I ihail put fuch of them down AljphabeticaJly, 
as are; found in the Authors, from whom I have taken my Ob^ 
fervations, and. the ufe of them. 
«^^4.is only Feminine, as, 

Et tanto efi ^bula-pota deo, Ov. Faft. 1. 4. p. ^l. 
Cunaatt€ Sulfur As tAlbuU fumat aquis. Mar. L i. Ep» iq* 
oillia is alio always Feminine, and Vo^ius thinksy it would be weU 
nigh a Sola^cifm to ule it in theMafculine. 

Et damnatu diu Romanis tAlli* fafiis, Luc. 1. 7, y« 409^ 

i ^ flebilis %Mlia luce 
Vulneribus Latiis fan^uinolenta fuit, Ov. Am. J, i. p^ j^,^ 
Damnis %Mlia, not a fuis, Ov» Rem. Am. 1. 1. p. i^^, 
%Addua^ I have never ieen but in the Mafculine ; 

o itque tAddua vifu 
CdTulus. Claud. Conf. 6. Honorii. 
%Aretbufa, is only Feminine, 

PifusfAretbufih Met. 1. 5. p. X 04. 

Ra^4U4^ or Bra^iidi$^ or Bc^ad^ ouly MafcuUnc^ 



Ptof&r Names of Ri^irs. ik% 



t^raju leMus 4^it ficcd fultutor arend, Luc. 1. 4. V. 588. 
XjetHus arenofo jpumabat Br^^uU campo, Sil. 1. 6* p. 1005* 
Tmhidus urtntes Unto peAefuUut arenas 
Bragada, Sil. 1. ^. p. 9^3. 
Cremtra is Only found in the Mauuline, 'vi\. Ov. Faft* 2* p. 1%* 
*Ut celeri paffu Cremeram tetigere rupacem 
(Turbidus Hjbernif illefiuehat aquU) 
CapTA loco ponunt, 
DruentU is found in both Genders, 

Sparfif incerta Druentia ripK, Auf. Idyll. lo. 
Turbidus hie truficiiy faScifqt*c Druentia. Utum 
DuStor'u Vaflitvit iter : nanujue tMpibus ortus^ 
*Avidf4i crttosy & oAefi fragmina fnontis 
Cumfomtu votVens fcrtur Utruntibus undky 
%Ac VaJU trunjlato mutut ftdUciu curfuy 
NoH prditi fiJus^ patulis non puppibut *quus, Sil. 1. 3. p. 5 4. 
Duria^ OT fur td^ (otitis Written both Ways, is Masculine,, aila 
Feminine^ 

Kofcii formofus DurU ripis, ClaU. Laus Set* 
Ci^a loiat nuUk ledens ubi gramine rip A 
Turia deducit tenuem fine nomine rivum^ 
£t tacite T»fcis ingloriw afftuii undi^. SiL I. 1 3. p. 1^6. 
Cdeffine upon thii word, fays, Duot Durias Piiniiu Comfnemorut eie 
\Appenino ortos ; bUc in my Book, and all that I have feen, it is, /)«<« 
riM d»au K. H. U 3. c lis. And in other Places he calls this RiVei^ 
fimply Dffritw, or ZHntius amnis, L.4* C. 12. 2o. 
. Q^jrummt^ is both Mafculine andFeminine, as, JEquoream Garuin*iufn$ 
Auf. IdyJf. 10. And jB^uore^ Garumna^ Id* Idyll. 9* K^t'^i 
GarnmnM. Tibull. 1. i. EL i* 
GeUy I have found only in the Mafculine, ai, 

Et te vorttcibus non adeunde GeLn Ov* Faft* 4* p. d^. 

Comitantur euntem 
Naiddes^ ir fociA ftipant utrimaue QOronSi 
Una fontes Orimmfe tuoSy ^ Juxu rotanteni 
Pant^^iamy nomenque GeUn qui prdbuit urbi 
Concelebranti Claud, Rap. Prdf. 1. 2. v. 58 4 
MtOTona^ is only Feminine, that I know of, as, 
Non ttbife Xiger anteferet^ non vAxona pracepi^ 
Matrona. wm^ GuUoSy Belgofque interfitu fines, Auf. \A)'\, ?• 
Mdiffya. is Mafculine, Luc. 1. 2. v. 307. Claud, in Eufe. 1. a. y, 3^tf* 
2i^a celer ere&ii defcendens Marfya. ripia 
Mrrantem hi^tandron adit, i/niflufque refertuit 

' ' Sed Marjya velox 
Dum fuus eft, flexuque carenf^ jam fluinitie rhifiiif. 
And Feminine in fUny^ Sita eft in radice montU Sixni*. circitmfuCX 
M.<*-M *I. H. I. 5. c. 29. ^ ^ 

MofelU is both Mafculine and Feminine. Auf. Idyl. i6. Cofntgn 
Mojella, Idyll. 9. Di^nandum MofelUm. And Via MofelLt. Nt&rA 
UofeUm, Id. lb* ^ 

trebU ifi only found in the Mafculine that I reliieifcibcr. 
Strict yirum nierfus Trebia eft. Sil, 1. 9. p, 14U 
And Nofirum TrMAfn* Id. 1. 6* p. xb-f, 

. . - B Now 



^6 Proper Ndma cf Rweri. 

Now all theft* Paffages certainly deferv'd to be coniidered^and our 
Author was Aiort in caking no Notice of them. Atto To^'s Opi- 
nion, that all Proper Names of Rivers take their Gender from the 
Termination, I have ihewn it to be a miftake in part already, for 
as much as thofc that end in iV, which is Feminine, are yet all 
Mafculincs : I HiaU now Aew that it is m«ft probable, that even 
theieiu a, take their^ Gender rather from the general word of^utf, 
than from the Termination. For to me the cauie of all this va- 
riety feenis to be, that a River being nothing elfe, but Water flow- 
ing from fome Fountain, thefe Proper Names were fometimes re- 
fer r'd to xAquni^ fometin^s to Fo»fy or elfe liqiwry or Iaux^ inftead of 
*Aquu. For I take Vluv'im to have been originally an Adje^ve to 
fome of thefe Subftantives, and that they might at firft fay, F/<*' 
v'lm ¥oHS^ or Fluvius Li^tsor^ or fluvU vAtjuuy as well as %A^ fluviatilid 
afterwards. And this conjccflure is ftrengthned by Plnvut from P/»o, 
which therefore ended in 4, not in fa» hecauie nA^ was un- 
derftood , as appears by PiuyU %A^ , and ?Imvu» oiqum , 
Plin. N. H. h» ^i. c. ^. Cic. ad Treb. p, 198. And as the 
word Fluvius it felf was Originally an Adjective, fo much more the 
the Proper Nasties of Rivers wete originally Adiedlives, and con- 
lid er'd as fuch, by the Latins, who accordingly gave them Termi- 
nations proper to their Subftantives, as ?«k(w/, f^usy Rbenus fluviusy 
MoJelU^ DrufntMy hl^Urpfm tufta ; unle(s ibine fcw^ as %Aretbufay for 

one, that were Feminioes, upon Account of the Females that were 
turn'd into them. For other Termiiiaciona werr Foreign, as %^ur, 
or LAr4rsty or Accidental, as TiWif» wjiichi hefpriiwts call'd«>l^iJ(c, 
as Pliny fays. Nay, the Termination of the Proper was ibmetimes 
chane'd according to t^e Common, ^ Trfiis iSft^twum fiumtuy Hor. 
1. 4. Od. 4. and Flumen Rbt»um^ Id^ de Art. Yet tluyius comine 
afterwards to be confider'd as the general Subftantive,as being us*a 
alone without Fonj, or jUquor, Proper Nam£S of Rivers, though 
ending in «, were ufed in the MaKulina with reipe^ to Vluviusy 
whilft others made them Feminine, poffibly as- rojjius wiU have it, 
with refped to their Termination, which was jgiven them at £rft 
with rerpe<fl to ^Aqu^t, Others again, as PiuDitfar one, r^uin'd the 
Termination us in the Proper Name^ titough Flmmen wefe joyii'd 
with it, which I take to be the reaibn of thao Conftnu^on in Oc/or, 
look'd upon by all to b$ €tne of th$ Correcftefi: Writers, Hoe fteiUus 
eii perfuapty quod undique uaturA l^i H^lvetii cantiitefeuttir : titu ex parte 
fiumint Khena UtiffmOy qui ^giruyn Mvftistm m. QtrmoMit Mtndit ; and 
ibon after, Tertio lacu JUn^tnOy if fipmxnd(MaM9iy qui Prti^nci^m no^ 
fir am ah Helvet'iis JiviHity QafC, Bell. GaiL 1. 1. p«4. which Pailages 
have hitherto been over-look'd by. all the GrMnumgrUw^^ though no- 
thing be more extraordinary, than for the Adjedlive to refpe^ the 
Gender of the Proper Noun, as it does here, tho' Vt^rMn be joyn*d 
with it. V.trro has yei^ 4.mu^h hariker fixpsemoa/V X.R»/a.^.z2. Sin 

colore fecundum flumen ddificurey curandum tuf adjuvjum turn panat i. e. 
fum flumenyjht there is no Pr'opet: Name in us\ofM^ with it. This 
is a finale Bxprefttpn,. ai\d: 'tis like an inconfideca'te one m Vkrroy as 
not minding that Flumetiy not Fluvius preceded, ^ut than Cafar 
foon after, namely P^^ 9«'Qf the iame Book, ioUows the ordinary 
Conilru(f^ion, -making hi$ AdjC(^iv.c Retire to agrjse with Flumeny 
And not the Proper NamCs 4S ^mfn ^.tAriat^ftadferfinf^otduorum 
& Sequanorum influit. For that tAr^r i$ Maicuhnc; tho' ending in r, 
appears by that of Sil, " ^;7~-r«ci- 



Frofer Names of Rivers. 27 

T ucitoque liquore 
lAlxtus lArar, L. 3. p. 5 1 . 

For the reaibn aforegoing, as well as the Pra(fticc of the Authors, 
that write in Proic, and the Judgment of Learned Men, and Ko/- 
fus in particular, who, for his admirable Learning in this kind, 
may indifputabie matters pafs for an Author, 1 think thcfe Proper 
Karnes of Rivers in it fhoum rather be uft'd,efpecially in Profe.in the 
Feminine ; but altogether to damn the Mafculine, which is found 
in fo many Polite Writers of the Poets, is too rigid. This indeed 
is Foffius's Objeiftion, that they are Poets; but I know no rcafon 
for that, but becaufe they fometimes, for the faJce of their A'crfe, 
break the ordinary Rules of Speaking.But beiidc that in many of the 
inftances that I have brought, it had been all one to the Verfe, to 
have ufed them in the Feminine; if we once exclude the Poets from 
being of Authority in the Gender of thefe Proper Names, we Ihall 
have little or none left« other Authors feldom mcncioning them 
with Ad|e<flives, and wnen they do, the w ords ¥lumen^ Tluvius^ or 
*AmHis^ are ioyn'd with them> which carry the Gender : whereas, 
the Poets alxkuiding in Epithets, the Gender, not only of thefe 
Propers, but even of many conunon KounSjis chiefly to be learn-* 
cd from thefn. 

There is alfo another Exception to the Author's Rule, in vvhich 
that of Fogms holds good, and that is of Proper Names of R ivers 
in <, from the Gfeok «, which are all Feminines according to the 
Termidatioii : Of this fort are Dir.e and Lethe^ cadrMu Dircv. Luc. 
!• )• y*i77* and Bis turhatam fanguini thrcm. Sen. Oed. Chor. i> 
fladdo f^Ut* Mtur Lethe vado. Sen. >lcr. Fur. Ac. 3. & 2. and 
never otherwife. 

Thert is yet another Exception of Proper Names in r, namely, 
KoTy and ^«4#r. The firft of thefe is Keutcr, in Cu\ ad %Att, /. 4. 
EfM 14. JjKut yielmuf in Nur influit : So it is in moft Editions, (but 
Qrmws has Narem in his, for what reafon, fee the Placc^) though 
Masculine in C74Ik/. Conf. froh, 6* Olyh, tAujotu IdylL i2ytx^»Mn,y,p,2A7* 
The UtStf namely, Jwr^ is Neuter, Luc, L 4- v. 40 ). Ttfidum Jadir, 
TtUtr is mentioned twice by i'/i»j, but without aGenaer, becaufe 
^t that ibllowi, may have refpect to Fiuviusy which is joyned with 
|t ia the £rft Place, and -in the iecond it is Flumen Tader. 

There is alfo one in x^ -namely %x, always feminine, which is 
too notorioiu to be prov'd« or for the Author to have omitted. 

The Addition oiinfuU hem nomenj after Kegionumy trc. is a meer 
^inpertioence, t^ Proper Names ot Iflands talcing their Gender 
from tenr^ as Lands, or Countries, nut as lilands, and fo one Rule 
ierves for both : only there ihould have been an Exception atSafomy 
ufed by Lucdn in the Mafculine, as, 

Sfmmtfo CoLdftr ftrfundxtur aquwe Safon, I. 2. V. 2!27« 
Which none of the Annotators upon this grammar have takeft 
2S[otific of, nor, any other Grammarian that I know of* 



E^ 



tk 



8^ JfpeSdtives of Trees. 



Pe Arborum Appellativis. 

Grarmnary Latin, t» ii* 

APpoBativa arborum eruntMuliebria, ut AhiuSy 
Cupreffusy Ceirus ; Mas Sfinusj Mas Oleafler^ 
Bf funt Neutra Siler^ Subery Thusy^bery Acerq'y 

Animadversion IX. 

I 

STinm is Mafculinc, if we believe PrifdaHy but neither he, nor any 
other produce any Authority for it : The Oxford Notes fay with- 
out doubt he found it fo *, but for all that, one niay doubt of 
it, becaufc no body elfe has ever found it, npV %Acer in the Femi- 
tiinc, for which we have his word too ; but we are not encuiring 
afper that part of the Langu4gc that is loftj which is of no ule to usj 
but of that part which remains, which is the only Rule for us to 
x>bfervc, ana in that I think there is no fuch thing as Spinus with an 
:Ad jc<ftive. I fuppofe the Printer may have done thefc Gcntfc- 
inen wrong, iQvNec duhium tjuin invenity as they exprefs thenifelfes, 
is not^ Latin : Si!*in in this Sence always governing a Subjun<f^ive 
Mopd, as ihail be fhewed in ^mtax^ in the Government 'of the 
Conjunctions. The Marginal IsTote fuppofes Spinus is put for Pinmry 
ftxi ft»i>i again for Pinaller. I have nothing to fay to the mean- 
ing, if this be it, but this is a very odd way of eitprelling thii 
ine^ning. This word is hardly to dc found but in one place of 
yir^ily Et Spinos jam frunit fercntes, Georg. 4.. Upon which, Sennmi 
fsLjSy Trunorum arbor Spinus vocatur generis jAafculini^ namfentes bm 5"^- 
vofi dicimuf. Two fuch Authorities make it probable, That Spinus 




Otfreffus rs fuppofed by Vojfius^ and his Followers, and Mr. TTu^r 
for one of them, to dc no where Mafcutine J but in Mnmus, 
^eSos Cupreffou But it is Mafc^linc ^Ifo in OZ/k/, Comht^o C^ffejfdy 
1* ^f c. i^.p. 312. 

flaUnus is fuppofed by UUJfieurs d< Tort Royal to be ufed by 
THny in the 'Mafculine, N. H. /. 24. c. 8. The PafTage, as it ftands 
jn the Book, is, for/ircf autem eorum in aceto dentium remedium efl^ 
folia 'eoruni fenrrrima in a&o vino dtto&a. Ofi#/ori#>rt.' Where, ' in the 
M?rgin, ilf 4 (Co? region df Ctviex for Cwtici$'y and V^iorum tenerrinuiy 

tpifSdU f^um 'ttnrrrt9Mf' An4 fUl'inttft nccdi b« the true Rea4- 



Of Efkenes. 29 

ing, becaufc, in the beginning of this Cha|)tcr, he fays, VtlluU 
gifrum \ fo 1. 12. c. I. 1. 16. C.32. 1. 1 6, c. 44. he ufcs it in the Fcmi- 
i4ne. Indeed, this Author fometimes ufes the fame Noun in diffe- 
rent Genders, but that is only in fuch Words, as take their Gender 
from the Termination, which he gives them fometimes from the 
general Word ; as in Di£famnt4m ffotn^ where 'Di^umw/zw though end- 
ing in unty is Feminine, with refpe<ft to the General Noun Herba con- 
ceived in Mind, but he never makes the Gender pf a Word, that 
is ufedjby all Authors according to'that of the GeneralNoun,buckIe 
to the Termination oi tne particular. Indeed, PrifcUn fays, Thaf 
Tlatanusy and Tofulus^ were Mafculines with the Ancient Komant^ bn^ 
a Gr^marian is to govern himfelf by Authors that are extant, 
not by them that are loft. 

Thus hardly ajjpears by what is alledged by Vojfius^to be put for the 
Tree, becaufc Jjgnum Thuri§^ may imply no more than Li$num ferfns 
Tbus^T undeTbtu manut. And foui'fcorTfewrf/jVtV^a* Ti«m,which are his 
other Quotations, may be fome fuch way rcfolvabic : but Celfut's 




fatri niHl d Tbure differentem, N« H. 1. ip. C. ult. But the Igno« 
ranee of the GraiQma^iaVi is not to be excufed in making it a iiew 
ter, fincc 'tis neyer found with an Adje<ftive. Mr. Wulf^er lays 'tis Fe- 
minine once in Solinusy but that is a miftake ; for he never fo much 
as ufcs it for ths Tree, however Mr, Waller came to be led into this 
Errror, by Prifciaff, 

His words arc, Wb^f Thus may he accounted a ^eminine^ thtre h fom^ 
reafon ; heeauft Prifcian, L. 5. ohferves that Solinus^^ fpeal^t^ dc Ar-r 
bore Thuris, faith^ Palma fieret in torto'eam elle vimine ad accris 
qualitatem. i4nd afterwards^ In the mean time the Termination of it 
heitig Neutral, SolinusV f*fing it in the Veminine Gender f roves it not fhe 
Jhould rather have faid does not frove it) to he a Veminine^ hecaufe in the 
Render be might have refpeH- (by a Synthefts) unto Arbor ; and the rather 
that he might be clearly under flood to ffeal^ of the Treey and not of the Gum 
iof that Tree, &c. This quotation is mifprinted, and /Tiould be 
Talkm fieret intorto earn effe vimine ad aceris quantitatem» From the 
whole PalTage (which I will tranfcribe out of Solinm) it will ap- 
pear that he neither ufes Thw for the Tree, nor yet in the Femi- 
nine Gender. Eudamonem nonfruftra cognominatam hinc capeffas^ quod 
prater adores, quos creat plurimos-^ fota Thus mittit. Nam in medio le'^us 
funt tAtramitd fagur fubaorum, a quo offo manfwnihus regio Thurifera 
dijlerminatur, iirabiu appellata eft, id tfl, ftcra : hoc enirn fignificari 
interfret'antifr^ Virgulta hac notifunt ptMica, fed (qi*od inter'harbaros no- 
vum) in jus pojierorum per fuccejfiones tranfeunt fumiliurum. Ergo qnin* 
cunque dwninatum ijHw tenent nemoris, facri vocatttur. Idem illi cum 
if*c6t ifios vel metunt, Vel incidunt, non funerib.fs interfunt, non con-' 
greJJSorubut fgeminarum polluuntur, Hanc arborrm, priufqtMm penitus fidex 
fro<leretur^ alii lenfifco^ alii mage terebintho ccmparahant, ufque dum li* 
brify quos Juba rexfcripfit ad Cafarem tAugufti filium, falam fieret intorto 
earn effe vturane^. ramis ad aceris qiMlitatem, JimygdaU modo fuccum fun* 
iere^incidi vrtH Cdms fi^fgrantijffhni^ folibut. Solin. c« 4^. de Arabia. 



Do 



^m liffi SfecUl Rule, 



• / 



De Eplccenls. 

GramtnoTy Lftt. f» ix. 
nf itiam volucrum^ ecu f^jjcr^ hirundoy femrum^ &c* 

Animadversiok X. 



Oru: 



IT being proved that there can be but five Grammatical Gen« 
ders, thele Epicoenes mulb of necefiitv be one df thofe Genders. 
I The only Oueftion that can arife in this Cafe, is, whether, iince 
idiey fignifie both Sexes pnder one Terin, they can alfb be of a fe- 
Teral uender, according as they fignifie this or that Sex, which i$ 
no more than the Common Gender. Some Grammarians wii| 
^ve them always to follow the Rule of Termination, but Authori 
uie them both ways, as J^pbantum gravid^m, Plant. Stich. Ac. i. 
Sc. 2: and Mut Marinus parit ova. Pi. N. H. 1. 1 o. c 1 5. And again, 
c. 9^« of the fame Book, Ex una i. e. Mure, gemtos centum v^inti 
tradtierif, tApud Perfm vcro fn^nantes in parentis uttro reftrtas. 



N 



Prima Hegula Specialise 

Grammmry Lat« f. i j. 
Omen mn crefcens^ genitivoj ^c. 



Animadyersio^t XL 

THis way of teaching the Gender of Nouns bv the eiicfea^ 
iing, and Accentm Syllables, is tedious and intricate to. 
Children, who at the Age they are ffeneraUy pUt upon this 
Work, are but awkward at apprehending the DivHion oF Words 
by Syllables, having &ldom beoi taught it .at thetf Reading- 
Schools. And how. ftrange £bev«r this may appear to others, it 
will yet not appear fb to them, who have had to do with them* 
But then the diftinguifhing of Accent is ftill a matter of great* 
cr difficulty, and what they are incapable of for a long time, let 

the 



firfi Specixl Rule. ^i 

Ae Mafter t^^e never io qi)ich Paofis in Proaouocing, and £z^ 
plaining. It had been better therefore to have Taught them 
the Rules by the Termiiutions } for that fuppofes only their 
knowing the r^pminative, and tn$ Genitive Cafe, which they muft 
know this vfgfy too* and never troubles them with the Encreafe, 
and Accent of Syllables, Bufi now according to the Author'9 
Method. 

Mafculina excepta ex non crefentibus. 



M 



Grammnr^ LaC. /. I3« 

jifcuU. nomina in a dicunpur fnuUa vSrorum^ 
Vt Scriba^ AjJccUy Scurra^ & ^^ula, LixA^hAnlpd* 



Animadversion XII. 

TIefe Nouns, and a great many more, might hav» been com*' 
prehendod by a ihorc Annotation, under the Proper Names 
of Men, with a juft Exception, as of CofuyCura for Curator^ 
Cufhodioy MxcuUd^ Pi^i^^ and lAVirua^ 2a%Aufomm ilfes it, Bfift, 5. 

Bonorum mal^i Canmnum Laverna^ 

And ib a great deal of needlefi trouble would have been avoided 
in reciting Fratery Mater^ Pattnry ReXy SororyVotQr^ Vir^y 6cc, 

In the fkraSf Rule. 

Mafcula Gr^Cfirum quoi declindti^ prtWA 
Fundi t in a% & in t$^& ah illis quot fer a fiun( : 
Vf Safrajfus Satrafa, Athletes AthlttiU 

ANlMADYg^HSIONXIIL 

TJBis Rule is utterly. £die, and 5Ufr^4f, and v^Metity that it is 
built uggfu aceMaifculinc& by. Signification, as being Appeliar- 
tiv^jc^Mm: but all other Words ending in 4, and coming 
froai.Gredk^, 4f, Or ^s of- the firft- Declenfion, are in Latin Femi- 
twc^j^.^iA|^.lHtf^jQng.fiDceobfo IMrrOy except Cometay 

PitfM^ j^i4fV/<^«^^ ?«»i^£F«, and Bcbinometra ending in Greek 
aJlpiil ^ ^y.^^Hs EchinameUM ^ftfelUntur ^uwwn {et^Mjitna Spin€ 
€:4djfces im^mmy pL N. H.l. ^c. 31. with u/1^)>m the Adnatick Sea, 
Nitllgrz ^. Tovn fo called, it is Feminine, a$ other Maines of 

3fOW«i» . Mi^.^M^f^ Caehlt^ Mafg;arita^ Mehetdy Parafiin^ay tUr^ 
I c%MJi<SlftiiQMtt u^'V^«nd^> andart all Feiainines^ as every 

Body 



^2 Brjl SpeciilRak 

Body knows. hiAtkbra^ora is reckoned among theib DyKo/)iw/, afl£[ 
7Au {l^'dkcTy but if it be Feminine, it is certain it is Mafculine too^ 
^S Mundragor^tm alii Circeium vocunt \ ejus duo }'unt gefi^a CundUus tpn 
^ nuif^ ni^ir quafonnlna. exifllmatur.^ PL N^ H. 1. 25. £• 1 3. Thofc that 

retain •» or win the Nominative in Latin, retain alfo tnc Qreek 
Gender, whicli is Mafculine, as oUinucesj oimmodytet^ ^ntbius^ Cuta» 
vachi^ Ccralhsy Ophites^ Fitinotcyis^ SorittfSyl'iurus, Me Am uciuAces^ Hor, 
1. I. Od. C7. Indifcretm artnit oimmodyteSy Luc. 1. •?. v. 714.. VnuJ xAn- 
thiAS^ Pi. N.H. 1. 9. C. 59, Seviipmo Curaraffr, Pi. 1. $. C. 9 . Vugi 
Cerall^ Luc. 1. 9. V. 71^. Tbchanus Ofhiter^ LuC. 1. 9. V, 7i6. Con- 
cburum generis & fintu cft^ nafcitur in limofts fttbreifa jtnnper^ ncc un- 
quAtn ftnt comitCy tytcm ?innottrcm V9cunt^ is ejl SquilU purva^ Pi. N* H« 
1. 9. C. 4.2. %At vitiofifdnt foYit*^ fran^ite i^itur cos, fi poteftis, ne mo-- 
yf/i/'/wr, Cic. Ac.Qu.l. 2. p.43. Saser Tu/us. Virg. ^. 7. Natalis 
is aifo found in the Feminine, Murt, 1. id. Ep. 27. Natuli r*ic*,ana 
no wondet, fince Diesy to which it is but an Adjecftive, is of both 
Genders. And yet Mr. Leedsy fuffers this to pafs without Re- 
mark. And the Annotators fay, Natalis ftmper Mafculinum eji^ 
ttfx dies fit dubium. 

Here is alfo omitted, in the Sequel of this Rule, Vepris or Vf 
fresy or as Caper will have it Vcpery which though Lucretius has in 
the Feminine, is yet Mafculine in others, as Hirfuti Fepresy Virg. 
Jji, 9. and Colum, /: II. r, 3. Hunc Veprem manifeftum eft intenml 
non pojfe» 

Ketisy according to Defpauteriusy is Mafculine ; He cites for it that 
of flautusy Rud. Ac. 4. Sc. 3. Vvidum Ketem \ but in my Book it is 
Rete, yUrroy it is certain, ufes it in the Feminine, Retc cattnabiha^ 
DcR. R.I.3.C. 5. 

Ty»-^f/and Tudes have no luiown Gender, only Tudcs feems to be 
Feminine by the Derivative, TudicnU, Colum. 1, 2. c. 50. 

There are alfo omitted, and yet belonging to this Rule, as be^ 
ing non CfefcentSy certain Derivatives in itesy ot which fome fignifie 
things made of fuch, or fuch Materials, as %Ai>rotoniteSy xAhfynthiteSy 
i. e. Vlnum ex %Jbrotonoy n^hntbioy or in which they have been 
infufed : Others, the thing they refemble, ot have fome Relation 
to, as xAetitesn and others. The firft of thefe Voffius will have to be 
Mafculine, becaufe flinty after iame Receipts for iomc of them, 
fays, c^/owwrnrw invento faEtitutumy /^, H. 1. 14. C. i(^. And /x* 
£titatum being either Mafculine, or Neuter, he concludes it muft 
be Mafculine, becaufe if had been Neuter, the Accufative 
Cafe would not have been ^Arowuttiteny but %Aromatiteff Neuters 
having the Accufative, as the Nomitative. But this Argument is 
not concluding, for fa^fitatum may be Neuter with refpecft to vinum^ 

i'uik before mentioned, for ought appears by this place. But, if h6 
Lad looked thirty lines backward in the fameChapt«r Jie had found 
a plain proof of it, which follows: Sic fit & Sycites e vino qutm or 
in palmiprimumy alii cutorcbitetK vocant, I confefs there is a CorrC* 
iftion ot this pafHige in the Margin, but that is rather upon the ac- 
count of palmiprimumy which in the Margin is palmeumy and fbnie* 
thing in th: Receipt out of DiofeoridtfSy than for the fake of quem 
in the Conflrud^ion. However, fince it fbandsin theTett, at I 
liavc quoted it, 'tis plain yojpus read it not ) for he could not but 
have faid fomething of it, it he had, making ufc aH alone, as he 
did^ of Ddtch(tmf% Edition. Aud thiu is one proof anongtt others^ 

thjiC 



Bffi Speciai Rule. }| 

that tbii gtett Man, with all hit diligence, did n^t always give 
btflUicdf the trouble to read the Authors entirely which he quoted, 
but took them fbmetimes upon truil: from otliers, or at moft con* 
tented himfelf to find the Pa/Tage quoted* They that are not fa- 
tisfied with this Quoutiom nor ^oj9i»/'s Authority, may ufe theft 
Nouns in ites^ as Adjedives, by adding the Word viuum \ and 
then, if there be, an Adjc^ive, it muft be the Neuter Gender r 
only it muft be obierved, that thefe Words in ites will have ^ 
Acculative in m, notwithftanding the addition of vt»ttM, as in th^ 
place of Fliny afore quoted, and Colum. L iS* r. 33, 34, 35. a8< onl^r 
FuUudius makes the Termination toanfwer the Gender of t/inumy ai 
ik other Ad|e<ftives, as Grsci ttiam vinum JAyrtite fc pr*cipiunt temjfi* 
r«rL Feb. Tit, 31. noe Menfe vinum ScyUiteficfacimust Jul, Tit, 6* 

Here is allb an Omiffion of the Names or Sttmf^ in itts^ or ates^ 
which are all Mafculines : But the Names of JewHs are Fcminines« 
and thoib that fignifie both, are Malcuiines for a Stone, and Fe« 
minines for a fepfel^ as *MJbafhriteSy and fjrats\ which diftin^ion 
Vojfiifs not oblerving, is fomething obfcurc upon this head. 1 ihall 
therefore put down the Names <if Stones by themfelves, and leave 
the Reader to take the reft for Jet^elsy and Feminines, xAtit^ty .^ALt^ 
haftriteiy %Acbtites^ CherniteSy F.latitety G^i^dtes^ Melititety O^bitcSy Oftra* 
Wtr/, Pyrites. See Pliny'^ Pf, H, L 3^. r. 17, ip. 20, 2X« and CiauJ, 
/iMft. Hon. tir iiar. v» ft. 



M 



Gramrhar^ Lat, IhiJ* 

Afcuta in eB| ecu venter ; itl os, vel us, ut logosl 
annus* 

Animadversiok XIV. 



THis Rule IS falfe, as being given of Nouns in oj, generally. 
For theie N^ Orefcentt in os ace all taken from the Greek, iit 
which the Termination 0/ is in ibnie Nouns Common, in 
5>Pier Mafctiline, in others Feminine. Thus, though ic^o/, which 
IS ^he Audior's infbthce, be Mafculine^ yet moft Nouns in 0/ of this 
Special Rule, being Names of llrrfcx, are Feminine in Latin, with 
™pc^to the general Noun Iferba conceived in Mind, which here 
failowia Alphabetical Order. 

Acanoi; Stmt ^ <f^ fAc^non Mrynno Aifiri^,tni^ fjf'mofam. hrtVfm<]\ & U" 
*«m hethAm^ ff^^fyt Utimhm. mnc impoftt^m Sun^mntm mire fifitre^ 
PI. N. H. 1. 2?. c. 9. Where though Herbum be exprefs'd, vet 'tis 
probable the Adjedive is Feminine, with refpcdl to %Acanony this 
Author frequently ttfing names of Hetbs in ox, in that Gendcp. 
Acarof IriMj ftik h^bet, Primm in Cotcbidc^ Cretic* candidioresy p\, K. 

H; L 25« CI 3. But then he maker it Mafculine too; 'tis l^ke 
with reipeA to the Termination, fp^lta&el:. : Kec non inu niuntur 
^td0^ymyrJmM,ra<Ucitm JU^on voiMa l id*o^^,tiuiUm kuyic jiciiron> 
^rmn VMwrr mdunty Id. Ibid. 

1^ Aciii#a 



54 Firfi Special Rule: 



Aciuon ^ corcrurumcdufa^ & ciborum M^fid ferunU Sdiem- erns m 
Ocymurriy n'fi krfutior f<Jus & rxmis ejfety & adm4dum odormoy PL N» 
\ H. I. 21.C.7. 

Ampelos «x^W.r, Pi. N. H. 1. 27. c. 7. 
Anagyros fruticoft eft^ PI. N. H. I. 27. c, 4. 
Anonymos celelrau Hicefio^ Id. Ibid. 
Bugloilbs in vinum dejelfa^ Pi. N. H. 1. 25. C 8. 
Bupthalmos fruticofa^ Id. Ibid. 
Cham«ciflbs//'fcdr« r^, Pi. N. H. 1. 24. c. 15. 
Cyclamenos alteray PI. N. H. 1. 25. c. 8. 
Coftos Moa^ Luc. I. 9. T. 918. 
<Capnos fruticofdy Pi. N. H. 1. 25. c. 13. 
Crethmos. Hdc commanducata. And a little after, Cretbmos ^m> 

gramias toUit oculorum impofitusy Pi. N. H. 1. 25. c. 13. 
CadtOS qtiOque in Sicilia nafcitur fnm proprittatis & ivfoy Id. f. 2l. C* ^ 
Calcofmaragdos (gemma) turbida. urt'u venia^ la. 1, 37, c, 5. 
Cynocbatos alia, cji k Cappariy ]d. 1. 24. €.14. 
Cynogloffos ^ratiffimx^ Id; 1. 25. c, 8. 
Cyanos (gemma) Scythica^ Id. 1. 37. c. 9. 
Cynorrhodos gm ; 4lid in the Orleans Edition qud^ Id. L 8. C 41, 
Cyperbs durijjfima. : And loon after, Xam Cypero primum lAmmonuus^ 

Id. 1. 21. c. 18. 
Diamctros, according to Vojfmsy is always Feminine, and fo is Duf 

mtt>u6^ and Diameter^ by Modern Writers ufed for it, notwitb- 

ilanding the Duiionancs make them Mafculine. And in like 

manner Perimetrut, 
Elaphobofcon cnv* monfiraverey de ^i dutimus^ Pi, N. H. I.25. 

c. 8. _ . \ . 

Eos, for the day or momingy as well as f^r the Goddefty h Feminine* 

Cam crafiina fulferit £oSy Ov. Ep, Urifi Achil. 
Lapathps /wbWta, Colum. 1. 10. 
>iajftos indita pilos mammarum « partu nafccntium Kufcrt^ VWi^*K, 

1. 26. c. 15. 
Melilotos lauliiijfimain xAfficOy Pi. N. H. 1. 2l.C. 1 1. 
Pcryclymenos fruticat ^ tpja. Id. 1. 27. c 12* 
Peplos qtfam alii Syceny alii Mecomon aphrodts yocanty Id." lb. 
SandaJftros (gemma) cogmta efi huicy Pi. N. H. 1. 37. c. 7. 
Strychnos, quam quidam Trychnon fcriff^rrfy utinam nee coromervt im 

Agypto uttrentuTy Id. |. 21^ €.'31. And foon after, in the dmn 
'[ Chapter, he makes it Ncutei", as, Et nihil effe corporisy malorum eU 

nonfilutare^Jit StrychnoSy Xtndcrates prsdicat, Thouch it muft h€ 

own'd, here is a Correction in the Margin of Stry fcc Sfrycbnos^ 

chaosy Eposy Mtlosy ai<e Neuters^ : Yet Nomns quotes Mr/o/ in ihe' 
Mafculine, or rather^Mf/<*/ us'd for ir, out of CatOy and fome other 
of the yAnsit^nts : Ani-Cfa&s is once ufed out of the Neuter by Ow/, 
~Mct. 1. 14, p. 300. 

^ ' Et noUemy ho^ifque dfOfy Erebonq'y Cbaonqy 
ConVocat, 
Biit dwoj in this place is taken for theGod'fO cali'd. 

"Neither is the Termination «« univerfally Mafculine, but in tliil 
Author^ Exceptions^ as* ihall be -iliewn under the next Rule. 
Alt thetl' Staines of flwrin Ojf, are alfo quite oVerlo^k'd 'by- Mr, 
Xi^ds an4 tb^ ^Ann^^H^S!^} ^ ^vfL^i ^i ^^fjfiitfrf d^ P^^ Kvyal^ aAd ^e 



Tirfi Special Rule. J5 

»ea(bfi is, the laft tranfcribing meerly from the former^ Vojf^ ha-? 
ving forgot them, they never thought of them. - 



Foeminina non crefcentia. 

Gr/unmur, Lat. Par. lo. 

Animadversion XV. - 

HE Title of this Rule fhould have been, Ixmininx tucaftf. 
ex non crefcentibus in er, 0$, 6" us. For Fa»«wt«« non crejcgntua '^ 
is the General Rule. 



T 



Grammar^ Lat. Ibid, 



FOEminet generis funt matcr^ humus j domus^ ahust 
£t coluSf, ^ qunrtvc fro fruBu ficusy acufqucj G*c. 

Animadversion X VL 

THis Rule of Exceptions is not complete. For 
tAcus is only not Feminine when it (ignifics NeeAU^ but al(b 
when it is put for d?*/, and is of the fourth Declcniion, as 
2^pears from Colum /. II. c. lo. xAc duriffmut quidem tAcus refechM^ Je- 
pcratMque erunt a cudentthus. For a Ft/?;, it is likely it may be MaP* 
culine, the Termination^ and the General word ?ifcu both favour- 
ing it, but I know of no place where it is ufcd with an Adje<ftive 
that will prove it. That place of Tliny^ tAcus five htlone unus 
fifcium dcbifceute propter multitudtnem utero.farir, N. H. L. 9. c. 51, 
is not exprefs enough ; for Vnus may be Mafculine with refp»e<ft to. 
J*ifcisy underftood according to the Rule, that Partitives take the 
Gender of the Genitive Cafe which they Govern of the Noun of. 
the whole. And what better proof Mr. Leeds had to malce it Maf- . 
ctiline, I cannot imagin. 

fMvuT is^alib found m the Mafculine^but it.is only twice inoicditf^ 
once in Cinmu and once in Cato^ as Voffws quotes him. But then this ■ 
fame Cato uies it in his Book de R. R. twice in the Feminine in tht 
the fame Chaipter, v:\, 115. Id v'mum farvato ad nlvnm maUndam, 
Again, %jlliter fi voles v'mum ad xAlvum movendam firvart-, 

Colus is not only Feminine, as this Rule implies, but Mafculine 
-alfo in CatuL Kupt, Pel, & Thet. L^^fA colum Una. molli retinebat amiBum, 
'Tis.true, ibme Bo oks have amiEtam^ and fo Catulluf ufes it in all other 
Places, but Ko/yin /quotes it, as I have done, amulum. And in this 
' • F 2 Gender 



|6 Tirfi Sfecidl Rule. 

Gciuier Tr^tmus^{t% ix twice. To/}?!*/ quotes him far one Plac^ 
where he brings in HercuUs faying^ 

Idtm t^o Sid^M jedjervilU faUX 
Oficia^ & Lydo fenfi diurm, Colo^ L. 4. £l. 10. 
But there is yet another, 1. 4, £(. i. 

JVf » funt 4 dextro condit^ OU Colo, 
^ieuf, Tis fomethinghard to gueis what our Author means here hj 
hii *• quarts profru&uficus ;one of theie two things he muft, in pro^ 
bability, intend, Firft^'either that ficus a 1%, is only of the Fourth 
Pedenfion; or iecoodlv, that it is only Feminine, when it is of 
tkt fburtli Declenfion, both which are grofs miftakes. For firft, it 
is much oftner of the Second Declenlion, than of the Fourth, 
Secondly, It is a hundred times oftener of the Feminine Gender m 
this Declenfion, than of the Mafculine, if it be at all of the Mafcu^ 
line. There is a pafll^ein ?%, /. 16, c. 25. and another in I^acro^ 
VttSn I. 3. c. 10. in ^iitch it was Mafcpline in the Ancient Copieu 
but the P^ges erenow dter'd in aU that we haye extant; atui 
beiide thclc, there have neyer been any other Authorities pretends 
cd for its being Mafculine in the Second Declenfion, except one ot 
ZucUmfy where forp^Mcoj Frra/, fome Books have fjtucat^ 4nd ye^ 
one of thefe two hemufl: be iuppofed to mean, either ot which 
will lead into crc^s Miftakes. For ticus a Ffir» is, as I have laidi 
much oftner of the Setond Dedenfon, than the Fourth, and al« 
ways of th$ Feminine, when it is of the Second Declenfion, 9% ap- 
pears by ^ following Bxamples. RW frrotind fiumt^ fi fnm*gr^ 
cumfJht- ffu^nitudinem txcejfere detrahantur^ Pi. K. H. 1* 17* C. 77* 
ftVt cum VulcAtuMus tonmt cadunty Id. lb. VolU & ^/> ^» m^nt^ 
ruerc Ftrt pumif WinuntWy Pi. N. H. 1. 25. C. 7. ¥ici matuif4, mv* 
mm cient'i and foon after, Sicc4, Vici Stomacbum Isdunty Id./Ib. And 
|n this Chapter only, iHcusy a P^, h^ fifteen Feminine Adjecftives 
la the Second Declenfion. Again, ¥imum columbinum cum Ftro arid4 
4tc ftttro impofitumy PL N* H. 1. J. c. 4. And not only PUnj/y but W 
tOy Vtonroy Columtlky nf^ it in like manner. fUi4sndsfi voles ut in* 
t^s finty iikvu fi^Ue couMiOy id amurca uf^mtOy Cat. K* R. C 99* 
]0tci emm feme^ tmim in tX Vico quam edimtify Var. K» Rt 1* I* C. 41* 
And in the fame place, Fi^os fum tdmuu Cum deinde faMlumfitaa^ 
Af«r, f . e, Fici, m IdrM, fi^Ui^ cot^e;runt est. And j^ain in the fam6 
PlaC^ Ufii finiuiffim4M qu^mque mridem Vicum eHfunty Colum. 1. 12* 
c. 15, And Suetomuf fpeaking oi nAugufiu^t Diet, fays, amongfb 
other things, he ufed to Eaf, Vicos BiferOy i. e. uAorit BiferM. ^ 
He that would fee what is the Opinion of Grammarians both An- ^ 
ciieni and Modem of this Word) may confult the NouveUe Methode^ 
JV|;« 38. or the (htford oimmtaiors upon theWord ficusy who have trail* 
fcrib'd enti^relv m>m thence, but will find no reafon to diiTent j&omr 
the nfe or it here deliver'd. It has another Signification, name* 
hr of a foul Difeajyy but in compliance with our Author's Method,^ 
J ihall refsrire the Confideration of it in that Senfe, till I come 
it ex^pnine his Ezcepcions of Doubtfuls tothis Special K.ule. 



mt 



firfi SfefUl Rule. |y 

m JMVg^i 03 in Ut vertenttt Gric^. 

Gn^tmutry Lai. /. 14. 

Al^lMADVERSIOK XVIL 

Ttil Kale btioj; underOood of Latin Nouni in u, from 
Gretki in •/ without Excepcion t( notorioully (ajfe, ten fo^ 
pDC of them being MafcuImM ; and yet chui ji it comroori' 
ly uwlefftood, and' uught in School), though "tit plain, liUj AiA 
boc new fii, bT his rcckiHiin^ up fo manj' particurar Words, and 
COndudil^ Wn, r>™ mtdm «iii ;»< nunc frrfcribrre loagum ql. 

Sue thea there u agtand fault in the Rule it &IC and that it, 
ThatwlKreat he has undertaken to put down Nouns in Hj excepted 
fiom this Rule, he has yet omitted the greateft part. I Hiall 
therefore confider them m Latin Nouns, bccaufe 'tis a while b»i 
lora ChiUrtn know which come from Greclc, and put down the 
Exceptions chat he hat omitted. For notwithftattdinebiirwMinH/iu 
*liif, ilietc are not (b many of them, but they mi^t ea^ly have 
(leen put down, Theyare thefe that follow ; ' 

uAmrtb^i, BiW"', BtHoci^j, Carbtfux, Cintunmluty Crfhtr, Cbry- 
fiUlhui, ChtjfapT^fiat, Oi-dtBuS, DiuHtnui, Exejuj, fftlf, tUlitatJmi, 
HbLui, Hyfofm, l/cythut, letKacbryfiu^ Narjui, ririitiny ro^goMi/, 
SJmcus, Samffucbi'i, liJjbiM, Tilhjm^as, Ttfavm, 

Stlmy which the prsunt Fhyfkiani make Feminine, is never ufed 
fisdia^I l^wof, by the Ancients. Stiiiitui Solat ipeiAai, ri^tit, 
Tr^e, tAe.^Sc. uStditaJbunc Balum frrviniti. far, X, R.X. 3, <-. 7. 
ft^HBM Balim difmiia mk. Id. K. R. L. 3. c. 14. So .Ttrtncr. 

Theft are all, or well nieh all that are excepted, faving the 
garnet of Tms, which are Feminine by the general Rule, and fa 
aeed'nocbe mentioned. 

pitltffttt h own'd by all, DUmetrnt hai been ^ken of already, 
£m^ iittbaimi, Pttiadiu, afe compounded of iJU vij, a* well 
M t>wfai and fi> are Femininee for the lame ceafon. Of thii 
raft I Oall give £»amplet. / 

AnuAyfti LuBe4 friMofttmrn tuttu, PI. N. H. 1. 37. C ?. Though 
OfiiiuU PMfBnw vliwtl^V, Arc Am. 3. p. I?!- 

Bibtnti AW iw fiamtiMi iibwfhii et^tttri iMot 
J ft uwee. Luc. 1.3. T. 313. 

BeUomlnt, ir«c ficrttijfiiitt i4lljn»nm Hm £catir. Fl. N. H. 1. ]?. 
' c to. 

Orbafll^ ie dwayt Feminiiu, ai far at I on find, but in one 

' Pl>tt of ftU lit*, nwt Cmhtfmmt 9w«> 9fHm»m luMat, focuU t«f»- 
fi^tt, 1. 1. c. I. whidi it may be, was the reaTon, why Pr«buL 
Md rhtim did it wu Maftulwa too. But this place is fufpeAed 
by fbdK, Mid fit livth odtenaife by PijWr, with the AdjeAives 
in Um Fcmininb though he Kcrfd&i to havd fbwid the other 
I . . , ■ Rcadui| 



5 8 Firfi Specral R ule. 

Kcadtng in fevcral good Copies. 'Tis a Word but fcldom 
Ibund with an Adjective in the fingular number, (and in tthg 
Plural 'tis Neuter,) but when it is, it is Feminine. Cirhajus 

*tbit^ Prop. 1. 4. El. 12. ItbAceia. Carbafus. Stat. Achil, I. 3. V. 1^2, 
Ccntunculus trtU in aceto^ aut melie^ Pi. N. H. 1. (5. c. 1 1. 
Cephos idem attulit tjuarum pedes fofteriores jiedihus hufminis fuere 

Jimiles, ^L N. H. 1. 8. c. 19. 
Chryfolithi Indies Pl. N. H. I. 37. c. 5). This is Mafculinc in 
Pvudentiusy 

' — • Interlitus muro 

Cbryfolithus 
Which Foffius thinks to be the only place where it is fo ufed, but 
that isamiftake, for Fropertius ufes it fo, /. 2. car. i^. ud Cynfb^ 
Sed quafcunque tibi VefteSy quofcunque Smara^dofy 
Quofve dedit flitvo lum'ine Chryfolithos. 
Chryfoprafius prafertur his pom fuccum 6- ipft prdbcnf^ Pl. N. A 

1. 37. c. 8. 
Crocus vino diluu^ Appul. I. 10. But this is the only place where 
this Word is found with an Adjecftivc, that will diftinguifk* 
its Gender. Diomcdts will have the Word to be Crocum^ not o»- 
cusy but there is cyocus alfo undoubtedly, and that in the beft^ 
Authors. VirgilhisCrocumrubenrem, Ovid. Fait. 4. Tenues CrocoSm 
And Juvenal, Sat. 7. Spir antes Crocos. 
Halicacabus trita^ Pl. N. H. 1. 21. c. 51. 

Halus €utem^ ^uam Grceci fie vocant : Veneti Cotoneam, Med«tur Uteris'. 
■ P. N. H.I. 2(^. c. 7. 
Holcus. Hxc circa caput alligatay Pl. N. H. I. 27. C. lo. 

HyiTopus ro<?«, Celf. 1. 4. c. 4. 

Xecythus. This our Author reckons up among the Doubtful^, 
in the next Rule but one, and I iliall referve it till I come tQ 
that, where I Ihall fhew it to be only Feminine. 

Leucochryfi vitrc^^ Pl. N. H. 1, 37. c. 9. 

Kardoo4(/jW4, Hor 1» 2. Od. u« 

Polygoniis /'O^* wfw/f f ciet^ Pl, 1. 2^. C. I5. 

Sabucus /'4)'v«, Scren. 

5ampfuchus plurimuy PI. N. H. I. 13. c. i. 

Silybum//t»o/I«>n, Pl. N. H. 1.22. c. 22. 

Tithymallus aptu. tali medeU^ Seren* 

Topazio egregiuglotia efifuo vireuti genere^ ^ cum reperta eft praUt^t 
omnibusy Pl. N. H. 1. 37. C. 8. .i 

There are three other Nouns in us taken from the Greek, which 
becaufe there may be fomc diipute about, I have referv'd.to the laH, 
and not put down in this Alphabetical Catalogue, two of th^m her 
ing always Mafculine, and the other two but one apiece Feminine. 
They are kAnussracus^ Camelus^ Daucus, 

xAmaracus, The Di(flionaries malce this to be only Mafculiije, and 
none of the Grammarians take notice of it in the Feminine, but 
yet it is once fo us*d by P/i«>, 1. 13. c. I- Cy\Lcena, %Arf\aracu$/,. Not- 
withftanding, /.21. r.'l t. he has xAnuiracurit qt^em Thrygiu^n voeant, 'Tis 
like in the fir ft h$ had rcfpe<5i: \mto the general Noun H<^<«, for 
t^pon that accoimt he frequently makes the particular Jt^^oun Fen^- 
j»ine* tr}MtffveF^th& Terminttioh be. ' •' 

• ■ 

^amtbtSm 



•s ^ 



Tirft Special Rule. ^ 

fdmehs, Tlus.Koun indeed is always Mafculine, ai far as I know, 
biitin one Place. But becaufe Mr. Leeds and Mr. Walf^r^ as well ag 
the Oxford tAnnotators, and the Authors of the Ncuvelle Methcde^ fay 
all after Vofjius^ That it is never Feminine *, and it is one of thoie 
3t^6uns that Voffius challenges anyMan to ihew once in the Feminine, 
1 thou^t fit to take notice of it in this place, and itiew the Reader, 
that notwithftanding all this, it is once us'd in the Feminine ; by 
which, as by many other inftances, that might be given, and which 
I fhall have frequent occaiion to give in the progrefs of this work, 
he will fee, thkt after all the pains of this great Man, there are ftili 
frefli difcoyeries to be made in Grammar. The Place is in P/iVy, 
1».II. C 37. Camelus unu exiis qua ncn futtt corni^era in fuptriore tnax^ 
iUk frimorcs non habet. And thus it is in Harduin'^ Edition, and in all 
others that I have feen, and particularly in palechamp% which 
Voffius us'd. 

cytifus^ which I once thought to have been Mafculinc only, I 
kave fince fpund ia the Feminine, in Columella, Excepta tamen Cytifo^ 
£». 2. c. II. And' Vtracj'j Cjtifus.Ju, 9. c.4. So that it is both St af- 
culine and Feminine in this Author, as the Annotators obferve. 

Daucus. Calefine^ and fome other Lexicographers make this to be 
Feminine^ but the place quoted for it out of Pliny, /. 25. f. 9. is 
corrc^ed in the Margin in Z>rt/i'<r^<wn;''s Edition. The Words in the 
Book arc thefe : Dauci genera tmatuor fecit Tetronius Diodotus^ qua ^rr- 
feqtn nihil attinet^ cum fint differentia dua, Probatiffima in Creta^ tnOc 
in oicbata^ ^ in ficcis locis ubicunque nati : Where there is a manifeft 
Error, for nati is Mafculine, though it have the fame Subftantive 
with frthatiffirtia^ which is Feminine. Therefore the Corre<fticm in 
the Margin is frobatiffimum and natum^ according to the old Co- 
pics, with refpecfl to genus undcrflrood, or it may be rather Daucum^ 
becaufe in the nth Chapter of this Book, making ufe of it in 
the Nominative, he fays, Medetur 6* D^ucum, Nor do I remember 
that any of the Antient Latin Authors ule Daucus^ but Daucum z 
But the Greek A«(/)t.@^> is us'd by Paul, Mgin, Diofco, and Galen in 
the Mafculinc. 



N 



Grammar^ Lat. ^, 14- 

Eutrum nomm in e, fi gignit ^, ut Marc, K^tc : 
Et quot in on, vel in um fiunt^ ut Barbiton, Ovum, 



Animadversion XVIIL 

NOuns in on and um of this Special Rule, are not all of them 
always Neuter, as this Rule implies. 1 have in ft a-nced al- 
ready in Lugdunum^ and Pelion^ of which the firft was Fe- 
minine with refpeift to Vrbs^ the fecond Mafculinc with rcfpe<ft to 
Af«»/. And as ki thofc Gafes, and many others, the Adjejftive re- 

rciper: 



40 Tirft SpecUl Ruk. 

ij^t the Gender of the general Koun, and not of" the Prf^, tm 
likewife in the Names of VUnts^ qt h^/, and fometimes of Jt^eUy 
the Ad jciftive takes its Gender lometimes from the general Noun 
Htrfctf, PUntoy or Gemma underftood, and not from the name of the 
j^articular Species, which is as it were the Proper Name of thole 
lorts of PUntSy Hirbsy or Jevoels. I Ihall provt this by Examples* 

Afplenum Uu<tatiffima w Cret4, Pi. N« ti. !• 37. C. 5. 

Ageraton/m»i«rf4</l. Id. 1. 27. c 4. 

Ardionytmt^ e(h verbflc9y Id. 1. 27. C. 5. 

Bryonofftm4, PL N. H, 1. 12. c. 8- 

Cichorium. In JE^pto proximm autoritas Cicborio tft (from the 
Nominative Cichonum) ^Mtm iiximm InitAum gnmtcun^y Pi. N« 
H. 1. 25. C. 15. 

Crocodilionpo/tfj4i^»ii>«mfrriMre/pr^i>, Id. L 28* c 8. 

Caliitrichon rrtu, Id.l. 2^. c. 9. 

Didiamnum fota. pellit f^ittasy Id. 1. 26* c. 14. And then in 
another place he makes it Feminine and Neuter by turns, for 
two or three Sentences tog;ether. 
JBquifetum duo&a^ and Varia. circa banc ofinhy Id. 1. 26* C. 13. 
Empctron tritoy Fl. N. H. 1. 28. c 8. 
Gcranion vera talis eft^ Pi. N. H. 1. 26. c. 8. 
Heliotrcpium (gcmma^ San^uiueis Vcnis dijtinffoy Id. 1. 37. C. Xo: 
Perdicium trita^ PL N. H. L 22. c. 17. 
Myriophyllon efu'acijjima ad dentium doloreSy Id. 1. 24* C. 1 ^. ^ 
Polyanthemum ouam quidam BatraclAcn afpelUnty Id. 27. c. 12« 
Paiicration. *j^ii decoquunt eamy PL N. n* L 27. c. !£# 
Phrynion tn vino pota^ Id. 1. 2$. c. xo. 
Picudobunion Uudat'iffima in Creta^ Id. 1. 21. C. I^ 
Satyrion. Eadem tfl Satyiony PL N. H. 1. 25. c. 8. 
Telcphion PortuUca fimlis efly PL N. H. 1. 27. C. 13. 

And I think of the two, he ufes this fort of Noims ofteneft hi 
tlic Feminine, which is taken notice of by none of the ^nnotatorf 
upon this Grammar, nor yet by }Atffi<uvs de Fort Koyal^ becauie Ko/- 
fius had omitted it, and yet certainly deferv'd a remark, as well a< 
many other things they have beHow'd one upon. 



la 



J 



4 

ttrfk SpeeUl Rule. 41 

III the fartiB Ruk* 

Grammar, Lat. />■ 14. 
Eft neuirum Hippomanes genus, £? neutrum cacci'thet. 

Animadveiision XIX. 

^TOt only Hippomanes and Cacoathes ire Neuters, but alfo all 
J Nouns in c/ from Greeks in ic, as. Nepenthes nobiUy PL 
N N. H. 1. 2$. c. 2. Panares Cbtromum^ Id. 1. 25. C 7. and 
tpfum Pakacesy !• 26. c. 1 5. But then in another place, he makes it 
buckle to the Gender of the general Noun, according to his Cu* 
ftom of dealing with other Terminations in the Names of Herbs, 
as tAAmifta modtc* Panace^ 1. 25. c. 19. llnlefs this be the Ablative 
from Panax^ which he ules, /. 19. r. ult. And this is the more like- 
ly, becauie though he uies Panacef in the Nominative, I do not re- 
member that he ufes any other Accufative than Fanacem, Liguflicum 
Xaiitjm- Panacem vacant) Stomucho inutile eft^ 1.20. ^.15. A^ainj 
ijilitjui if banc Panacem Meracleon^ alii Sideri^ny & apud hos mdlefo* 
Hum vacant^ 1. 25. C. 5. 

Sefamoides detrahitbilem in aqua potum^ Pi. N. H. 1. 22. C. 25. 
Trichomanes adUnto fimile efty exiliui modoy nigriufquej Id. 1. 27. c. 3i 



I 



Grammary Lat. f. I4« 
Nccrti generis funt Talfd^ (3 Datna^ Canalis^ C^c. 

Animadversion XX, 



IT is commonly faid by; the Patrons of this Grammar, (for 
it has its Patrons too) in its behalf, when it is charged with 
Omiffions, that it forms its Rules upon common Ufe, which is 
imoughfor an Inftitution for Children, and leaves things that are 
irare, and particular to their Obfervation in Reading. They are 
• great Readers indeed, and ereat Obferv^ers, and it is great pity 
they had not been left wholly to!their own Obfervation. This I 
dare fay, That they, that had had judgment enough ever to have 
made Scholars, would have found out better Rules thanthefe, in 
time, by their own Obfervation, if they had not had their Judg- 
ments corrupted, «nd prejudiced in favour of them by their Edu- 
:.4Utipm 

G Hut 



42 Virfl Special Rale. 

But it will appear. That the Compiler of thefc Rules had no 
fuch defign, or has coine quite iliort oFit, by examining this Rule 
amongft others, where fome Words, for inftance D.tm4. and T««//4, 
are put down for Doubtfuls, that are never found in the Mafcu- 
line Gender, but in one or two Places of one Author, and there 
too for a reafon particular to that place, as will be feen by the Ex- 
amination of the Rule. And others, namely, Hulcyon^ rather %At' 
tyon^ not Hulcy(tnis<, as the Author makes it, Ltcythus, Phurut^ Reftit^ 
are made Doubtfuls. that are only Fcminines. I iliall Examine the 
whole Rule in Alphabetical Order, adding Omiflions. 

Hulcyonisy Hulcyony rather %Aic^on^ is only Feminine, as Dies earum 
i.e. Alcyonum, partm qui nuVlg^.Ht novere^ Pi. N. H. I. lO. c, 32. 
DdtStA Thctidi %McyoneSy Virg. Gcor. i, p. 39. 

NoH ego diferttu uUoquor HuLcyones Prop. L. !• El. 17. 

Nonfic TpachynU nidos, 

tMcyone vernos^ 6rc. Stat. Silv. 3. ad Claud. Ux. 

Stlms makes the Nominative Halcyonesy Cum fondt Halcyones ckntu^ 
So it is in my Book, L.ii. p. 222. 

oiccipiter might as well have been here, as Ta/^a, and Dama^ for 
it is once found in the Feminine^ Lturet, /. 4. f, 122. %Jccifitret 
vifd volunteu 

%Alvus, See Animadverlion upon Veminti Generis, 

%Amnis. There are but two Places in which it is Feminine, unlefs 
in iAccim^ and Nsvius^ vi\, one of Plautus Mtrc, Ac. 5. Sc. 2. and in 
yurro de R. R. /• 3. c, 4. Z/6t confluit altera, amnis : which in fome 
Books too is alter. All other Authors ufe it in the Mafculine, and 
that fo frequently, that I believe it is a thoufand times oftner Maf- 
culin^ than Feminine, 

%Arcu.t is us*d in the Feminina by Unniuf^ and by Catullus too, as 
Strvius fays ; but this PaiTagc in Catullus is not now to be found. It 
may have been poffibly in fome of his Works that are loft, for the 
Grammarians quote (everal things out of him, which are not now* 
to be found, nor the Titles they quote them under. 

KAtomus is uied conftantly in the Feminine by cicero de Pin. /. i. 
Ille %Atomos quM appellate trc. And, Nunauam fore^ ut %Atomus altera dl- 
teram pojfit attir^ere^ Id. Ibid, But then. Sen. N, Zs L 7. c, 13. 
-has nAtomi congefiiy and coacrrvati in ibme Editions, whence (bme 
have made it Doubtful. And though Grutaus in his has made it 
eongeiia^ yet 'tis like in La^antius*s time it was congefti^ who beinjg 
a better Latinift than ordinary for the Age he liv'd in, would har£ 
ly have made it Mafculine, De Ira del, c, 10. Denique Lucretius oblitus 
%Atomorum quot afftrehat^ without fome Authority. 

Balanus, This Word is the Name of a Totvn, of a Vifh^ and of die 
¥ruit of the Palm Tree, *Tis in this laft Acceptation that I coniider 
Jt here, and in that 'tis of Greek Original, and always Feminine 
in that Language ; and fo Horace ufes it, Preffa tuis Balanus capiUisy 
1. 3. od. 29. 'Tis mentioned but in three Places more that I can 
remember in all the Authors : One of Martial^ I. 4. Ep, 57. two 
of Plinyy one of which yojfius quotes, in which is Sardianos Balanos^ 
N.H,L Is. r. 23* which he makes fome difficulty to admit of; 
Xhe other, /. 1 3. c, 4. quite overlooked by him, or elfc he would 
never have concluded with, Vt propemodum videatur inter dubia re» 
ferr'u For 'tis plainly here in the Mafculine over and over ; fb that 
i^e needed jiot have been fo fearful of admitting S^rdinn^ in the 

tjth^r 



* . <k 



Firji Spedal Rule; 4^^ 

ethtt place. The Words are tlieie : %A nobis afftlUntur BuUni £>" 
rum flura genera. And immediately Muxime fUctnt cundidi. Prefcnt-. 
ly after ipeaking of them ft ill, 2j*^dum fimt ampliores fuba : Apcl , 
ajgain, S^rvuntur hi dcmum qui nafcuntur injalfis atque fubulofif. And 
this Error has been fwallow'd by all his Followers, Mr, Xxf^f, 
Mr. H^uil{try the xAnnoutors^ Meffufos de Port Roynl ; nor has any Bo- 
dy, that I knoNv of, ever obfcrv'd this pregnant Proof. ] 

Barbitus is omitted, as well as CaUnus^ by our Author, and is. 
yet certa/nly a Doubtful, nurblte 

Ltshio frimum moJuUtc nvi, Hor. I. 5. 0<i. 22. 

But then, Ovid has, 

Non facit ad Uchrymds Burhitos ulU meat, Ep. Sap. ad Pha. 

Callif^ though Mafculine in others, is Feminine in Xivjf, as A'oiw'i^^ 
has obferv'd long (ince. Per dcvioA CulUs^l, 12. 

So I let it pafs in the Specimen upon Konius^s Authority, as fup- 
poiing he might have had it out of ibme Book of X07, which is not 
come to our hands. But upon a farther fearcli into this matter. I 
am now rather inclined to believe that Livj was not entire in hif 
time, and that this PaiTagc, as he quotes it in more words, thus, 
Nifi fecorum modo fert an^ufio fMtUy per devias Callts, L. 1 2. feems to 
be nothing elfe but a corruption among many others, crept into 
Nouiusy by the ignorance or carelefnefs of Tranfcribers, inftead 
of what we read m the i2ch Book, as we now count iince the lofs 

of the fecond Decad, Nos hie fecorum more per afiivof fdtus deviofyue 
CulUf exercitum ducimtu conditi nubibu6 Jilvifq-y as Oothcfredus^ the II- 
luftrious Reftorer of this Author, Corrects it from Lt^Jiuj. faving 
that (bme Books have Colics for Calles^ which is probable from Cow- 
Mtinufiibu/ which follows*, and that which immediately precedes 
the Speech ofMinutim^ from whence the Quotation is taken, name- 
ly, Vt Vero ad Vulturnum Jlumen cuftra, funt fofitUy txunbuturq'j jmv^ 
nijfimus Jtulta u^er^ vilUq\ fajjflm incendiis fumabanty per jf^^u J>/Uffci 
montis FajbiQ ducente^ frofe de inu^ro efi orta ftditloy uc duces feditionis 
MTcenfi tptidam ; fuerut enim filentium per paucos dies f quiu cum ceU" 
riiu folito dui^um a^men fuijfcty ftflinari ad prohibendum pofuUtionibus 
Campaniam crediderunty ut veto in extremu MaJJici montis Vtnium efiy 
hofttfa\ fub oculis tranty "Fulerm ugn, cohnoYumque finueffa teffu urentesy 
nee mU erut mentio pt^^na : fpeifutumne hucy meruit ^iinutius, ad rem. 
frugnd^ n oc/disy fociorum cadesy & inccndia vetnmus i ^c, Bsfidc that 
the Mountainoufnefs ok the Place added a farther fccuricy to 
FMuty and made it ftill more difficult for the Enemy to Attack 
him, which was yet a greater reproach of the pretended timo« 
rouinefs of Vabius^ which this feditious hair-bram'd Officer de- 
fign'd mainly to expofe : And that was done more £ffe(fluaUy 
by DeviosCoUeSy jrfian by Deviosy or D<vius Calles, But however this 
be, whereas Nonius aads, 6* idem fie frctpicutrry there muft be a^ 
miftake in tbi^t ; for Zivy does not ufc the word CuZ/iV frequently, 
and where he u&% it, 'tis f9und in the Mafculine in moft Copies^ 
SLSy per not04 Calles fyreviore via pragrfjft, Dec. 4. i. 8. ind/ed ne ex-m 
fedifi ^uidem facile uUos ad trattfitum CulUt inviniant, Pec. 4. L. 6* 

Camflusy I have ihewn already to be Feminine once in flin^^ 
^ouj^ pther>yife Mafculine, under Exceptions in m/, frpm this 
Special Rttlc.' ' 

^ G 2 CanMit^ 



44 ^i^fi S fecial Rule. 

Cutudis, I do not put this Word down to find fault whk our 
Author, who has rightly reckoned it among the Doubtfuls, but to 
prevent Vo[piU*% difcouragin^ the ufe of it in the Mafculine, which 
the account he jgives of it will be apt to do. He fetches his 
proof of it in the Mafculine, from GadultimGallicanusy otherwife 
r. oiquiiiufy or Gar^ilius MartiMii^ never reckoned by any for a Claf^ 
iick Author. And fays, from Strvius^ and Ifidorus^ Melius generp 
Tcminitfo auam Mafculino froferimus, I cannot but wonder, this great 
Man, who fb well underftood the ill confequence of Gramma- 
tical Errors, in a dead Language, by which all ufeful Knowledge 
is convey'd all over the Chriftian World, and had taken fo much 
pains to prevent them, and ^hat with more Succefs than all that 
nad gone befbre him : I fay, I cannot but wonder, that he Should 
be lead by others into a mi ftake difcoverable^by fo many of the htBc 
Authors, as firf( P^i»J) ^^ venarum Cafudcs per marmor VugantttTy 
]p], N. H. 1. 3^. C, 4. Alumina, demerfo trahit intemerata Canali^ Stat. 
SyL If |. £p. Stell. 3c Violant. Vt amiffo Canali fuo flumitiA refun-. 
(iantuify Sen. N. Q;l. 3. p. II. Dnnde inter rapidam infaniatn Nili^' 
fif recifrocos flu^us volututi tenuijpmos Canales tenenty Id. lb. 1. 4, 
c. 2. Ztv>has Canalem qui^ ]. 3. And again, Vtraque eft in CapitoHa 
fumJi uno difcreta^ 1. !?3. To all thefc may be added that of Sever^ 
^fn. p/44i« 

I^uod fi diverfos emittat terra Canales, 

And foon aft^r. 

Nee tafnen in r't^idos exit content* Canuleji 
Vis anima. 

So Celfusy Largo Candiy 1. i. C. 4. 

tiongi CanaJisy Sen. Ep. 108. Canales fuosy Id, N. Q. L. C. ip. 4*0- 
l\dar^us eft Canalisy Pal. Aug. Tit. II. Stilus torrens etiamin CanaJ^ 
fuo curfus efty Sen. N. Q. L. 3. C. 28. Extraifo Canali^ Colum^ 

And if it fliould be oftener in the Feminine, which I much que- 
ftion, however, fo many, and fuch Authorities makes it as allow- 
able in the Mafculine. And yet Meffieurs de Port Royal have fbl-; ^ 
lowed Vojfiuj^ in this miflake, together with Mr. Ueds^ and th^ 
(^Annotatorf, * > ' 

Clunig, This Noun too is rightly placed among the Doubtfbls 
by our Author, but I put it dowi> becaufe Foffius^ and the %Anr 
uotators think it only us'd by fjorace in the Feminine, befide^ Aff-» 
iiffusy and Laberius. For P^'^ 4fes i( fo too, ExtremM in Clunes re^ 
JUiunty N. H. 1.8. c. 8. . 

^ Colusy i$ of both Gendets. See Animadveriion upon "Butmineige^ 
IMrxf, ^c, ' . . 

Corhit, * This Word is Mafculine, as well as Feminine, according' 
to Pnfcittny .and xAntonlus Nebriffenjis, Vojfius fays, Hirtius ufes it fbj 
but he names lio placti : However 'tis true. For Bell, Hifp. a littfe 
Vay from the beginning, in the Siege of Corduba^ he fays ^ Cdfar 
titm ad flumen Batm vimjfety neque propter altitudinem flumnfls tratghfi.' 
^<)[ftty iaptdihus Corhes plei^Of Jimifit, Columella has, Corbetn fabuUtv- 
ritsm^ I, II. f.'i^. unlefs that be an Error of the Prefs ; for in th^ 

«»h ^ook, Chap. 3. he hz%^Corhit pabtdatoria. And fo Cicero ufSs Itjj 
r4t, pro Sext, Mefforia fe COfhe cgntcxit; And fetronius^ cum CW^ 

Pf ^tt g^ditm erat lignea^ 

-.'■'" • •...•;.;.■•"■ 



Fir ft Special Rule. 4 5 

CVmftf is always Mafculine but in one place of TUuf, Md/J.i/!..-. r. 
J". 3. ' Se^i gerunditm morttit cenfo^ & cufiunda^ Ctinis, And irt a paf- 
(age of tAtta quoted by Nonius. 

'Ddmiu as well as Td^A is always Feminine, but in two places, (dach 
of Vxrgi^ the fiifft, and one the latter. 

Cum cunilms iimidi veniunt ad pocula DaMs^ 
iAtque oculis cupifodere cuhiiU Tulp/t* ^ 

in an which the Adje![ftive is Mafculine, as Servtuf chinks, to at<*id a 
pfAoi^ixt^of or making his Verfc tlink, which the old Monks 
were had in great Admiration for in former times, but was he\o«f 
the Gravity offir^U's Subje<ft, and yet he is ccnfured for ihis Ifrc- 
ig;ularity in the tSender by Chirifiuj. However this be, he wdS not - 
always ibihy of a l/xtihixi^tt^^ :fpr Gcori, i. he has, 

Tontms 6* tfiriferi fauces tehUniur %Ahydu 
v/htTtOlhiferi and J&ydi Rhymc^ as mu^h as TMdje and z?jw?# 
whould have done, or Otpta and Talpd ; N^y, x^hydus being th» 
Name of a Town^ and ufuallV Feminine, the Adje^ftive aec^ordiftg fa 
thedrditoaty Cotirfe ihould have been OftriftrMy add then it m'ouli 
not have Rhymed. 

fdfebts. This Word is not only Doubtful wheti it is put fot a 
fort of Sailing Veffel, but alfo when it fignifics a Plant. M«'y- 
firm's, de Pert Keyd lay it is fcarce tO be fotfrtd id chis latter $i^- * 
nification^but in the Malculine, in good Authof s. I believe ^s mii^H, 
being but feldom fpUnd at all : however CpiumelU ufos it in Che 
Feminine, /. lo. 

Et ^ravit \Aif'tftic\ coftfurpt lon^,<t Vafetns, 
Indeed, Fafcolus^ which is fuppofed to be the fame, is never other wife 
than Mafculine, 

' Ficus, Of this Word I have fpoken already for the Vi^-Treey an^ 
Its Frmty and ihewed it to be Feminine in both Sene«S i It remains 
to examin^ what Gender it is of, whdn it is put for a lyifeafe ; in 
which Signification, our Author fays it is Doubtful \ and in this ha 
ha» feveral other Qfammarians of his fidd. That which chdy gtotm4 
themielves upon for the MafcUline is an Epigram in Mty/w/, 
if. I. £f, 66. 
\ Cum Sxi ficuf^ fides^ quafi hdrbara Verha^ 

Et did ficos<y Cdcil'tanc^ ]u%es, 
/>icemas ficusy ^as fcimt*s iH afbore uafcty 

DieeMus ficosy CteilUney tuot, 
yicrc the l^oct, as we read it now, diftinguifhes betwixt RVw/ a Vi^y 
knd Vicui Sr i^rfeafiy as ifthefirft were only of the Fourth Deden-r 
lion, aiid Feminine *, the laft of the Second D^clenflon only, ani 
Mafculine^ But farnahyy upon this Epigram, fays, Neque ap»d prch» 
ftotd autorem quemfiam reperiatur feus pfo inarbd in tilio q0am fcemineo 
Z^nere : Which, if it be true, giveS groftncl to fufpec'^ this place has 
beeii corrupted, and ought to be read otberwife. :^ut I muft con- 
fdis^ as far as I have obierved, Vicus in this Signification is no where 
elfe to be found in any good Author with an Adje<fthre, thac 
will ihew its Gender j neither do any of the Grammari<ws quote any 
other place thto this of MartiaL And as fotfarnahy^ht is lo irtcOfiftantjf 
noon thil Word,that notwithftanding what he fays here,he makes ft 
Mafculine in his Grammar. So here is an Authority f6r its being 
Mafcttlineaf this reading be good, but none at all produced by 
^em jfor m^bdng Feminine, and therefore lio pdfitive AartVority- 
J-' .'.":' from 



46 Tirfi SfecUI Rule^^ 

from tliem for ict being Doubtful in this Sence. So thit I tm apt 
to think, that the only rcafon, that moved the Grammarians to-7 
make it Doubtful, was this proof out of MartUl for the Mafculine> 
4md a Suppofition that it might be of the fame Gender with Vicus a 
F{^, from whence it was applied for refemblancc fake K> fignifie 
this Diffaff, This place of M>ornal^ has been Opprobrium Grammati' 
cwum^ fome reading it one way, fome anotl^er, and others inter-' 

Seting differently tlie fame reading : infomuch that Vojfius him<» 
f won't undertake to determine k, concluding only, that it ii 
fafer touieFt<:M/aP(]( of the Second, or Fourth Dedeniion, 4nvi 
iu the Feminine *, ami Vitus a Dipap of ^e Second only, and in the 
MafcuUne, It may be Prcfumption after him to uiuiertake to 
determine it, but I will give my Opinion without determining, 
and it is this. I am apt to think the {4acc is corrupted, becaufe 
Martid feems to contradifbinguifh 'Bicus a F^, and ficus a Dife^e^ 
as if the firfl: of them were always of the Fourth Dedeniion, 
which being fo much oftener of the Second, as I have ihewn in 
the Auimadvejrfion upon Vneminti ^enerify <yc, p, 24, 25. he can- 
not well be fuppofed to miftake it ; befide that, /. 7. Ep. 70. he 
nfes FtVoi in the Accufative for Figs, So that quite contrary to this 
reading, 'tis probable Martial might have uled FiVo/, and Cacilum 
mt^t think, that that was peculiar to the Difeafe^ and ¥icus of the 
Fourth the only proper Word for a I^ : for ^tis more probable 
that Citrt/tdit, than Martial^ ihould be fo grofly miftaken. Upon 
this Suppoiition, the F eading will be : 

Cum dixi IPicos^ rides^ quafi harhara verboy 

Mt did FiV«/, Cdcilianey juhts, 
Dteemus Vicofy <fM.s fcimus in urbore nafci ; 
Dicemuf FicoSj CaciUaney tuos. 
And then the meaning will be. You Laugh at me forufing FiVoi for; 
Vipy and would have me fay Ficut infbead of it ; but I tell you, 
Tieosy as weU as Fum/, fignines F/^/, and not only vour F^^i, but 
them that grow upon Trees toa As if one fhould fay in Verfc 
thus : 

You Laugh« Cdciliarty when T Ficos ufc ■ 

For Figs, 4nd bid me rather Ficus choofe : 
But Ficos let me tell you ferves for each. 
Figs that on Trees do grow, or on your Breech» 
Only there feems to be a difference intended, in point of Gender, 
by the Adje^ives quss and tuosy unlefs tuos was originally tuM^ 
and fo no contradiftincfl/On intended in point of Gender ; which is 
not unlikely, for as much as Juvenaly fpeaking of the fame Swel- 
lings fays, 

CaduHtur tumidd Medico ridente marifc a^ Sat. 2. Ver. 13. 
where I fuppofe Fid is underfVood for the Subflantive to Marifc^ 
which is but an Adjedive ; and the rather, beeaufe Cato expreifes it, 
Dc R. R« r. 8. Ficos Martfcdt loco cretofo & aprico feritOy and Sen, Suaf*. 
12. Ficos non effet^ nifi MarifcM. Kor is it cmflomary \^th the Lat 
tins, to change the Gender of Words, trandated upon the Account 
of Similitude to other Significations ; neither is there any grea^ 
reafon to think they did U> in this Word from this finele place, 
which there is fo much reafon to think corrupted. But if this alte^ 
ration will not be granted me, but the prefent reading mufb flan^,' 
it is not to be fuppofed that Martini by this, will have "^cus a F(|s 



TtrB Special Rule. 47 

!• be only of the Fourth DeclenHon, but father, that having ufe^^ 
ficus for a Fjj in the Fourth Decleniion, and being taken up for it by 
this pert Blockhead, 4s one may fuppofe, who it iliay be had not 
heard ol it in the Fourth, being Co much more common in the Se« 
cond, he takes it in Dudgeon, to be thus rebuked by a Coxcomib, 
for an impropriety in Speech, and tells him, I will keep to rtly <vord 
Vicus of the Fourth for F(g/, for all you ; for it fignifies Fi^/ as well 
as FcVoj of the Second, though not fo commonly, I cOnfefs \ but I 
will refcrve Vicos to figniiic your Vlgs by, where I caii't ufc FiV«j of 
the Fourth. I know of no inconvenience that will follow upon this 
Suppofition in poiilt of Grammar ', and Ai for the Sence, there will 
be as good a rub for Chilian's Figs. Biit as for the Gender of FiVmx 
the DiffM/cy if this be a proof for its being Malculine, which I much 
que/lion in fo fufpicious a place., then there is none for its being Fc*- 
minine, this bein^ the only place ^mong good Authors for the 
Language where it is ufed wich an Adjeetive, unlefs in the Sfa- 
rtfcit ofjuvenafy which the Grammarians do not quote, nor feem to 
have observed. 

Fimut is Feminine in oipulemt^ but he is a licentious Author, and 
not to be imitated againft other Authorities 

Finis is rightly 'placed by our Author among the Doubtfuls, but 
whether we may upon ail occaiions ufe it indifferently in the Mas- 
culine, or Feminine, is a queftion. %^^ellwr plays the Critick upo» 
the pointy with a great deal of Nicety, Sed in Ulo tjuoquf Vergil 
V«/*i*, Maec finis priami fatorum. 

Simul ut 6r bicfinu Meaty Aurum ataue tihfonmm erity refpuentque auret 
^u9d mutuveris, Sict4t illud contra ejufaem l^ergilii infu*viw faciM fi mutef, 

S^uem Am Vinem re:f ma^ne Uhorum, 

He is fpeaking of the confidcration that ought to be had of the 
Sound of Words, and that that ought often to be preferr'd to pre- 
cife Grammar Rules *, which was fo rul'd a Cafe, it feems, among 
the Romans^ and their Ears fo mufically fct, that Cicero makes it al- 
moi): Eflential to a Man to diftinguiflt this fort of Harmony in 
the Sound of Words, and to know when it was to take place of 
the Common Rules of Speakine. Slf*od qui non ftHtit*nty fays he, 
HtMt aurif babeanty aut quidjn bis bominpt fimilefit nefcio. If I may 
ihoot ray Bolt in fo intricate a matter, I fuppofe u/^r//if»x means that 
H^, in the firft place is more proper, as being a broad and loud 
Sounding Word, to excite Attention to the Efifhonema : and quern in 
the latter more civil and refpe^ful to Jupitery when making a Re- 
<][ucA: f him, as being a Word of a fofter Sound. However it be, 
I thought fit to put down the place for the Entertainment of the 
curious Reader^ and cannot but wonder thit Vojfius has omitted it. 
'Tisjnthe xyth Chapter of the 15th Book, where the Reader 
may &id feveral fuch Criticifms upon other Words, as well as up- 
on that which follows. But whatever liberty may be taken with 
Ftnisy yet Vines Plural for the BwAers (f a country is only Mafcu- 
liiie. 

Funit. There it but one place in iMcr. /• 2. /• 6^* where this is 
Feminine* 

Hdud 



^8 Firti Sfmal RuUi 

Hdtid (ut opiuor) tnim moxtalU ftcU fuftrni 
f^ure* de c^Iq dfmifit FufM . in af-va. : 
Sfii geuuu tcUm eadem-qud nunc alit t^fe* 
\Vhef« inftcii o(tAurtuiy fome arc of OpiniQii^ f^^ftius wrote %Aii^ 
Yeu' for xAurem^ which was ufual with the Ancient Poets, to make ui 
HxQxt in theie forts of Nominaovcs, and Ablatives in hm^ by an Eli- 
iion of the /, when the following Word began with a Confonant* 
JJut that F«*i» was Feminine with the Ancients, of whom Luntt'iMs 
was a great Imitator^s probable by ¥Uutush\% £aying,H«»f rudentem : 
u here kudcns is but an Adjedive^ and Vunis underuood) as iliall be 
iliewn in Sunt dufua hdc Python^ &c, in the Word Kudtns, 

}iumf*s is quoted in the Mafculine by Ptifcian out of fpme of the 
Ancient Poets, but they have been long iince Buried, and I ihali not 
difturb their AHies. 

Xntuhtu is reckoned among the Doubtfuls by the Ancient Qram- 
marians, but they give no Authority for it, nor any body clfe that 
I know of, 'Tis Mafculine in Pliny^ in two Places, /. f, c H, and 
I. 20. c. 8. and never Feminine,though he ufcs fo many other Names 
of Hohf in us in the Feminine : and Nonius quotes it fo too in as 
many out of the Ancients. 

l.>ipfi i$ Feminine in Ennimy but no Author has foUow'd him in it, 
that I know of.. 

Lfcythufi WkeiKe this Word was pick'd up, to make a Doubtful 
of, I caimot imagine, unlcfs out of the Dt^ipnarifs, and th^e in- 
deed 'tis faid to be of both Genders, but upon what Authority they 
fny not, and therefore there is none for it, theirs alone being none. 
' ris a Greek Word, and CuUpine under L^cythus^ quotes it it out of 
^Arijlophanes in xAvibus , tXmov vx. trtfir e» nJ >ji««'da, but it is <r» 
Xj»)cu3^fl» in the Book, and fo the fame Author, in Plutus faysf, 
«M \»iHt»^cr, and Horn, Odyff. Jc^v^w"* Xii)ctt'3-9». I cannot call to mind. 
■any l^atin Author that ufes it. St. Jerome indeed in his Vcriion of 
the third of Ki^h has, Hydriaf4rind non defecity 6- Lecythus olei n<m 
e(l imminutuf. But Bcclefiaicical Writers are of no Authority 
• in this Cafe* Cifero has, nofti illas Xjutw^-w, Ad Att, L. Epift. i\i 

Lintrr is alVi^aysFeminine, but in one place o(TiiuUusyai$ Vojpus fays, 

and after him Mr. X«f^^/, and the. v4»»o/«ror/, and Mfj^»// de port 

^oy4» Thefe Uft give a reafon for its being Mafculine in this 

place, namely? To avoid a Cacophony bv too many Words epding 

in A fo near one another *, and therefore he faid, 

Est^uus fulU ferv^ddy linter aaua^ not exi^ua^ becauie put of fik 
Words there would have been four in a, /^ 2. El. 5. But Cato alfo, 
De R. R, r. IX. has tihtrcs duos, and Paterc, tApfulfo tintrty Hift. 1. ^. 
p. 130. 

MeJ^s in the Mafculine, and Metus in the Feminine, quoted by 
Nomus out ofLuciliusy and Ennius have been fo ufed by none thai^ 
have followed them. 

Ovisy in the old form of fetting a Fine or Mulcfl, was ufed in the 
Mafculine, as oi^elUus and Nonius prove out of Varro : as Marcus Tf 
rtntius quando chatusy neque refpondit^ neque e;ccujatus efty ego ei unum 
Ovtm multam dico. And tAgellius adds, Nifi eo genere diceretuiry tftgs^ 
verunt juflam videri multam, Poflibly the reafon of this waS, That 
^ this Mul(fl was to be a Kam, or Gelt Ship. 

Palumbes Hiould hate been here amongj the Doubtfuls ; for ai 
Virgil {xy9y Kauc4 Palumhes^ £c. i, 9xA^AtrinPdunJbes, £r. ^, £0 Pliny 



Firfi Special Rule. 49 

£kp^ l4Jiiiuof Falumbes. But fpeakingof the H^n, he makes it Fqmi* 
tune, as Nigidim f^tuty cum ova incuhut^ fub tfSfo nominatum Palurnbem 
ifiVoj rc/fM5ff«^<>, N* H« 1* lo. C. 35* 

T*mf'tnm is ufed twice in the Feminine , by clauAian^ 1. 3. de 
Laud. Scilic. CircumfluM, Pampinus, and Epith. Pall. & Celerin. 
Ofaeu Fdmf'mut, I know of no other, in the Authors that we have 
left, where it is Feminine ; yet Probm and Caper make it Doubtful, 
and Servims too. This latter fays, yurro ufes it often in the Femi- 
nine^ and io fay Mtjpeuvj dt Port Royal after him. It mufl be 
furely in fomething of yarroy that Strvius had feen, that is not now 
extant, for I cannot remember where he ufes it ; his Books De K.K, 
where 'tis mofl: likely he ihould have occafion to mention it, 
have^ I think, no luch Word. 

?4iraMus is ufed by none of the Konytn Authors that I know 
of; ancl in Greek, 'tis timc^uO^y ^nd if any of the Ecdeiia- 
ilical Writers have ufed it m the Feminine, 'tis without rcafon. 

Penus is of all three Genders, Mafculine* PUut, Pfeud, ^Ac i . Sc, 2. 
feims dmntiuf. The Feminine is ufed only by Lucil'iw^ pomponim^ and 
N^nnmy as we learn from Noniuf and VoJJiut \ fave that De penu legate 
is foimd in the Florentine Pande(f^s, as this latter fays. From hence 
it might leem to be obfblete in the Feminine, however oii^fonim in 
latter tfmes has reviv'd it. Idyll, 3. 

Cut nan lot^a. penus ^ huic q oque prompt a fames. 
In the Neuter it changes its Dcclenfion, making Penoris^ which is 
not only to be found m Fefius and Horace^ whole Authority y^jprn 
brings againft Nonim^ but in Columella alfo ; though Penora in this 
Author does not figmfie Provifions in general, but fomething Pick- 
led, or otherwife put up to keep. Colunu /. 12. c, 4. 

PWw is only Feminine, notwithftanding lAlexandrini Ph.m in Sue-^ 
romiK, Vit. Claud, for the Place is altered oy the confent oi learned 
Men, and in the latter Editions 'tis now tAlexanMn^y and fo Stat, 
ufes it twice ; Pbaro cruenta^ Syl. 2. Gencth. Lucan. Phartu ttmuU 
luHSy Syl. 3. ad Claud. Uxor. 

Rubuty as yojfius fays, is ufed in the Feminine by Colum, Sin, 
Trudent, and JigelUf^s, But in firxil and Pliny it is always Maf- 
culine, as Kubus afper, Virg. Eel. 3. See Pi, /. 17. c, 14. and 
L 24. e. 13, 14. 

Ketk is Feminine in yarroy De R. R. 1. 3. c. 4. Rete canmthlnSi, 
And for the Mafculine, TlaMius has, Nonne vides me rcferre uvUum 
Retem fine fquamofo pecu^ Rud. Ac. 4. Sc. 3. In my Book indeed 
it is Retty but fince he ufes Ketem afterwards in the fame Scene, 
there is no need to fufpe^ it here. And ioyajfius^ Dcfpuuterius^ 
and others quote it, .... 1' 

Rejiis^ is never otherwife than Feminine, neither is there any 
other Grammarian that makes it Doubtful. Rifles ZupUlis ex* 
tentM, Plin. N. H. L. 34. C. 13. IIU refle, Juv. Sat. 4. v. 274. 

Sexus is found in the Neuter, as well as Mafculine, in two Au- 
thors, as ytrile Sexus nullum unquam habin^ Plaut. Rud. Ac. i, Sc. 2. 
which Mr. Leeds fays is the only place, and that he would have 
no body imitate one old fingle Comedian in one finele Place. 
I am not now fpeaking of Imitation, but of the u^ of Au- 
thors, and in that he is miftalcen. For Salufi ufes it fo too, as 
well as PUutus, %At MeteUus in ulteriorcm Hifpaniam po/i annum re^ 
^fJ/W/, m^nd glorut e$ncurrentium undique viriUy & muliehre Sexus vt- 

H fib^tu 



50 Firji Special Rule. 

febatur^ Hift. I. 2. p. 14.9. /^<W/r Sexus for ViriUt Sexus, as 'tis U- 
fual to fay, U^odgenus^ U^enus^ Omnlt genus ; for Cujus lentrity ^s 
generis^ Omnis ^ihcris : Suoad^ or ^Mtttum ad bein^ underitood. And 
yojjfius quotes feveral Authorities for the uft 01 Stcus for Sexus in 
the Neuter. 

Specut is not only Mafcnline and Feminine, but Neuter al(b. 
For the Mafculine , there is that of Senecjty Ag. Ac. 5. Sc. 4. 
Sfptam nolfe nnehrofi fpecus. But of this Gender there are many 
Exaniples. "t4s not fo often Feminine, yet yojjfius quotes it in 
this Gender out of Sil. and «^c/. and fome of the Ancients, t« 
whidi may be added that of ?•<«/(»• Ad oiufon. Ef. i. 

T ecum rmhi coniordid. 
Ciere furdum Delphic* Pbabum fpecUy 
Vocure Mufaa numlnu^ 
For the Neuter there are two Examples ; Hcrrendum Specus^ Virg, 
iEn. 7. p. 24.3. Invifum cdo ffecuty Sll. U 13. not the 3d as Vojms 
quotes it, f, 205. 

rolucrii IS brought by Foffiut out of Ciceroy De Divin, /. 2. in 
the Mafculine, but he fays, 'tis %vith refpeA to PuUos aforegoing, 
and io 'tis plain it is. The place is eafie to be found, being fe- 
veral Verfes among Profe. 

Vter utru was Neuter formerly, as appears by Nonius out of 
JLt^ciliusy but no Author has followed him in it, that I l^now 
of. 



Grammar 9 Lat. /^ 14. 



c 



Ompcfitum a Verho dans a ccmmum duorum efit (3c. 



Animadversion XXL 

* 

THercisaldnd o£ Caprice in Authors as to the Gender. c^ 
Nouns that are common by Signification, namely, that fig« 
iiifie things common to Men, and Women. For though 
fome of them change their Gender according to the Sex they 
are applied to, as Novu Milesy Optima. *Jutbory oiugur Cuffa : Yet 
others again do not, as, Trolesy Pubes^ Sobofes^ and feveral others.' 
Vojftus has comprehended in thcfe Gyc Verfes following, what he 
thinks to be the only Commons in ConilrujfUon o( all the Spe- 
cial Rule?. 

Conjuxy atque farens, infanf, fatruel'iSy 6r hares^ 
tAugt^r^ & 4intifteu Vates^ cowv/va, fucerdosy 
tJffinify yittdcx^ judcx^ duXy mileSy & hojHsy 
Municipique addcts adoU-fccnSy civisy & uutofy 
Cuftosy nemoy comeSj ufiisy fusy hofqne canifjue 

Thii 



Fir ft Special Rule. ^i 

This Rule cuts off all our Author*s Nouns in .1, except cowvi- 
v<5 whether compounded of Verbs, or others v as Pincema^ which, 
though applicable to both Sexes, he will have to be only Maf- 
culine, bccaufe never found in Conftrudtion with a FeminineAd- 
jecftivc, though applied to a Woman. But then neisher does he, 
on the other hand, produce any inftance, where they have a Maf- 
culine Adjedive, when they are applied to Women ; which there is 
as much reafon to exped, before this Rule be allowed for certain, 
as that others fliould produce them with a Feminine. I can fay 
little pofitively to this matter, not having had it in my Head 
when I was making my Collecftions, only I have obfcrv'd four 
Nouns of this fort, in which the ufc of Authors feems to contra- 
dicft this Docftrine of Vojfius^ namely, Cliens^ Objhy Prxs, Princeps. 
Cliens is Feminine in that ofPUutus^ Mil. Pro!. 
Suam Clientem foUicitundum a4 milinm 
Subornat^fuam Clifntem i. e^ Philocomafium. 
Obfts is Feminine in Lucun^ being applied to Cornelia the Wife of 
Pompeyy whom when he leaves behind at Lesbos^ in his flight fVom 
Cdf^^ he fays, 

. NuBum toto mihiy dixit^ in orbe 

Grutiuf cffe folum^ non furvo pi^nore vobif 

Oflendiy ienuit noftros hac Obfide Lesbos 

oidfeSfus, L. 8. V.I 31. 
Where though it may be faid for Vojfiur^ he means, Hac feminl 
Ohpdcy yet being hkc with refpecfl to Womaiv it feems to be a better 
Aj-gument that Obfes is Feminine when applied to a Woman, than 
any V%gms brings to the contrary. 
Pr^it is uied m the Feminine, in PUut^ perf. Ac. 2. Sc. 4. S. 

u<t« in muUm /rw, P. %A( tu domum, Num ibi tibi purutu Pyas ej}^ 
He means, I fuppofe Rt/iif, or mal^ res, which afe both mentioned 
jufl before \ and the meaning is, you will be tied up, that yon 
will not be able to ftir, and tliat will be your Surety, or Prss to fee 
you forth coming. Now '^(Pr<s may be the Feminine with refpcd 
to Refl» or MuU res^ which are Feminine by ufe only, why not' 
with refped to Ffwiw^f, which is Feminine by Life, and Sicniiica- 
tion both ? efpecially when there are no Examples produced where 
theie Words when applied to Women, have Mafculine Adjedives, 
as I have faid before. 

Frinccps is Feminine in that ofPcdo ^bmovunus aid l,ividm 

%An melius per te virtutum exttmjU petemus^ 

jgfMifi fi Romatu Prindpu edi^ o^us. And yct Mr. lj;edf puts thlf 

down as Mafculine only. 



Hx of 



Vv ' 



^ 2 Second Special Rule. 



Of the Second Special Rule. 

Gritmrnary Lat. f. 17. 
Mafculina excepta ex acute crefentibus. 



M 




j^fcisla dicuntur monpfylUbd nomina quadant* 



Animadversion XXIL 

HEre are firft feveral Impertinencies in this Rule, as Car, 
Ser, Or/, Troty TbraXy Phryx^ Rtx, xAcdnun^ GdrunuUy Cure/^ 
Sdmnisy as alio Syren^ 5oror, Vxor^ and cvcn MulUr^ as well 
as yir ; which two laft denoting the feveral Species of Man, and 
Woman, and the other fome particulars oreach, ihould have 
been comprifed under the Rule of Propers, by fome fuch fort of 
Diviiion of Proper Nouns as this. Proper, icfs Proper. Second- 
ly, the Rule for Words in 0, is not plainly worded, & in o fig» 
fMfitia corpus. For Children are not apt to confider, Leoj Curculi^y 
ScorfiOy SteUlo, as Dodiesy but as livinj^ Creatures *, Body in common 
acceptation, which they follow, fi^nifying another thing ; nor yet 
Vdo^ X^o, cudo. But then fuppoiiing them to be Taught to take it 
in this Senfe, how will v4rrlkAoy which is generally Malculine, come 
in, befide Duermo^ Zs^aternio^ which are no lefs Mafculinet than 
Senio^ Ternio, And asthefe Mafculines will be excluded by the 
Rule thus given, fb Porito will go near to be included in the 
Apprehenfion of Children. 'Tis true, Fortio does not primarily 
fignifie a Body^ but becaufe it may be, and frequently is applied tq 
that, this Rule will be aot to lead Children into that miftake. 
The truth of the matter |is, all Nouns ending in o, of the fecond 
Special Rule, are Mafculine, except xArrhaho^ which is Feminine, at 
well as Mafculine, as ihall be fhown in the Rule of Doubtfuls : and 
except all Nouns having i befere 0, which are Feminines, fave thdfe 
Mafculine : Duernio^ and Optioy fas l^jjlfius chinks, when it is taken 
for the xAccenfw of a Centurion, or other Officer ; though I know 
of no Ad je<ftive with it in this Senfe,) Perniones (by the Diminutive 
Pern^uHculi^ (tiould beMafculine,)P<'mi/io,Pi#/fo,fboth by Sijgnification 
Mafculine \) Pugioy ^uatermo^ Sctfio a Shc\s Scnio, Termo^ Ti/10, Z/wb, a 
Jewel fo called *, and 'tis like 'tis of the fame Gender alio for a kind 
ofOmoHy but I know of no Adjedive with it in this Senfe. Alio 
de Karnes oiUmmuls in to are Mafculines, as Scvr^o^ ^ttUio, 

i ' ' -In 



Second Special Rule. j j 

In the fame Rule. 

Granpnavy Latin, p. 1 7. 
FolyfylUba in n, ut Acarnatim 

Animadversion XXIIL 

ACarnan is a GentUe, aiid Mafculine by Signification, as wdl 
-^ as Tr^/3 lV«iar, &c, and therefore impertinent here. 

In the fame Rule. 

Grammar^ Lat. p. 17. 
Mafcula in cr, or, £^ os, {?r. 

Animadversion XXIV. 

OR, the Termination was formerly Neuter, and there are fomc 
remains of it ftill. For %AAor is of this fpecial Rule, as 
well as the third, and is only Neuter, for whatever I could 
lee. Fojfnu makes it Feminine, when it encreafcs long, and Neuter 
when ihort, but his Quotations out of Prifctan prove nothing of 
the Gender. The %Annotators fay nothing of it, and Meffieurs dc 
Tort^ Rtyal fay, Vojfiut makes it Mafculine, when it encreales long. 
This indeed one would think he fhould have done, according to 
the Rules of Analogy, where there is no certain proof. But on the 
contrary, he fays twice 'tis Feminine, when it encreafcs long. 
He cites three Paflages from frifdan out of Ganrnm^ where it is 
in the Genitive Cafe in all three ; in the firft it encreafcs fhort, in 
the other two long, but there is no Adjedive with it. The only 
Authority I have ever obferved for its Gender, is, Hor, /. 2. Sat, 6* 
where ke (ays, the Country-Moufe, E(fet ador loUumque^ wherp 
being the Accufative Cafe, it muft be Neuter. Neither is there any 
fuch Accufative, as Morem to be found. The more common word 
is tMoreuMy with Var underftood, as For adoreum at length. 

Color and Decor are alio found in the Neuter, as Nee calor^ necfrt* 
gus metuo Plant. Merc. Ac. Sc. 2. And Et decor egre^U commeminit 
f^tsy KvS, Cor. Prof. Os has one Feminine, Poderos Uudatijfima 
in Indisi PL N. H. 1. 31. c, 9. 

As for partici^^at Word?, w/fiawtf* though generally Mafculine, 
iif fotii|d in the Feifiinines fis well as other Names of Jewels, with 

. ■ ; . '■ ''■•■■■■ • ."'r ■■ ' • ■ ' its 



^4 Second Special Rule. 

its compounds, xjindrodamM^ xAr^rodumat, A$ %Adamai ffttMArafay PL 
K. H. 1. J7. c. lo. thou^ unobferved by FoffiMt^ the %Annotators^ and 
Mtjfieurs de Tort Royal, 

jEtM is quoted by Noniw out of Plaut, Trin, Ac. 4, Sc. ^. in the 
Mafculine. 2l*orum caufMfui hoc iftaPt exercitm : And by yojfius too : 
but in my Book, 'tis hoc ^etatif^ which Farsm confirms by Guhtlmim 
and Douf<t^ and is the more likely \ or at Icaft that it ihould be 
^u\ti* for Mtata^ with an Eiifion o^'the /• 

Bifons is of this Special Rule, and Mafculine, though not except- 
ed by the Author, Bifontes vi//©/r. Sen. Hyp. Ac. i. Sc. i. 

Continms IS Ma(culine, Mart, /. 4.. and dr. oic, ^ /. 2. f • 54. but 
k is an Adjcdive, and fiims to refpe<ft iJ^n. 

Crt4M^ otherwife Feminine, is quoted by feftus from (ixuc, in the 
Mafculine, and fo En. Mulo Cruccy An. 11. 
M>eHs is Feminine, once in %Afuicius^ and that is all. 
Grex is Feminine, once in Lncr, Buceri^que Ore^es^ 1. 2. p. 50* 
Xjindes is always Mafculine, as Diomedes and Cbarifws fay. 
X»x generally Feminine, is found in the Mafculine, Tt:r,iAdeU%Ac,^. 
"S^c". 3. Cumprimo Luce. Plaut. Aul. Ac. 4. Sc. 10, Luce cUro. Cifk*. 
Ac, Sc. I. Cum primo Luce. Nonius quotes Luce cUro, Cic, Off, L, 5. and 
yojfius the fame cic, Off,L»i, but neither of them arc to be found. 

Ltx mentioned by fliny^ U'^6,c, ult, is not found with an Adje- 
if^ive. 

Ny^icorax has no place under this Special Rule, nether by the Ac- 
cent or Quantity of the Penultima ; for it encreafes fhort, and has 
an acute in the Antepenultima, and yet Mr. Leeds has pafb it with- 
out Remark, which I the rather took Notice of, becaufe ip a Let' 
ter to one (A the Gentlemen who had given a Teftimbniat to the 
Specimen, he taxes me for having placed tAedon under this Rule, 
tnouch there be more reafbn for that, becaufe the Penultima m 
Greek has an Acute Accent, which anfwers. the Title of this Rule« 
which is Mufcutina. ucutt (not brevtter) crefcentia. And yet after all, 
hehimfelf adds, yitxixy Dropax, MyllaXy which all cncreafe ihort in 
the Genitive* 

Pbomixj which the Grammar makes to be only Mafculine, is Fe- 
minine ieyeral times in MeU in the fame Sentence, /. 3. in his De« 
fcription of' Sinus tArMcusy though the oinnotators have overlooked 
it. 

frtfta is Mafculine according to Mufcu!a> in er. tAvidus Prdfler^ Luc. 
1. 9. It is ufed 4!^ by Pliny to iiginfie a violent kind of Storm, 
K. H. /. 2. c. 48. but without an Adjecf^ive, 

Fefj is not only Mafculine fpr a Foot, but alfo fpr fediculus a 

Loufe> as Daio dho turn perpur^ant caput ne t^uos babeant ptdes, Nempe 

^allinae, Var. de R. R. I. 3* c. 9. But Nonms quotes it in this Seoft 

in the Feminine out of VImjh, %AuL 

Sul is Ibmetimes found in the Neuter, as well as the Mafculine^ 

^ Deinde in feruim futfternitur ^al coff-um^ Colu. 1. 12. C. 3^. It is. 
disputed among the Qrjunmarians, whether 2^i babet Sdem ^$od 
f> te ejL Ter. £un. Ac. 3. 3c. i. jfhould not be read,i^f#t huhet Sdtm 

2w in te r/i, becaufe the Acciifative is not Sd but SaUm^ ^Tis odd iiir 
eed, and contrary to the general Analogy that Sal Neuter ihp^^cl 
make sidevfi in the Accufative, whereas Neuters have the Accufa^ivc 
the i^me wi|h the Ijlominativc, I fhall onlv fav, that cdum. in the 
pl^e before mentioned \ife8 S^Um twice in tne Accufatlve, and yet 

when 



Second SfeuAi Rule. ^^ 

trh^n he joyns an Adjedlive with cheNominative in that v-eryCboh- 
tcr, he makes it Neuter, which yet will not prove, I confefsTtiut 
Salem is Neuter, or that he thought there was no luch Word as 
S'd in the Accufative. This is certain that Serenuj in aiSxr * \r^^ 
makes nie of it . ^4^ nivcum fumes^ 

Semis is not compounded of %As^ as our Author fuppofes, hot hv 
a Metathefis lite? arum comes from i/juaye with an Omiflion of tw-# 
Letters, as Fefius fays, and is approved by Vojfiusy and £gnjiies the 
bJf of any thing, as appears by Colum, I, 5. c^ i. Farj dimidia fedts 
^uatuordecim millta & quudnngentos^ fubaudi cfHcit. Hoc eft Semid, Net* 

ther is it Mafculine, as by our Authors Rule, but Neuter, not by 
the Quotations brought by the tAwotatorsyind lA<J{ieursie Pwt Roy^d 
out lit Erafmus^ and the Latin Veriion of Exod, ao. whidi are im» 
Authority, but from Cato^ R. R. C. 5^. VMmlta cibariay ubi opus fa^ 
cient per hyemen modios IJIL per aflat em IIU, Semis viUico, Where 
St^mis is -the Accufative, and therefore Neuter. Aiid this was a 
^ood Authority for Erafmm to fay Vnum Semia^hiu his laying fo alone 
js no Authority. From hence alio it appears, that Vojfius was a^ 
itaken, who thinks it is never uied but m the Nominative, 

yibexy or rather yibix^ is Feminine, according to the Author's ge- 
neral Rule, but bccaufe V^us fays, ^ibcx inter Vinlia rcfcrunty de 
genera reS^e, I ihali give two Examples of the contrary ; one out of 
Perjiufy Sat, 4« V. 49, MultJi vibice : the Other out of Serenus^ who ui 
things not to be found elfewhere, I think may well be followed* 
irJInces atrsSf de Vulneribus ferro facflis. 



S 



-Grammar y Lot. p. ly. 
Ncutra excepta ex gravkcr trefentibus. 
Vnt Neutralta (S hxc Monyfyllaba nomwa^ mcU feU 

Animadversion XXV. 

» 

RH»x, though hot here mentioned, is Neuter, ziKhut SyriacvnL, 
Hin* N, H, /. 24, c, 14.. Others read Khu or Khun^ but he men- 
tions J^us feveral times, never Khu or Khun. It is the Name 
of aTVrr alfo defcribed by P/i«j, /. 33, c. ^ of which this R^<*/ in 
the Neuter is the Seed^ and alfo of a Hant^ or Shruh^ ?/. JNT. H. /. 24. 
r. II. but for both thefe it is Feminine; as Khus Syria MafchU fert^ 
for the Tree ; and Khuf qua Erythot v/lfpellutur for the Uerb. 

Sil is wanting here too among the Neuters of one Syllable;, 
Teritur difficiitme Sily Pi. N. H. 1. 33- ۥ 13- This fijr the Termi- 
aarionof the Nominnjivc. And for the Gender, he has in rhc 

Uasac 



5^ Second Special Rale. 

lame Chapter, SUt pit^ere inftituere frimi Poljgnotus d- Mycon. lyiium 
SUrMbus emebatur^ 

HaUc is faid in the Conftruing to fignifie a Herrit^^ and to be 
both Feminine and Neuter. There is fomc difpute about it among 
the Criticks, which I ihall ftate to the Reader, and give him 
witK^ my own Opinion. Frtfiian fays, Hulec is fometimcs Feminine, 
but l^ojfius fays, he confounds Ka/cr and HaUx, (or rather tAlec and 
nAltx) the firft of which is Neuter, and the latter Feminine, 
which is the truth of the matter. 

— — E^o fecem frimus & vAlcCy 
Primus & ifivenior fifer album cum fale nigro 
In^etum furis circum fofuijfe cutillig, Hor. I. 2, Sat. 4* 
And then, forc/tfrar, Mart.Lii, Ep,2H, has, 

0»t portut gaudtns uncilU puroffuif ruhrX 
xMicem^ fed quam protinus ilU Vorat, 

But in both thefc Places it is taken for a certain PiVfc/r for FiA- 
Sauce, and not for any kind of ^fh. And in this Senfe only Pliny 
ufes it ; as firft fpeaking, dtf Scombro fnfce^ he fays, Vitium bujus efi 
nAUxj imferfe^a. nee coUu //x. Likewife in other Places of the £une 
Chapter. And for the Gender, /. 3. c, 10, he fays, u4Ux deferve* 
faStd, Infomuch, that Voffius will not believe, that xAUx or xAlUx 
ever fignifies any Icirtd of Fi/h, notwithftanding Ch^iftus fnys^ there 
is Hoc xMeXy a Vifl), However it is very probable by the Diminu- 
tive tMhcula^ ufed twice by Colum, that there was fomc f uch Nomina^ 
tive for a F//7j : For, 'tis plain, he ufes the Diminutive of Fi/ir/ ; 
DutHY Cammarus <9 rivalit oiUtcuU, But then by the Diminutive 
tAlltcuU according to Prifciani own Rule, it ihould rather be Fe- 
minine, than Neuter. And again, fpeaking of the feveral Baits to 
feed Fifli with in Ponds, among other things, he prefcribes to give 
them Tabentes oiUecbUsy Colum. 1.8. c. 15. 1.8. c. 17. But Cato 
puts it out of Difpute ; for fpeaking of the Provifion for Country 
Servants, he fays, Vbi oled comefa erunt, %AUctm & acetum duto^ R,R, 
€. 58. Where it is not to be fuppos'd he means the Pickle, (that be- 
ing too dainty ,and coftly for Country-FeIlows,and in all likelihood 
being fliarp enough without Vinecar) but this Filh, which, what 
ever it was, could be of no ereat Worth or Efteem amongft them, 
by Columella's advifingitto begiven to feed Ducks and Fimes : Nei- 
ther is it likely it fignified a Herring^ becaufe of the Epithet Riv4/^ 
for 1 never heard of River lUTnnngs, tAiUx is alfo mentioned in Peftuf 
for the Tbumby but not to be found now in any Author. 



CrummdT^ 



Second Special Rule. ^j 



s 



Grammar J Lat. f- ^7. 
Dubia acute crefccntia. 
Vnt duhla Ltc Pythoth fcrols^ fcrpensy buhc^ rudcn'^ 

Animadversion XX VL 



AKrhaho is Doubtful : Feminine^ Vurr, de L.L. L 4. Mafculine, 
Fktft, Mil. %Ac. ^, Sc, I, 
Calx for the Heel, is Doubtful, as our Author fays. The 
Mafculine is not queftion'd, and for the Feminine there arc two 
Authorities, one of ^/Vgr/, M.n. 11. p. 348. t^erratu cjce. 'Tis in 
ibme Books Ferrato^ but in the Ancientcft Copies, 'tis ^erruta^ and 
fo Cbarifiut and Koniw read it. The other in Sil. L i^. /•. 200. not 
the 3. as Danefius quotes it, Vemiu Cuke. But then in the 7th Book, 
he has Verrato Cedce^ p. 12 1 . Thus far therefore the Rule is good ; 
but then here is no mention, nor in Mr. Leeds neither, what Gender 
it is of in the tranflated ufj of it for Fjwm, or Meu^ in which it is 

alfo DoubtjFuL Nunc vides Culcem ad quem cum decurfum fit, CiC. 
Tuf. Q. lib. I. pag. ^00. And Quonltm fumus ah ipja Cilcc reVocuti^ 
Id. Repub. 3. as Meffieurt de Fort Koyal fay, Scnecu quotes him. For 
iJme it is Feminine by the general Rule. 

Btsho is Feminine only in one place of l^iy$:lj ^-n. 4. p. 137. Sola 
Bubo. 

Fro»f the Forehead, is cited hj ^Jgellius out of C/fo in the Malcu- 
line, and alfo C^dl. but with all others it is Feminine. 
Cms is Mafculine only in one place of Hor. I. 2. Sat, 8. 
Membra Grnts fparfi fale mufto. 
For Laberius out of whom Nonius cites it in the Mafculine, is lofl. 
Lynx^ is no where Mafculine, but in one place of Hor, I, 2. Od.i-^, 

Timidos Lynces. 
'Tis Feminine in P/iVy, N. H. 1. 28. c. S. Lynces Pere^rina. And im- 
mediately, Vngues earnm. 

^uid Lynces Bacchi VurU. ^irg. Georg. 3. p. 76, 
Macula fx tegmine Lynces, Id. /En. I. p. 1 03. 
Stupefa(f^ carmine Lynces, Id. Eel. 8. 
Terdixy as Koffius thinks, is Mafculine but in one place o^ l^ar.dt 
tA Im'ir, Perdicoi Boeotiof. But Stat, has alfo, Qjnque refcvt yungens ite- 
rata vocabuU Perdix, Sylv. 2. And no wonder, fincc it retains the 
Name of a Man that was turn'd into it. Ho\yever, it is oftner 
Feminine. Danefius quotes it in both Genders out o^Pliny^ 1. 10. f.33. 
but then his Inference is naught, that 'tis common in Pliny ^ if he 
|neans for the whole Species : for whoever looks chc placCi will fee 

I ihskt 



^8 Second Special Rule. 

that Pliny fpeaks of the Sexes diftincftly, and it is only the He tJlat 
lias the Mal'culine Adjecflives. 

Python^ the Strfent^is reckoned here among the Doubtfuls, without 
any reafon : that which gave occafion for it, in likelihood, was that 
O^Tibullus^ 1. 2. El. 3. Delos ubi nunc Phabe tua efly uhi Dtlfhica. Python; 
But this is a 1^ iti iufTif in the Foet, or explaining the fame thing 
by two Names, as is affirm'd by Voffius^ and Mefficurs dc Port Royal^ 
who fay that Dehs was caird by the Latins, as well as Greeks, Pytho 
and Python^ tthich is prov'd by that of Lucan^ I, 5. v. 1 34. though 
they mention it not, 

Seu barhuricJi cum Umpadf Pytho 

tArfit. 
Speaking of the Burning of Delphi by Brennus, So that Python here 
is put for Delphi^ and Delphica abounds. But for the Serpent it is al- 
ways Mafculinc ; as Tumtdnm Pythona^ Ov. Met. 1. I. p. 17. Maxime 
Pythony Id. Ibid. Vittum Pjfhonuy Stat. Theb.4. y. 222. ExtemfoPy^ 
thone, Luc. 1. 7. V. 140. So Prop. I, 3. car, 6. 



S 



Grammar J Lat p. 18. 
Communia acute crefcentia. 
Vnt Commune parens^ autor^uc^ infans^ adolefccns^ (^c» 

Animadversion XX VIL 

WHat has been faid already o^ Commons under the firft Spe- 
cial Rule, muft be fuppofed to hold throughout all the 
three. As to particular Words in this Rule, there arc 
ihre(ideferve Remark. 

Bos is faid in the conftruing to fignifie a B«//, Heifer^ Ox^ or Cow, 
^nd fo indeed it does, being a general Word to figniifie the whole 
Species ; but then we are to under ftand it has a diftind Gender in 
each Signification. When it is put to fignifie the whole Species, or 
Kind of thefe Creatures, it is moft frequently Mafculine, unlefsin 
the Poets, and fuch as fpoke lefs carefully and diftindly, as Boves 
dnimmUum foil ^ retro ambuUntes f 'f/^ww^W', Pi. N. H. 1. 8. C. 45. 
Boves bimi mutant^ nempe dentes, Pi. N. H. 1. 11. c. 37. And it is 
Ijut rarely ufed in this Sence in the Feminine, except in the term, 
iwf 45 Sovf f, for Elephants. Secondly, 'tis applied to the Cow in dift^n^ 
£^ipn to the Bull or O*, and then it is always Feminine, as, 
' Bosqmque fortnofa e/i, Ov. Met. 1. 1 .p. 2i 

Speaking of the Co» into which lo was turn'd* 

Bos tihi Phcebm ait folis Ofcurret in aryij( 
NuUum pajja jugum^i 
And inimediately after, 

Incufioditam Unte vUet ire juVencam, Ov. Met. |. 3, p..5t. 

vhcnce 'tis plain the forincr wa^ ^ Cw. Jhjrdly, ^r a Bull^ by 



Second Special Rule. 59 

Pirity of Re^tfbrijbecaufe ConUdrtoium contrurU eft rutidy it lliould b^ 
Mafculine, though I cannot think of an Example. Fourthly^ It 
iignifies an Ox, and then it is always Mafculine : And here I ihall 
be obliged to be the longer, becaufe that l^offius fays 'tis common 
with the Ruftic\yiJ ritcxs m the Feminine : And he muft mean in 
this Sence j for they hardly ever ufe it in any other without the 
Adjecflion of the word ¥emin^^ as, T-turi4 dutur fins cih'i^ fcminki Bubu* 
dtmitur^ Van R R. 1. 2. c. i. But before I give my Examples, 
becaufe it may be of ufe to Children, I fhall give an Account of 
tlie Diftin<f^ion the Romans ufed in their Names of this fort of 
Cattle. The firft year they were called Vltulus^ the Bull-Calf^ and 
yituU the Coiv^Calf, In the fccond they were called Juvtmus and Ju- 
yencuy the Steer and Heifer. In the third year, the Mules^ if Gelt, 
were called Bo^es hovell't^ and in the fourth VituU : And the Coiv-Calf in 
the third and fourth was called Fucca ; and if flic were Barren, 
Tuura^ if with Calf, HorsUy or Fordu, 7\nd from hence came the 
term KordL^aiuy be^a^lc upon thofe days, HctdK Bovcs irr.fnolabamur^ 
Var. R. R. 1. 2. c. 5. With others, the Mules after they were Gelt, 
^erc called Juvenci till they were broke, and then Boves. This 
appears from what Varro fays in the place laft quoted, concerning 
the form of contracting in Buying them. Eos cum emimus domltot 
ftipulamur fie. lllofce Boves fuuos tjfe noxijtjue frrafluYt ? Cum tmimus in- 
domitosfic. lllofce Juvencos fanos rcBcy de pecore fano »•//>, noxifcjutf pr^:" 
fUri ? Sfondefne ? Now in this Sence, which is the only one, or slU 
mofl the only one the Rw/iirJ!^ Writers ever ufe the word Bor in, it is 
alwaysMafculine: fo that I camiot but admire this greatMan iliould 
(ay. Bos in feminino crebrum efl ufud rei ruftica^fcripiorff^ Anal. 1. i. c.i 5, 
wherefore I beg the Reader's Patience, if I am the longer in my 
Examples to difprove it, to prevent miftakes that might pofTibly 
arife from fo great an Authority. 

Oftimi cum domito^ fubaud. Bove, Juvencus imbuitur^ Pi. N. H. I. 

8. C. 45. Bcves maxima diligentia curatos babeto^ Cato, R R. c. 5. 

Efi frequens in frodigiif frifcorum Boi^em locutum^ PI. N. H. I. 8. 

C. 4.5. x^aturos Boves quam arltiffime jungi oportety Id. 1. 18. C. 19. 

Boves DueSp Cat, RR. c. ii^ Bos iff us, Jejuno Bovi, Id. c* 70, 71, 

Boves curatt y Id i Ci I o'^, Boves per feri^ Var. RR. 1. i. c. i. Bovesfa* 

^i^uiti^ ofimiy Id. 1. 2. C. i. Bores arSfe juncfos habere convenit^ Colum. 

1.2. C.2. Boves fuhftrilfos confricet^ Id. 1. 2. C. 3. And again, Cam^ 

pania fierumque Boves pro^eneruf albos^ Id. 1. 6, C. i. S^ieti Boi^eSy Jd^ 

I. 6. c. 2. and {ix times^aftcr in the fame Chapter. SubuUtioni t-o- 

rum^ i. e. Boum^ and Boves alendiy Id. 1. 6. c. 3. with many others. 

Nor do I know of one fingle Example to the contrary, cither 

in thefc Writers, or elfewherc, where the Ox is fpoken of di- 

ftindly. This therefore is another inflancc of what I hayc ob^' 

fervcd befo'te, namely*, that Vofftus^ tired with the labour o£ 

Searchhig t\te Author^, took up fometimes with the Accounts 

of others, \9hich has been the reafon of his falling into fo many 

miftakes. 

Cufiosy when it is taken for a fhoot left in Pruning, is only 
Mafculine, of ivhkh there fliould have been fome notice taken for 
fear of miftake ? yw not only our Author, but Fof/ius alfb, and all 
the Grammarians have overlooked it, among feveral Obfervations 
of no greater moment. Vnus Cuftos erit fubmittendus, Cujhdem va*^' 
iidum relinqutmutt tn fuhmittendo Cuf^ode, Colum. 1. 3, c. 24., 

1 2 illex 



6o Third Special Rule. 

Illex is ufcd by VUutus only, and without an Adjedlivc ', 'tis tano 
purpofc therefore to emiuirc of its Gender. 



F 



Of the Third Special Rule. 

Grammar^ Lat. p, 19. 
Ocmlnci gcnois fit l)yfcrdijf)llabon in do, (3c. 



Animadversion XXVIII. 

A}J[a\on^ Gorgon^ PiUex^ Virgo^ are peculiar to Females, and fb 
needed no particular Rule. Nouns in do encreaiing in Jim 
are not ail of them always Feminine, as, 
Nee I eves fomnos timor €ut Cu^ido 
Sordidus auftrt, Hon !• 2. Od. x 5. 
NuUus hU aurifuit, 

Cacus cufida. Sen. Hyp. Ac. 2. Sc. 3. 
And xAnthohtts velox virtus^ geminufquc Cupido 

Laudi^, Sil. 1. 4.. p. 59* 
Sedatt*m Cufidnem Plaut. Amph. Ac. 2. Sc. 2. Contralto Cupidinty 
L. 3. ad k:;. Cufid'mis fravl. Id. L. 3. Od 24. Cufidine falfo^ Id. L. !• 
Sat. 1. 

NoH aJ^4S fxllaXy nOHpr^da^ aliufve cupido, Sil. L« 6. P. 104*' 
Grando^ is quoted by Non. out of l^ar, in the Mafculine, %Albo Gr«i- 
dine. But this is looked upon as obiolete. 

BacchuTy put down by our Author as a Feminine, is no otherwife 
fo, than with refped to the general word Herba^ and fo are many 
others, that are at other times ufed in the Gender of theTermination, 
of which he has taken no notice. Neither is there any certain proof 
of its being ufed fo with refpe<ft to Htrba, There is but oneun^ 
place in Pliny that sivcs countenance to it, and there the Feminine 
Ad'jedives may reK>e<^ Kadix^ and not Bucchary for ought appears by 
chat Paflage, which is this, Bacchar quoque radicis tantum odoratm W2:, k 
quibufdttm nardum rufticum upfelUtum : unguent a ca. ex raJicefiifri foUiii 
4tpud untiquos tA>iftopbanes prifcd comadid poeta tefiiy eft, Vnde quidem 
trtorefaljo burbaricam earn appcllubunt, N« H. 1. 21. C. 6. where by tfm 
may be meant Rddicemy not Baccbar the Root being called Rsdix 
Sarb^/ica in the Shops. But of B^char in the Neuter there are two 
plain Proofs both in Pliny ^ one of which follows immediately after. 
Borum quoque error corrigendus qui Bacchar nardum rufticum apftlUtl^ert^ 
The other r. 19. of the fame Book. Bacchar in medicina ufu qmiJam 
fjT noflris perpenfam vacant, Baccharis indeed iignifying the fame thing, 
is Feminine in Diofcorides^ and fo I fuppole it is in Latin, thoii{p& 
I cannoc tell an Example, 

In 



Third Special Rule, 6i 



In the fame Rule. 



Grammar J Lat. Pag. 19. 
Gracuia in as, vel in is finita, ut lampas, j^fp'h 5tC. 

Animadversion XXIX. 

THis is 9. fenfelefs way of Teaching Children, who know no- 
thing of the Greek Tongue, the Gender of fuch Nouns, 
as they meet with in Latin, by their Defcent from the 
Greek % and 'tis as necdlefs too, as fenfelefs. For all Nopns in Latin 
ending in </, or i/, of this Special Rule, making adit^ or idis^ in 
the obliques, are Feminines, except Lnfis Mafculine, whence foevet' 
they come. I /hall put down the Exceptions to this Rule of my 
own, as well as to the Authors, together with his Omifiions, Alpha- 
betically. 

oieiom^ if the quantity of the fenultima be regarded,and not the Ac- 
cent in Greek, is of this Special Rule, and Feminine, as well as thofe 
in asy andi/, as, 

S^M Ucrymis noftris queftus 
Rtddit %Aedony Sen. Od. Chor. 4. 
JE^ocrraty is Neuter, Plin» I, 24* ^« <^/^ 

%Artocreafy is a Greek Word made Latin, and yet is not Feiiiinine 
but Neuter, 

Oleum %Artocreafquf fopelto 

torpor, Perf, Sat. 6. 
where tArtoereas is the Accuiative Singular, and not Plural, as hal 
been falfly thought by fome, contrary to the form of its Declenfion 
in Greek, without Authority. 

RmcrtASy is likewiie Greek, and of the Neuter Gender, as, Nee 
faeno Gr^co minor oMtmritASy quod Telin vocanty aliqui BuceruSy alii MgoceruSy 

Pi. N. H. 1, 24* C^I9. 

Cbaaiuarefs is of this Special Rule and Feminine, as, Ch4m£rops tx 
yinofotoy Pi. N^ H. 1. 26. c. 7. 

(enchrisy the Serpenty fo called, is Mafculine, though coming from 
Greek, and ending in t/, as, 

Etjtmfer rt&o laffurus limite Cenchrisy Luc. 1. 9. V. 712. 
but n>r xhtBJrd £0 called, it is Feminine, as, CencbrisfoU ex its f^per 
quaterrui edit ovay Pi. N. H. 1. 10. c, 52. 

Ecbentisy the ft/^, fo call'd is a Greek Noun, and yet Mafculine. 
FlJny, ipeaking of it, fays, Pr/tterea banc ejfe vim ejus ajftrvati infaUy ut 
4turumy quod deciderit in altijjimos futeosy admotus extrahaty N. H* 
1. 9* c. 25. 

EryfifeUs is of Greek Original, and yet Neuter, as, Id 4utem quod 
E'j!fifil4fyoc4ridixij CelC 1. 5. C 25. 

jfcbdmony 



6t Third Special Rule. 

Ifchdmohj is of this Special Rule, and Feminine, as, Ifch^monem 
ThracU invcnity qua ftrunt fangulntm fifti^ Pi. N. H, 1. 25, C, 8. 

Lagopusy of this Special Rule is Feminine, though not excepted, 
as lagopus fifth ulvum e vit90 fota. Pi, N. H. 1, 26* C. 8. This 
for the Herb ; And for the Bitdy Et fr^cipuo faporc Lagopus. Pedes 
ieporino villo ei nomen hoc dcdcrc» Catero cundidx^columbarum maPnitu- 
dme^ Id. 1. 10. c. 48. 

Merges is Feminine alfo, as, tAteiue inter duas Mergites fpica diftringi- 
iur^ PI. N. H. 1. 18. c. 30. though there is a Sufpicion that this paf- 
fage is corrupted, and that it fliould be, tterum e diffeita mvigitf, 
'Tis Feminine either way as to the Gender, but if the firft reading 
be not good, (which yet is in Dulechamp\ and the old Farmenfian E- 
dition, as Vojfius fays) it does not iigniiie Inftrumints to tal[e off the 
£iirs of Corn after thty tvere Reup^d^ but only a handful of Corn in the 
Stravp, , / . 

Tecus, 'Tis a great queftion whether there be any fuch Word al- 
lowable now, as, tiAc Vecus Vtcudis : There is no Authority for if, 
but a Quotation of Prifciun^ out of Cdfar^ in ^Auguralibusy fi finccra, pe- 
cus erut j and it may be that was taken from the Language of the 
old uiugu.s. However it has the Obliques, and in them is Femi- 
nine. And ri5>un/»«/ reckons, it ^mon^ thofe Nouns, (hat the' they 
be entire in the Plural Number, yet want tiie Nominative, jind 
Vocative m the Singular. 

Fotamogiton^ the Hfrb, is Feminine in Pliny^ Poiamogiton adverfatur & 
crocodihs^ itaquefecum habent eam^ qui venantur illosy N. H. 1. 26. C. 8. 
Sundyx is Mafculine, according to Defpauterius \ if he had any Au- 
thority for it, I fuppofe it muft be that of Gratius^ 

Inter dum Ljfbico fucantur Sandjce pinndy 
Which Mr. Walter by miftake quotes out of Horace^ who has 
no fuch thing. This is the only place that is produced foi' 
the Mafculine *, Pliny ufes it in the Feminine : Pingentes Sdn-' 
dyce fublitj, (according to fome fuhrutiU) mox ov6 inducentes furpu- 
iijfum fuigortm minii faciunt^ N. H. 1. 35. C. 6. And £6 Others, ac- 
cording to the Greek Gender. According to Propertius it encrcafes 
long in the Penultinuty and fo is of the Second Special Rule, contra- 
ry to that before of Oratim^ as, lllaque pUbeio^ vel fit Sandycis ami&u^ 
1. 2. c. 25. adCynth. 

Scandix is alfo Feminine, Scandyx decoCfa^ Pi. N. H. 1. 22. c. 10. 
Smilax is of this Special Rule, and yet not excepted, though if be 
always Feminine. This is forgot by Foffiut^ unlefs he took it otdf 
for the Terp-Tree. But befide that, it figniiies a Shrub i»J^ to Ivy^ as 
appears by Diofcorides^ and Theophruftuf, Of this, Pliny Uys, Shmlis 
tft edera e cilicia quidem frimum profeUta^ fed in Grdcia, firequentior ^u^im 
Smilucemvocanty denfis gtnicuUta cdulihw, N. H, 1. 17. c. 35. And no 
wonder it fliou'd be Feniinine, fince it retains the Name of a Vir* 
gin that was turned into it. And for the Plant, Diofcorides makes it 
Feminine, c/uiXA^ xji^fle, /. 2. c. 176, But I know no Latin Author 
that has ufed it with an Adjedive. 

yitex will not properly come under the Names ofTrees^ as will ap- 
pear by Pliny, 1. 24.. c. 9. Vitex major in arborem falicis modo affur^ y 
minor ramofa : where 'tis plain 'tis not uTree, neither is it ever uSkmi 
for one, but the PUnt^ call'd *Jgrtum caflum. Now in all thefe Word% 
they that follow this Rule mull; needs be miftaken. 

Grdnmarf 



Third Sfecial Rule. 6j 



Gr/!nimar^ Lat. f. lO. 

Neutra excepta ex graviter crcfcentlbus. 

ESTneutrnle gc72m figyinns rc?n ncn /immat/tw, (ur cl/t7?s ; 
Ncmen in a ^ ut froblcmn : en, ut cmcn : ar ; «^ /wt/ir : 
Ut jecur : us ; «^ (7ww/: put j w^ occiput, ^c. 

Animadversion XXX. 

E^ here fliotild have been men^ for all that end (b arc Neuters 
without Exception, only F/amcn, a certain kind of Frirt'l a- 
mong the Komant^ and Hymetiy in all Scnfcs arc Mafculine. 
And thcfc following, though ending in en only, not in wiew, ai^ 
Neuters, CluUn^ Inguen^ follrn^Vn^uitf^ with the old S^n^uen Kir 
Sanguiu Vifceribus vifcus ^igtii^fungutnqu,^ creari^ Lucr. 1. i. p. 24. So 
«>^f/. /, 3.f. 7. Cic, Ae tin, I, 5. p, 262, Hence it is, jhat Sanguis en- 
creaies in tm/ different from all Nouns in i/, except PolUs^ as is now 
generally faid, which alfo comes from Folhn, 
%Ar, Jubar ij cited in the Mafculine, but 'tis in £«». only : 
Z/y. Guttur^ ' is a'MafcuHnc, or at leaft not Neuter, in P/u«f. tAuluI, 
*Ac» 2. Sc, 4« QbturaTi>'tt inferiorem Gutturem. 

Turtur is Mafculine, according to the Third Special Rule, and I 
fhould have taken no notice of it, but for a miftakc of Scrvius, 
who thinks it to be Feminine in that of Fir^il^ 

' * Nee ^emere aeria ceffabit Turtur ah ultno • 
Which, in fo confiderable a Critick is a ftrangc miftake •, 
for rffTM plainly refers to Wmo, not Turtur^ and 'is a common 
Epithet for high things, as tAetU xAlpcs^ lAexUm 'cdfen. And 
Turtmr is Mafculine by .that of PUut, MofK Jlc i.Sc, i. Tu tlbi ijlos 
h^M Turtures, Thus miich of the Tcrroinatiops pijt down by our 
Author J of the reft Alphabetically. 

tAtripUx is omitted, yet Neuter, as xAtri.icx Sylveflre\ Pi. N. H. 
I. 20. c. 20. but not only fo, as Voffius fays, and I once thought. For 
PalUMuj has tAtripUcem in the Accufative twice, t^pr. Tit. 3. JuL 
Tit. 2. 

JS^ocerm^ %ArtocreaSj Bucerat^ ErjJipelaSy are all Neuters of this Spe- 
cial Rule^ and ihould have been in this Exception, unlcfs they 
had beat excepted from Gr4u:uU in asy where I have coniider^d 
them. 

LAVer is Neuter, and omitted. Scioptmt and xAlvare\ make no 
mention of it, but that muft be forgctfulnefs. L^tver cmlum^ Plin. 
N. H, K 7.6. c. 8. 'Tis true, he ufes it in the Feminine in the fame 
Chapter, p. 54.1. l.*c^er condita & coffa ; hut that is with refpecft to 
Htrrbu^ which IS a cpmmon thing with lum in the Names o£ Herbs m 
general. 



64 Third Special Rule. 

Papaver is us'd by Tlaut, out of the Neuter, ^*dfi ft tu ohjicUs for^ 
vnicis Papaverem^ Trin, Ac. 2. Sc. 4. 

Sifer is Neuter, yet there is found in P/ti»jf, N. H. lib. lo, cap. 5. 
Trcf S'tferet, 

Spinther is omitted, and yet only Neuter, Jubeafque novum Spinthcr 
reconcinnarier^ Plaut. Men«ch. Ac. 3. Sc. 3, 

Tuher, Our Author is ihort in this word, Htying, as he does, P/o 
fungo Tuher ^ as if it were not Neuter, but in that Signification. And 
in this xAlvArc\^ Sctopp'ws^ and Ftrrep^us are as much to blame, and 
are correded for it by ^offius. He reckons up four Significations of 
this Word. Tuber, ui Tree ; Tuber, the Bruit of that Tree ; Tuber, 
%A Svoelling or Wen ; And Tuber, kA JAujhroom, For a Tree it is Femir 
nine, according to the Rule for the Names of Trrfj. tAh xAmygdJX 
fiorent lArmeniac^y deinde Tuber es 6* Prscoces^ ilU peregrin x^ ha coa£tdiy Pi. 
N. H. 1. 1^. c. 25. That it is Mafculine for the fruit he proves by 
thsLto£ Suetonius^ in the Life of Domitian, Cum obUtos Tuberes fervari 
juffjfet, 'Tis true, this Quotation of his alone will not prove that 
Tuberes figni6cs here the fruit of the Tree Tuber *, but if we consider 
f hat of P/i»»>, 1.X5.C. 14. Malorum plura. funt genera, De Citreis cum 
fuk arbor e diximus. Medic a autem Graci vocant patno nomine, JEque pe^ 
regrina funt Zi\ipha. 6r Tuberes^ qua 6* ipfa non pridem venere in Italiam ; 
hdc ex %Africa^ ilU ex Sj/riJij i. e, qua^ ipfa Mala, and hac^ ilia, mala, or^ 
qua^ ipfuy Genera, bsc, ilia Uenera, referring to the antecedent 
malorum2 OF genera aforegoing : I fay, if we confider this, 'tis plain 
T«*t^f/fignifies the Fri*!/, and then that of Suetonius^ OhUtot Tuberes^ 
proves it to be Mafculine. 

' Tuber y a Wen^ Bunchy or Excrefcenccy is ^Ifo Neuter ', 
£ui ne Tubrrihuspropriis offendatamicum 
Poflulaty ignofcat verrucis ilUus aquum eft, Hor. 1. i. Sat. 3. 

This for the Signification *, and for the Gender, Propolis alveorum 
Tuber a difcutity PI. N. H. 1. 22* C. 24. Tuber a^ ir quacunque molliri opus 
fty ejjicaciffime curantur anfenno a^Lpe^ Id. 1. 30. c. 1 3. For the Hufh^ 
room there needs no ProoE He that will may fee, P/. Nat, Hifl, 1. 1 9. 
r. II. yi*v. Sat. 5. V. 116, ii9« and ^af. 14. v. 7. But beiides thcfe, 
there is another Signification forgot by Voffiusy and that is, when it 
is put for great J{nots in Trees, or the Roots of them, which for 
the Finenefs of the Grain, were of mighty value among the Romans 
for Tables, as the ^ench Walnut, and Olive among us, and (li^ 
thin like them too, for facing, as appears by Pliny's calling of it, 
Senile Tubery whi«hfhcw$ ittO bcNeutCt. SeePL N.H.l. I3,C.I5. 

I. ;^. c. 1^.43, t 



Ontmm4r^ 



Third special Rule. 6^ 

— ■ •f-'^^^ — -^ - ' ' f .-■■■. ^ 

Grammar^ Lat, f<> 10. 
Dubia ex acute crefccntibiis* 
Vnt iuhii generis cardo^ mar go j chiisj oucx^ tfc. 



S 



sAnimadversion XX aI. 

• t • 

; • . ' . . . . 

HEre arc (evcral Errors in this Rule too, namely fomeWords 
putdo\viif6r'l>out>tfuls that are not fo •, fome omitted that 
arefbj fome made Doubtful upon one Authority, uhilft 
others that have the fame. Or grciter rcafon, are left out. I iliali 
take them in Alphabetical Order. 

■ 

. i4ii4f is only Feminine, unlcfs poffibly where the Kfale is fpoken of 
fot diftin<^ioh, and upon that account the Gender is fbmctimes va- 
ried iiit)ther Words, as in Elephuntw ^ravidu. But I do notremem- 
bct any fuch place of this Word in particular : This is certain^ 
that when it is put for the whole kind it is Feminine con-^ 
ftantly, as, Nun/i clauft fjfcuntur vAnates^ Colum. 1. 8. c. 14, «><- 
nates JoU^ quM^ue funt ejufdim ^emm in Jublime fe t'ollunt^ Pi. N» 
H. 1. 10. C. 38. 

Totat'ihi ponatur tAnOii^VizrtloX' 1. 13. Ep. 251 
tAnatif habeas uroj'y^ium mu^ra^ Id. 1. 3. Ep. 92. 
Pi^ii t^na* itiovatu fennps^ Petron, 

tJJeps is rightly plac'd among the Doubtfuls, though it be ofteneir 
MaicuLine. The reafbn why I put it down here, is, becaufe one 
-Would think by Vojfm^ that it is only Feminine in one place o£ Colum, 
ivhich he Quotes,/. %, c, 14. For it is Feminine alfo, /. i. c, 13. of the 
fkme Autnor, SuilU %Adif'u And fb Tl'iny ufes it once, if I am not 
miftaken ; Cum quo recens Mefs decora, jit. But the Column of my 

Suotations is blotted in this place, fo that I am not fure it is PUnfs, 
bwcver, rfZ/w ufes it in the Feminine feveral times, xAdipii SutlUy 
1. 5. c. 19. l.j. c. 21. 1. 4. c. 24. 

Cardo, Vojfm rebukes the Grammarians for placing this W^ord a- 
mong the Ddubtfuls, upon the Authority of one finglc Quotation 
out of Gr4f. %At. by Prijciany Grata. Car do; But it may be they had 
more of like nature out of fuch antiquated j and loft Authors ; fot 
Nonim quotes, Sonat imfulfa regin Cardo^ out of Gratus^ or Granius in 
Peliad : as Well as Grata Cardo out of Grac, But then this Author is 
loft too, and it is againft all reaibn to teaCh Children fuch a ufe of 
Words, as they are never like to aaeet with, there beitig none of 
the later Writers that have vScd^Cardo in the FeQ^nine, only Boeth: de 
fQnfoh /• 3« Sumim Cardot 

X fimox, 



k 



66 Third SfetUl Rmk. 

c£«iex. I 'do not pnt this Word down becaufe it does not ^tt 
with the Aatlx>r's third Special Rule, but becauic K<)^fai# (eems to 
doubt the Gender of it, faying, Cimex cenfeo ejt^dtm ejft generk 4e 
cmlex ^fatlex^ autwitas tamen vtterum non occatrrit, I cannot but ad- 
mire at this, there beir^ fo many places where it is found in the 
Masculine, ScrAit Chmctt qttemadmodum imerfici oporteat bis verbis, 
Cttcttmartm ^rn^nhmm C9udit9 im aquam^ tAmcj^ue ii^ndito ^luc voUsy mdli 
AcceSeuty Var. R. R« 1. 1. c 2. dmict trit% , PL N, H. I. 29. C 4, 
L ^ou c [4. And in the firft of thefe Places, in P/c'njr, it has eleven 
Mafcnline Adjedtiyes. There is indeed in the fame dilcomrfe of 
them, Csrnes e^rmm^ but that muft needs be a fault of the Prefs, 
by its being ib over numbred with Mafculines, And in the Maf-* 
culiae, Serettus Often ufes it, never otherwife. If fog cimices^ Vttrmt. 
p. 207. 

Cimis, Komius fays of this, Vemimnum 4tti$i Cdftrtm^ C^ttBUum^ tr CJi^ 
ifum Uda ifiy qnarum yAciiUt atttwiiM ; and then quOtes OUt ofCtlPus, 

Cum jam frnlv^^ cims f»tns. 
But Ijura. alio ufes it in the Feminine, 1. 4. j^ 120. 

€ii§efe iH multA Utet cbrntus igms* 
which with the Emendation of ScJigerin Cutis, 

%Ax ei Cinis efi faSris juamla. pfidt^m 
and of CatuUits^ 

Trtja vvrum ^ viriutnm ommum acah* Cimis, ditcu 6^m 
is eooagh to make it pa6 for a Doubtful, notwithftanding Homm^ 
i^Mcmm VMcitUi auiorisM, which efpecially after owning it in C^ 
too, was a little too m^ifterial. And thus in after times Stretm 
uicd it, i.tarfM Cutt/, f . 178* And again, p, 4^2* 

£t Cimis ez aiUJo prodtfll epotx ZjMOm 
And x/Lufomnsy 

Cinii ttn fiaridtda J»perA vi^eat. Parent, Carm. 26* 

Carsfx u moil ufuaUy Mafculine; however, Virgil has, 
lAufco chrcufndai anuor^t 
Cortids, Eel. 6m 
And Luaret^ 1. 4. p. 9^ 

j^M« quafi mendnrAna. vel cortex Homimtanda, tft, ^ 

which Voff^us brings to prove his uiing it. in the Feminine \ but this 
i& not clear, becau& of the other Feminine Subfbantive M«m&r«M, 
which the Fem inine Adjodives may refer to. But Serenas uies it » 
without difpute. 

Se^ Hon if rApha.ni Cortex decoSFa meietw,^ p. 178. 
^ff\jdifif-g, im Ct4ic<y fponte fi*a cautus rapiebaut Cartice amaroy and tt 
Au<f^. Morec. Sin^fdu turn capitum uumerofa Cortice nudat, 

Culac. 'Tis much to be doubted whether this be Feminine at afi; 
there is bat oat place produced for the Proof of it, VUu^Caf, jU, 2. 
Sc, 3. Cana. Culex^ which Gruterus has corre<fted into CanalicoU vix te» 
Mfor ijuiu^ &c, and ITojJit^s ^proves of it. This Mr. Xrr^i/ has omitted. 

Cupid9 might have had a place among the Doubtfuls, better than 
feveral our Author has put in. See Animadverfion upon tmmmd 
£f lie/is fit^ <*rr. 

Vairctfs^ or Forfex^ is never found but in the Feminine. Prifdm 
places It among the Doubtfuls ; if he were not mii):aken> af hei^ 
ibmetimes, that Book is loft. 

QrandQ. See Aninudverfion upon V^menel genms^ fit^ ira 



Third SficUl Rale. 6y 

imbrm h a word that HM^m occoni : it hMitSaxlinty I'f. A\ h. 
L 17. r. 14* imftr MfO0 Jmk^iees, FeiiUfiBie» flmt^ JtfcT. «^. 2. >S^^^ 
JiMf cmifripfii imknctt. Alio iW. R. X. r. 26.. ijJbtius wttAu d^nhg 
fpto. Sernur fzy^stis better MalcuUae. 

Mti;$o is always Ma&iiline^ but in cnr place of jf««wl S«t> t* 

Jiiffr«r,ifaoiigh Feminifie in ?£a[)f^ M H. /. 8. r. )y F^(&i(Y5XM(V)tf 
liwiM ^ t4fyir« ^« cmatSm^ is yet MafciiIiDC in Cioai. ^^ 5. 

Nlttmc^ Here ihould ixaye been a diftiiuRion betwcsen Aia^ijr tlie 
Serptnty and JVafrtx the Krr^. For the firft, tbongb it be not 6hum1 
with «i Adje&iTe, yet there is Fhocm'% Autkoiity for ics feeing 
Maicnline^ from that of XfWM, £t Natrix yioiafy mifts. For otber- 
wiie he fi^pofes he would hatyc faid ykiatrixt, This is no certain 
Rttley but in an uncertain Cafe, for want of a better, there mty be 
mfin to aUow it. But then ibr the HerhK^tnxy t^re is no Audio- 
sit^ at alL THnjf makes mention of it, N. H, L ^7. c» 22. but tkat 
lie joyns Herha with it, fo that die Feminine Adiedires may refpc^ 
tha^ and Hacy that begins the next Sentence;^ may reler to H^v&t, 
Ct Ktdix prtcedtng. 

CbcBrit mdeod of bodi Genders, but belt Malcnlinci as rojMs 

Omjfi^ AouU have been diftiagvilh'd upon too ; Ibr it has diftimft 
Sigmfiirtfioits, and diftincft Genders in lAoie Stgnificatioos. For the 
}ewd fb callod, it is Feminine eight times, fL N, B^ L ^7. c. 6. 
»or u€ <fc #ir, or A¥tgtl mMAt oTit, it is Mdhtlhw^ whidb ViS^s 
Proutbtfond £xoepiion,aiid it is yet plainer^ if need be^ by Utcam^ 

l.IO»T.II^. 

' 1 TotSiq^ tff»p'S in tmfa 

y«t Urn* U ?• Mf. ^^ has, 

Vi^«entum fuerat tfuod Onyx mo<fo f<erVit gtfAti, 
whidi Reading fome Difpute, becaoie oi the cenftant ule of it in 
At Maiculme m other Authors ; but 'tis fo in aH the Sooks, and 
they ant nibt to be alttr'd upon mch Conje^urts. For the compound 
MnrmffKy fm the Letter 6 hereafter. 

9wMii is moftly Maikuiine. Vo^m quotes it in the Feminitie in 
So»M placts, two out of £ii«iw, TmIpu Vaftiiy and FwArtf, and as many 

out of Fropertiuei • 

$if mbi frsdpue Tttlvis Etrufcu JoloTy h I. Carm^ult. 
Qtk nM pu(f$ drid^t fiihnty 1.2. Carm. ig. 
^efide which, ne has it fo once more, 

jgfMsii vercor ne te contemfto Cynthia hufio, 
%Abpraktt e noftra Pulvcre itfiquus amor, L. I. El. I. 
futMx is but once Feminine,' Caiul, Carm, i. 

%Arida^modo Tumice expolitttm, 
v^ldch in other Books is lArido : AndTo it is likely ic was in ^omVs 
his time, who among his feveral F eferences to this Author, would 
hardly have omitted it, if it had been tArida. 

JLtmnc, Where this was found in the Feminine by our Authov, I 
cannot tell. fUutm ules it in the M'krculine, Tuk cuufa nemo nofimm 
0fi fuos rufturus Ramices^ Poen. Ac. 3. Sc. l. And fo Colum, I. 9. r. i. 
Demde per Tfaujverfa laterum tranfmitturttur Ramtcesy qt/t ex'xtum /Jr- 
wpm ibfercm^ Here it figniiies Crofs B(vrs^ from the refemblance of 

K 2 which 



68 Third Special kuh. 

which, it may be, the Difiafi Ramex took its name. For this Difiafe 
fignifled another thing than a RUpture, or at leaft another befide 
a Rupture, as appears by C^fm, Rumex etiamfi fufer ipfum.Scrotum 
ejiy adurendut eft tenuibu6^ & acutis ferrdmentis^ /. 7, c« 22. which 
could not be proper in a meer Ruoture. Hence it further appears 
to be Mafculine, as well as by another PalTage of the fame Chapter; 
but where it is teminine I know not : nor does any Grammarian 
place it among the DoubtBils, befide Defpauterius^ who, when he 
comes in his Nptes to prove it;> ^ives no Example^ but of the Ma^ 
culine, faying at laik^ De Fcmimuo nonfuccurrit exemplum^ credo mclim 
ejfe MafcuUnum, 

Rumex is Mafculine only, as Hoffiin thinks ; he quotes f<tcundufi}ue 
iRumex, Axil. Moret. He forgot, it feems, it was Feminine in fltfiyy 
L 24. c. 9. Ce/as ex omnium ufborum fatorumque floribm confingtmt^ ex* 
cepta Rumice^ & Chenopode, 

Sardonyx^ the compound o^Onyx^ is of both Genders, as our. Au« 
thor fays, SdrAonychds veros^ Mart, L 9».£p, 60, And for the Femi- 
nine, Pliny has, Sardonicht Indie Si^ I, 37^ c, 6» bcfide other ini^ances 
jhat might be given of each. 

Silex is Feminine in the Poets Virgil and CUudian^ Silice tn^ Nudd^ 
JEd, I. Dura Sitex^ ^ffin. 8. %Acuta Silex'^ EjCii ^* ReUgiofa, Silexj X)e 
Rap. Prof. olnheU Silex, De ><lagnet. With others it is Mafculin^ 
as, Silicem TufculaHUm, Pi, N. H. 1. 5^. c. 1 8, Kigri SUices^ C 12. Su 
iices attritosy 1. 1 1. c 2^. Though Noniiu^ and after him Vojfim^ think 
«o body has ever ns'd it in the Mafculine, but JLucretiUt.- 

Traduxy when it is taken for the Off-fetofa Fine, is geaeratty Mal^ 
culine ; Traduces him, Sci^terni, Obvij, Rigorati, Brevitas ifforum^ i.e^ 
Traducum. Traducem binum^ Pl.N. H. 1. i6* c. 24. However, 'ti» 
feminine in one place in Colurnella^ L 5. c. 6» Trtiduces mittenda^ eas 
dtnputare, alias teneriores tranfmittcre conventK But then, 7.4. c, 5. he 
tiimfelf ufes it in the Malculine, S^od quidetn nonfit iuTt^ucej qmt 
tnaterno f.fliHeiur ubere, ' 

Karix is always Mafculine, but in one place of Seneca, whkh the 
tAnnotators quote out ofVoffiuf^ Dutft Varices exfecandas praberety. £p.79. 
'^nd in one of Cielft*Sj which is fomething difputed by VoJj/%Hf, be- 
caufe in fome Books, inftead of Varices^ quorum nulla aUd c^dtio efty 
it is, Varices, quorum. nulla alii curatio eft. However this be, 'tis cer- 
tain this Author ufes it twice in the Mafculine, Varix wrtus^ 1. 2.c. 8. 

find Orti Varices. 1. 7. C. 30. ■ . .. > 

And after all) the c'onclulion of this Rule, is, S,ua»K»U bsc me- 
livi vult Uafcul4 dicier ufw^ though *An*s and Forceps bc fievcr Mai^ 



Orajpmai^i 



Third SpecUl Rah. 69 



Grammary Lat. f. io. 
Communia ex graviter crefccntibus. ; 

P 

- T^jOmmums genera funt jjla vtgll^ fugil'^ (Xilj ^<^* 

'■'■.■ • * . 

Animadversion XXXIL 

• • * r • 

I Have little to fay to^ this Rule, being :j>f . Commons, ^liick^ 
I have fpoken to in general under Commons of the firfl: 
Special Rule, only there are three Words that require a 
Remark. 

nJleti% iajd to be common by our Author, and fb it is : Of the 
Feminine there is no difpute, and for the Mafculine we have the 
Authority of KxV^i/, Esi» 12. Vulvns tALcs, And if that lliould be 
iaid, as Iktuatus will have it, becaufe it was to rcprefent Aueas^ who 
was to drive the Enemy, as that did the other Birds, yet there are 
Otner Authorities for the Mafculine, where no fuch realbn can be 
iniagin'4 ; as, Bonn cum bono nuhitxAliterir^o^ Catull. ad Mall. Cay^ 
ftrim otles^ Ov. Trif. I. I. El. 5. Titanius lAles, Claud. Ep. Pharnix. 
tAureuf xMesy Stat. Theb. i. v. 545. Ganget'icw tUles^ Auf. Epif. 20. be- 
iid^ ieveral others, as Phcebeius %Ales^ Valfus oiies. This I have been 
the lainger upon, becaufe Vofftuf fays, PocU fie rarifftme loquuntur^ 
which weigh'd fo with the xAnnotutors^ that having given a Rule, 
That Nouns ending in er were Feminine, they have taken no notice 
of the ufe of %Aies in the Mafculine, notwithftanding Pliny has. Per 
imitatioHcm %Alitis temforariiy quern cuculum vocant^ 1. i3. C. 26. as Vof" 
Jius owns. 

Homo. I put this down upon account of a mrftalce that may be 
caus'd by an Expreflion of Mr. Lee.h^ in his Vofpns ContrAc^us^ which 
is this, having repeated that common Rule of Nouns in ww, 

Z/m neutrum pcnas^ hominutn ft propria tolLis *, 
He fubjoyns immediately. Licet vix agnofcimus voam Hominem inclw 
' re utrumque fexum. From hence I think 'tis natural for the Rea- 
!r to infer, that he denies Homo ever to fignifie a Woman, which 
does in feveral Places. I have by Advcrtifemcnt acquainted the 
;.ead^r, That that Learned Gentlemen difowns this meaning, but 
ecaufe his Book may fall into more hands than his Advert ifc- 
ment, I think my felf obliged to continue my Inftanccs to the con- 
trary, which are thofe that follow. S^oniam ilU homo naU fuerat, 
Cic. ad Fam. 1. 4, Ep. 5. Belides this, Juvenal in the Perfon of a 
Woman, fays, 

\ . . dames licet^ 6* mare, ccelo 

fonfundaSy homo fum. Sat. ^. 

AiU 



^jo Third Social Rule. 

And TlUn, N, H. 1. 23. c,4. iays, S»nt ^ pr^ci^ant Jemem fijfn 
dewte bomtnis jfui fexu*. And Ovid, £p. Hyperm. Lynceo^ 
'' Salicet ex iHo Jmnonii fernkmet ir^^ 

jgtto bos ex bomine eft^ ex bove fa^a dca. 
Where by Homine is meant r<s who was a Woman. 
2ua4ruf€s, This Word u^eed is an Adje<ftive, but it is usM fre- 

Suently Subftantively> and is in three feveral Significations, of 
tiree feveral Genders. For a Horfe, or other Creature^ that is 
Maiculine, it is alfo Mafculine, as, 

Curru fuccedete futtiy 
S^uadrupedes 
Virg. JExu^,^. 154. Sauciuf i^uadrupes^ oftht Si^ vrwmdedjMm 7^ 
I'or a BeaH in general, it is fbmetimes Feminine with refpeo: to Be^ 
fiia^ as NtilU guikirufesy Virg. Ed. 5. and fometimes Neuter, with 
refpe^ to %Animaly as, ?ewutum Sltntdrupet ; ITolucre S^ruftSy PL N« 
H. L 1 1, c 3^. And this I have the rather taken notice of, becaufe 
Sennus^ upon one of the PafH^es aforc <iUOted from Vir^y will al# 
low it to bave but two Goiders. 



o^^^^ 



mmmiim>»m 



Q F 




(7« ) 



liAiMMM^MaMM^aMiteiaAM 



O F 



DECLENSION. 

Grammar^ Lat. f. ii. 

Animadversion XXXIIL 



I 



IS is the Order the Grammar ]^oceeds in, which it 
diforderly enough. For the Gender 9»f Nouns depends 
upon their Dedenfion, there being noreaibn why words 
of the fame Terxxvination in the Nominative, ihould be 
Genders, but because they are of fereral Dedenfions, 
or have (everal ways of encreaiing in the fame Dedenfion, 
as CMfilltts CafiUiy Onus Onerisp Incus Incudis, The firft of which is 
Mj^cnline, becuife of the lecond Dedenfion, the iecond Neuter, 
becaufe of the third, and encreafing by eris ; the third Feminine 
becaufe of the third Deden^on, and encreafing by udis. And 
therefore the confideration of Dedenfion ihould have preceded 
that of Genden But to proceed in the Author's Method. 



A 



Of the firft DeclenfioQ. 

Grammar^ Lai. f,%i. 

S AccufiUhum in am €^ an facit\ nt J£md$ JEneatrif 
vet Mman : vocathum in a : Vf Mncd^ ^nea. 



Animadversion XX XI V. 

BY this Rule it would, feem, that thefe Terminations were in^^ 
different, or equaUy allowable v and that m only in the No- 
minative had this variety of Terminations in the Accuiative^ 
whereas m truth this Accimli^a in 4n> fcont Nouns in ««, is 

icarce 



7^ Of the Firfi DeclenfioH. 

fcarce found but in the Poets; andNominatives in 4,fbmctime$ make 
the Accufative in <w, as well as thofe m rf.<, I mean in the Poets, 
Thus %A>iaxj,^orAm^ vArcefUum^ %Arcbytam^ Diu^oYitm^ E^uminonAam^ 
Faufunitm^ &c, are the con ft ant Acculativcs of lAnaxagoraSy e^c\ lit 
Cicero^ Jujlin^ Nevos^ and ahnoft all, but the Poets, as appears by 
the following Tnftance5. Et vcluti amantes Socrutem^ Democritum %A* 
naxagoram^ Clc. A, Q. L. I. p. 94. Std Zi-no cum %ArcefiUm antAiet 
^tute, Cic, A. Q. L. I. p. 90, ^Uiontm ferunt — turn oirchytam 
Timaumque copujvijfe, Cic. T. Q. L. I. p. 310. QuAftvitque num ttUm 
Dia^oram in 7iuvibus v^hi creitrtnt, Cic, N. D. L. 3. p. 152. Cum 
reUtum Irgunt^ quit mujicam docuerit Epttminondam, Nep, Pr«fl Er 
nndem Fauftniam Cyfrum^ at Hellefpontum miferunt, Nep. "Sf, Paus* 
whkh being, fo common a thing, I Hiail forbear further inftad^ 
ces. And EUSfrun, ^inaity Muian^ are cited out of OviJ^ by Vbjfiusy 
from Ele^ru^ Afuirf, <yc, Befide which, there are alfo found, Came^ 
rinauy CylUn^ Iph'igenun^ Lernan^ Offun, 

HincCumcrinin udit Tbupfonq\ 6" Heloria Ttftnpe, Ov, Fait. 4. El. 2» 
Me Tenedun Cbryfenq', & CylUn oipollinis urbes, 
JEt Scyron cepij'e, Ov.' Met. 13, p. 8(^7. 

Sceptra tenente illo liqmdas fedjfe per uurus^ 
• Nefcio quum Aicunt Ip'?igenian ittr, Ov. de Pont.3. EI. 2» 
Lernan ^ xAfgos Stat, Thcb. II. p. 3S8, 

Sic petitur cAlum^ non ut ferat Ojan Olymfuf, Ov. Fail. I. p. 1 5. 

Thcie Nouns in as were of old terminated in «, and there 
is ftiii to be found Pelut for PtUas, Sen« Med. A. 2. S. 2. 



wmg 



Gratfnndrj Lat: f* %1. 

E5 in ^scufdtivo en fmvit ; ut Jlyichifcsy Anchifcn : in 
vocativoy C? ahUtivo e vel a ': Vt Ancbife vel Afh^ 
chila* ,. .. ., 

J 1 

Animadversion XXXV. 



THis Rule acain, is liable to fcveral miftakes. As firft 
it would leeni from hence, that all Nouns in es of this 
DedenHon, conftantly made the Accufative in en^ whi^h 
yet they do not, not w ithftanding ro^»y fays, Saltern ah esnon eni, 
fed en .dixcroy witneis, xAlcidem^ sAmphytnoniaiem^ Priamidcm^ Tty^ 
r/?^m, in the following Authors. 

*At nunc xMcidem taurus in aflra. tul'it. Mart, SpCjft. Ep« I^ 
Sen. Her. Oct. Ac 2. and freq^uently ellewhere. 
Sic n'eque Petiden Chiro terrebat lAchiUem, . ' 

Theffalico Permixtus equo : nee pinifer xAtlOA 
xAmphytrioniadem puefum, Auf. Idyl, 5, p, I2S« 
%4»qtH hie PriMmicm Unkiim mfwf $m 



of DeeUnpm ^| 

i^^Mwm VkKf. vy^k Mh, 69 fi 320. 'Tls ?rUmden in my BbblL 
fcut in fome others it is Pnamia^^ and particularly in the Edition 
o£ 1{«/S/* {^ii|: forth bv . Geor^im Prabricius ) and fo Ovid alfo hai it, ai 
wt'fbrtn by iUi»fim in the tAmfterdum Edition. 

Prt^OT^ruM^ HeUnumraptJi cum Pullude captuniy Mft* ij* ^> 193* 
Uujufiu yits cogitAtio^ «ut fropofitio^ out Tbjefttm Uv4re fottr'Uj out 
JEetam / Cic. T. Q. L. J. p. 39^. 

Secondly, One would thiiik by this Rule, that all Kouils which 
are found ending in en in the Accufativc, were of this Dedenfioil 
which is another miftake. For lAflya^en is found ii^ ^/4>. as, 
Sterntt Hyona Chromisy Chromin %Antifhus^ xAntifhon Hjifftus, 
fijfjeus ^yagen. Theb. 9. t« 253. 
but %^yjiftm the Genitive or Datire, is no where found* 
' bdrtn in the Acduiative is obfefved by Vitflius^ tho the Genitive b4 
Daretii^ and the Accufative in another place of the iaine Authof 
Dareta^ namely Virg, JEn, 5. Ovid has Euphraten, . 

yemt Md Euphraten comiutu Cufidine farvo^ fail:. 2. p. J3* So Cicer§ 
has %AJ Eitpbrutifn cum nhucimit Copiit veniff'e^ ad Fam. L. X^. EP. 3* and 
l^reiently after, Euphr^tenque jam tranfire ccepiffe^ as publlih'd by Grs*^ 
yiuj * though in the firil of the lame Book, there is found Eupbr^ 
tem^ LuiaH alfo makes the Accufative in en^ and of another word 
too of like Decleniion, namely, G^t^es. Pot Li.io* P«27^* thul 
iiifays, 

i- tj^notof mifcuit /tmtlei 
ferfarum Euphruten^ Indorum fui^tnne Caiigent id SUu alib 

iTheh. I. Y. 6%6» 

And yet the common Accufativds i,it Euphratem and Gaitiem^ ana 
$n^rat4t or Gangd^ in the Genitive Unheard of* H^dajpen h the com-» 
itton Accufative of Hydafpef^ in all Authors, neither hav^ I ever 
ieen any other, but in Curtiusy who has Hydafpcm and tiydafpin, in thtf 
AccUiadye, L. 5. p. i4i« 

Ceu modo gemmiferum thyrfo popuUtus Hjdufpen» Stat. Thcb.8* 
t* 237« Sd Claud. Conf. Probin. & 01, v. 8 1 . 

And yet this wOrd is by no means of the Firft DealeniiOn. For 
fetromMs has Hydafpis in the G^nitivie. 

Hit tifemor Ponti^ favi quwphf terror Uydafpit, p. 28?. 
Mpdaffi alio in the Dative is found in Curtlus^ %A meridie tAcefineS 
MyJafpi confunditury L. 9. {^. 342. Nipbaten is found in Sil, 

£^ Ufi^rm hibit^ tat pleno fonte f^ipbaten^ L. 13. p.2I j« 
Pome it 18 in ikiy Book, but I fuppofe it fhould be FoMrri It is aL 
ib in Ciaud, 

%Armehii Phafiny Parthi Utptere NiphateH. De Tert. Conf. Hon. 
Yet there is no othe^ Appearance of its being^ of the Firft DecUn\ 
fion; Nay, rather the contrary appears ; for yirg, has 

%Addam Vrhes %Afia domitas^ pulfumtjue Nipbdtem, Geor. 3. p. ^Oa 
Oreftn is found in Sen. «4j. *^. 5» /-*• 3» 

lUriftr bimc Ot^en^ ae pium furtum occuU, And in Ov, T)". L. I . EI .8 i 
OrMdt I have never fcen ; Orefien I find Cic T. Zt L. 3. p. 380. Ore^ 
jUmfurne dicimus, Likewife Ov. Tr, L. 2. p. 145- Ef egentem mentU 
Orefum, and elfbwhei^e. There is Orefia indeed in the Vocative, but 
that IS pe^Uliax* Co its ending in tesy as fhall be ihewn undeif the Vo^ 
tative* 
J>&«<^ is fbitnd iii ^vt<^^ Tr. t . I . Eli 8 « 
U4rr4titfPjUitnipSepr9baljeTboM» 

'^5^^^• "^ L P^U*_ 



:r^. 



f 4 9f "i^itUfM. ' 

f;(4i« is no ttf here 'found that I know of, totem in t^efhrej lAo 
fiiy$,;Gen. F;Wm or PjpW4 upon the Word; I mppofe •becttffe'te 
hsd -found titf Acciffacive .in cm, v^hith .he mit^Mk for a^certaM' 
Chara^eriftioljC of the firUb Decleniion. Tb certain dctr^ 1ms M^' 
4^m dtVm.h,-2.^.l6i. *At*t fi effes Orcfte^y 'PyUHem rtfdkrrty te u^ 
chores ? And -Mjrtud has PyUeU in the 'Dative thrice dn one JEpsgram^ 
jU. io. £p. II- 

fi^llaa has no other Genitive but TuiAathy yec r«<'i««f ittaTTnuU- 
M, An, 1^. twice: 

Fhrdatm u another inftance, Hor. U 2. Od. 2. 

itfrfitmm Ofr'i jolio Pbraattn^ 
and r«rtri«5 An, ^. for this laft, joyns 'Pik^MMv in "die Gtoitive 
alongwich.it. Pbraatcn Fbraatts rt^i^ filimn KomH fofcehtmt* L^Mji 
^roMn is found in CLmd^ Lau, Sid, £.1. 

•. %An qnifiittam Tt^runeUy armaque Pomti 

Confer at ^ >■■ ■> 
tigrsuM^ Sal. Hift. 4- n€V«^ Tjjrtfw^. 

ro/)ii»/ will have it, that chefe Nouns were formerly of the £rll 
Decleniion, of ^rhich this Cafe is a remainder^ which nuy«oflibly 
be true of fome, but I cannot chink (6 of aJl. But I iball lio^ enter 
into this Dtfpute, as not being materijtl, becauie whatever they 
have been, they are not fo now, and we muft not life them ocher- 
wife than we find them in the Authors, as we have thenu 

This is a Licence, rather in my Opinion, which the Poets have 
taken for the conveniency of their Verfe,as they have done alio wich 
the Termination as^ to majce a Syllable loQg, when the Veirfe mni* 
red it, which would otherwilc have been cut off and loft ; and onier 
Writers have ibmecimes imitated them in it, where mere ^u no 
fuch neceflity. Neither is this a meer matter of Curiofity,* but of 
ufe alio. For if any one iha4i undertake to alter a <Jale in 4 
Dedeodon, which the Authors have not alter'd, the Readrrt tan 
iiave no fecurity that he means the fame word (die ufe of Aiv- 
thors being the otUy Standard of this Langtuge) and ib will be ih 
damrer of mtftalciiig his Mind ; which is the reafon I have takea 
all tnis pains to clear this Matter. And thus much fox die Ac- 
cufative. 

I come now to the Vocative and Ablative, which tSis Auribor 
{^ys end either in ^ or <«. 

Of the Vocative. 



S for the Vocative, 'tis certain there are fomc Examples of 
its eoJing in *, but they are rare, and almoft Singular. 
Homcc has indeed 



A 

Ne quis humajfe Veltt fAj^cem jUrida vctas cur ? L. 2. Sat. 2, 
^dyiKg. Conji^iq nAncbifx V^mcris djgnate fuferboy J^n, 3. 

But bejide thefe, I know no other, except from Npuns in tes^ 
which in imitation of the Greelcs are by (ome Authors made tt 
end in «, of which we have T^^/l^, Cic. T. Q. I,, 3. Sen, Thjfk, ac, 4. 
and Orejla^ Ov. Tr. I. EI. 4» Sep, Ag. 4c. 5. $c, 5| though this fat- 
$ff is rather of the third peclenfloh)^ as ihail oe wew^ hg:eafter» 

But 



Of DeeliMfiom. jx 

JJUt^tbrgflPOWiLttiding- of the Vocative Cafe in tliefe Nonns^ is e 
ibiig.;.foci tfacBroof of this, we have xJlcide in the Vocative* Sew. 
Btr^ &»r* 4r..u cbvm 4C. 3. Sc. 2. ^t^. 5. Ify;>. ^et. 5. J'c. i. So />c^y «>l^ 
fJK^Mr '^f • iBii. ^ Tros nJncbifiuU^ Id. Ibid. J^aLi fucit Macidc^ OP, 
Uinmi OrtJK otimitcM- JEacide^ Brif, lAcbU, Dm$ Furi Prumijf^ Ov, L'toJ, 
Urou MMk Jg/omJU^ Id. Hyff. Juf. Surge 4^ BeliSe^ Ov. ^yfx-r. L^c. 
Dtara ThiMett. 6v. MeU I J, Now thcfe Vocatives in a being fo liff- 
gulaTyaS'I Have faid^ 'tis like the generality of Readers have either 
not icen them^ o& forgot theou which muft expofe hitn that uits 
thrax iipaa the Authorityof this Rulc> cither to cenfure, or mi« 
ftake^xar-beth, which is athing a Learned Man would endeavour to 
avoid. £of^though in point of reading, it be neceffary to under It and 
the oft of ail Authors ^yet in \^riting, a Man would endeavour to 
covem lumfelf fo, as^noi to write that to the generality, which 
tout ^ underftana, for- the Reafon above given. And yet thcfe 
ObiJBiyati0O» Mr. Lteds-iSid the oinaotators have overlooked. 

Ojf the Ahhtive Cafe. 

X 

HEre is the fame Error in the Rule as to the Ablative Cafe, 
which is- faid to -end in e, or 4 indifferently^ For though 
tbMrebefomc.Ezampieft.of its endtns in ^ yet they alfo are 
rareiandl the ufualTermination is « long, infomuch that Voj^u takes 
no notice but of-oaeexccption to it in the word vAtricU in Ov.aiHjitri-^ 
dA Brif, tjL'bU. which he fuppofes to come from tJsrUi in the Nomi- 
native, by a ch^Mige of the Termination f/j iS-HoracevkfedSafiuAam^ 
for ScipUdemy which was a common thing with the R^maufy in olcf 
time^ though^ probably antiquated before thcfe Authors wrote, 
vMAm the re^on. we find no Examples of this change- in the No- 
minative among them, and but few in the Vocative, or Ablati ve« 
But befide this Example cited by ycJu^Sy Seneca YuLSiAtridJi too in 
the. Ablative^. £* c**^ xAfrida videor inferior tiUy Ag. ac. 2. Sc. 2. 
%Ambifis alfo hasthe Ablative- in 4, Sutus tAncbifiy ifn. 7. 5. oin* 
chifX generate^ JEju 6. But then thefe arc rare, and extraordinary 
Examples, and nop fit to be put into a general Rule, without a 
cantion^ for the reofbn mentioned in the Vocative Cafe, e long be- 
ing the common endine of the Ablative of this Dec! en (ion, as ap- 
pears by c/tfA«<^» M-Me^ oiebattytJU'ideyLuertey T>intJidt:y lljyefte in 
the following Citations. ' 

JZuuHtus t» XacvU^ iMondtq^ fmt^ Ov. de Pont. L. 2. £1. 4. 
Iffr'TV^g'^'^'*^^'^ comitxtus *Achtte^ Virg. ^n. i. 
«& xAUide^ Swi* Her. Oct. Ac. 5. Sc. 2. Her. Fur. Ac. 2. Sc. 2. cum 
%Alddey .Sen. Her, Oat. Ac. 3. Sc. 2. NutMs nMcidt , Sen. Her. Oet. A c. 
34Sc.2« Liierteqifff4iu*, Cly. BriCAcIiil. 

No;t fmn Tantdtde^ necforti major KAchdU^ O.V. Am. 2. El. 8. ATrfl^a 
Tbyefte, Sen. Ag«-Ac» 2. Sc. 2. ipfg Tbytfte, Sen. Thy, Ac. 2. Sc, i. 
judIb elfevhere^i 

But befide all this, the Author is ftill further to blame, in giving 
no dire^ion to know what Nouns are of this Dcclenfion, and 
wlwtwof' thft.Third: fkw^therebeing a. Multitude of Greek Nouns 
Uif3,,Smi6^QQim9^^'Uisu^o2fi€\i£Gdhy.^ Latin% fome 

L ar in 



9j6 Of DedenfioH. 

in the Firft Dedendon, fome in the Third, it was reouiiSte to di* 
Ainguilh the one from the other, and fo much the rather, becaufe 
f his point is not well dcar'd by any Didionary that I know of. 
Wherefore to fupply this Defed> take the following Rule. The 
word oinchifes and ajll Patronyinick? in des^ as alfo names of Stones 
^nd Jewels in ies^ with tkefe Proper }«7aines fojiowing in #f/ alfo are 
pf the Hrft Dedenfion. oicefttsy %Achatesy %A^tts^ %AntifbaieSy Bootfs^ 
BMeSy L^erttSy LeucaUSy Mencttes^ ThUo^fttes^ rolyttSy froemfies^ Tber* 
ftesy Thyefiesy ZeteSf As for Patronymicks, they arc too frequent to 
need Proof, Seneea, only, that I know of, vfin^ JfAcidi* once in the 
Genitlive, froui. xAc^ i. Of Stones and Jewels m rr/, I ihall give a 
proof or two, as %Acbiiu fimilk^ Fl. N. H*. L. 37. c, 10. BdimiU ge* 
ptra, Auo hahenty I4r Ibjd. Ofttfciu fim\liti*dinem teftd habcnty Pl.'K* Ht 
J/. 3<J. C. 19. Kdmatit^rum qmnque genfra^ Id. I^, 3^, c, 20. ; ? 

The proper Names are fome of them found in «, in the Qeni- 
live or Dative, which is a certain Proof of the firft Dedenfion | 
Others are found in tn in the Acculative, which though it be no 
^frtain Proof of |he firft Decleniion, as has, beeiv faid, yet may 
pafs f^r a probable one, where there is no proof from t^ Genitive 1 
0r Dative to the contrary. Here follow Examples of the fc^ 
V^f4 'Xttmiti^tiom (hey have in Authors. 

« ' ' * ^ 

Comltts feniorit \Acefl4y Virg. jEn, 5. p. 18^. 
xJ&nuit Mneas^ fed Utum ampUxeus oicefleny Vir. Mm 5. p. i ^5. 
f^ ft is in my Book) hut fome pther Copies have olcefhm. . 
yrhem affelUl^m permiffo nonnne *AceJtam, Virg. Mti^ 5. p. 2QI. 
Jam vaUd'tm Jlionet navemy j^m fortis tAcSat^^ . . ^ . 

yicit hyemSyVir^. ^y97f 

Vtx dufH txorf* diesy\& jam fmtatus vAgyrts^ 

Tydidtrs adtrat, Stat. AchiU 4. p. 4^0. 

%Antiphata metMTejy imjnanfuetiq\ OfclofiSy Ov. Met. I4f p. 39^ 

Et iam fUias l?^tt^ fsjf^ }im ftuufhra BooUj Luc. L. 2. p. 53, Juv» 
Satf 2. Huic enim Booti, 

Stihter prseordU fixa vidftur 

StelU micans radiis %Ar6tur us nomine clar^y , Cic. N. D. L» «. p. 93. 
in his Trandation ofxAratus^ and fo Gronovius- Publii^es it. And of 
fhif phird Dedenfion alfo, Claud, nukes it v 

JVa» pUuftrisy xjirSfoque tegor^ contemne Bootem, 

Navita, Bell. Gil. p. 10(5. But then It^^w again makes the Ac^ 
f i|fa(ive of the firft. 

^n Borean is re^us aquk^ mediumque Booten, L. lo. p. 282. 

'M'ijor hubet Clyton ^ Buten Pullante crea$ps, Ov. Met/ 7. p. 145, 

Refpice Latrten^ ut jam fua lumina condofy Ov. Pen. 111. 

Jlfo« & X.tucat/t Ximbofa caeumina montis^ 

Et Jormidatus nautis aperitur tApolio. Virc. JEn, 3. p^ 147. 

£t eank fttmmum fpumk Lfitcatem ferit. Sen. Hip. Ac. 4, Sc. i. 

And of ^his Declenfion ^jonius makes it when he Terminates 
^l^e Ablative in riiiort. r ' . 
^Etde nimbofo faltum Leucate minatuvy Idyll. ?• p» 133. 

Tp.thefc may be added hUjfagtus^ though no proper Name, but 
4 d^noniinative from a Countrcy pnly. . * t « . 

^ ^011 Jf Ai<iP^4,.Ao»j5wii txircita campo 

iM^mn ipffoierunt square ^imemhres^ Claud. 4; Coof. Hon, 

i f^ E^ mtUtm^f4i^mii f$^ille fitmiu, Qy. Met, w. p. 24a, 



Of DaUnfioff. 77 

Ja^Jk in tJverfum LycU ie flehe Memeten^ Id. Ibid. 
I Fudet ire Memttem 

Tardius, Sut. Theb, i2. p. 40?. ^d again, Vnunufue Mim$im 
H/^tr. Id.Theb. X2. p. 408. 

t,arva. PbiU^eU fitbnifC4 fet'ilU muroy Virg, £n. 3. p. 150* 

%4Une€ Philo&etam^ cut coucedendum gfi^ementi^ Clc. T. Q. 2. p. 354, 
, Sort mey fidumq*^ Folyteny &c, Ov. Met. 14. p. 296* 

ybUt UUSi^ittit 

JCfM fi^J, meJiumqi nihil cun^ata, Poljftem^ &e, Stat. Thcb. 9. p.3o9« 

yidit it tmmitem Ceplnjim W4. Procrttftcn, Ov, Met. 14. p. 144, 

Siukm te Therfitd Jmtlem froducaf %Achillefy JUY. Sat. f , 

lfiJj|iMlM» rmm frivatis^ v frcife focco ' 

Dij^mt earmimlmt narran coetu TTfyefid, Hor. de Art. p. 304* . 

So flmtuf, Scclefiiorem c€tnam denavi tuam 

gftfm /9»« Thyeft* ^ntefofita, eft, & Tereo, Rud. Ac.2. Sc.^. 

¥1^ fi futrity Jit quod PeUfeui Tbyefti, Ov. in. lb. p. 271, And ia 
^is Declenfion Cicero ufes it, maki^ the Acciifative in em. 

gmUergoi Hujufne vitsfrafofitio^ amt c<^iuti^ tiut ThyeftemU^^e f^. 
ferity sMt Metion f Cic T. Q. L, 3. p^ 393« 

lUrfjo* dum Zeten fugit. Sen. Med. Ac. d. Sc 2. I know Editions 
vary in thefe Matters, and it is not eafy, ifpoffible to fay, which it 
the r^^t; bu^ for all that^there is unconteftaole Authority to reprove 
this Kulc upon, which fays^ that all Kouns in «/ of the 6xfk Declen-; 
jien, make the Accufative m en, without exception or caution^ 

This may feem a needlefs exaanefs in thefe Proper Names,whlch 
the generality of Writers have little or no occaiion for ; but he 
that con£4crs they are Perfons, the mod of them, remarkable 
in the Ancient Story, either Real, or Fabulpus, which fome, at 
Icaft and young People, efpecially in Latin Verfe, nuy have oc- 
caiion to make ufe of, will hardly condemn it. 

There are beiide all thefe, certain Not^s in ites, beii^ Denomi- 
natives of Wines moftly from things infus'd in them ; which 
have the Accufative in m, as of this Dedenfion, and are fbund 
in the Geiiitive or Dative in 4. Of this fort are oibrotoniten^ v4b» 
fjutiien, MAromatiten, and in the Dative Ctntbaritd^ Catacecaumenit^ 
^etntsy and 4)1 odiers of like fort in tes^ as appears by Pliny, N. H4 
L. 14. c 7, 8. and Co/wm. L. c. 33. 35. 38. which though Adje<f^ives 
to Vimtm, all make the Accufative in Hi, npt in <*/, as has been f4i4 
luider Gender,. 



• I 



Crummur^ 



^ GflkiUtfi>m 



^■^ 



> • • < 

EGemivMm W ^ w/mV, duHvtm in e, d€cuf4tivum. in 
A KIM AD ¥ E R 51 N XXXTI.. 

THis Rule alfct will sp: near to deceiYe the Sdioiar. IBdrthsrt 
being no notice t^ken of anjr Accufktives in fm^.froin Nomi- 
natives in * of diis Dedenfion, he muft in reatfbn condiide 
of lUch Accuiatives, when he finds them, that they come flomr Ho- 
jninatives in <//of the, Thir^i I>cdenfion,. which is quite oil^ 
wift. 

' TSrai Circf h4p Cfrcem Cic. IC D; I^. 3. P- 1?5» S^^^mqua^mCirefm 
ip>of^ cohni fufiri Circeienfes re^gjtase columu' 90 it is in my^poki Bite 
t^m^m and.XtfuifiJW niaJce it Circem Cj^lik has (^lUmy GaxuS^ in 
j^uti:. u p» 929* 

HlkA^ has lUcaie^ Ciic. N. D. L. 3. p.^ 13^. iiuom»dbf9$tSi fipf^f 
mtm dium f»Uf^ Hian^ noil future* Aiid To LanJnnus bnbliittei i^ 
lot Qtwovms makes it Hfrorm*. Ifr/»f|f kaa Hf>^irMu Qy; Acontl 

Cxdr 

JJeJhnetHtct4mo9y BnfeidAcefit^tAcWUu 
Thps lpfH>yH»J puUiil^esit, . O^iwiw hisOemonem^ Oiri Hd; PJt^. 

XJIiceris Ofmm^m dcpruilfe tuam. So Hf r^/ agaim 

SUmf^hu Sinopeniy Cic. pr<y Le^ Mam Simftmanjj^ tjfnnfim efi 

^^V^Jb 39w Hfiric Qron^vtoi has .^no^^iiin the Text, but iliNiNnv^ 

%rtlie ^ipuaft^ X/imk9t*s hj&s Sinofam, as;air6 in-that-other pf&ctft^ 

^ in ^* {49 3f;t Qf» <$» «^ Stm^fm^ q»* i» ?t>nto eftj iMV^«vnri|ji^ 

P-27X* 

Now an thefe things the Annotators have pafsM over in- lilencie^ 
and that though ybjfit^s had in fome part^though not fufficiently^ ta- 
ken notice of them. The Latins often turn e into <i in this Deuen* 
fion, as Feudofd^ Ctrcoy Ikhp** See l^ojfiuf^ 



Of 



Of fbe fJrJf p^faifiifi. • 7 jj 



t_ _. I I ll>l HI —■ »— ■■ -S H !>■■*» ■ 



Qf the Datiix md JilativePIu^ 
ral $fthe Fifft Declqifion. 



H 



Gramrndr^ Lat. p X2. 

Re dathos fS dhlativos flurales mittuni in abus : 
Deay mulih ^^^^> liberta ; amba, dmcy abus. 



Animadversion XXXVII. 

TjUf'ILuIe ji^^wdl tnouA (kited by the Grammar, hut I take 
it ixihsft tp ihcw a Fault in the %AMno$atpr*s Note tipon it, 
who fay upon the Place, Occurrunt etUm, AKIM^BUS, 
I>OMlNABUS, FAMULABUS, SERVABUS, ASINABUS, 
SOCiABUS : ^ts it a cfferuntur differfnti* fattfty id efty adfexum difier^ 
"f^i**) a« if there were equal Authority for aii of them ; whereas 
*4»imtlfmf,i§-ui Senear, according to the beft Copies, as yogius fayt, 
Ift dl^ JVft are op where to be found, but in QuoUtions of the 
w^ipmafians out of Antiquated Authors, or in fome of the latter 
CiYiUafil, which ihould have been caution'd, as all things of like 
T^SiXx^: Othervfie H^imsy IlL^s^ Dexfrabtu may come to be reviv'd 
afiaia OOt of Cajfus ffemima, and others. But Eabusy which l^ofim 
mnki to have been uf'd by this Author only, is found in Ccr« 
K. R. c' 1539 aiF^ofP fipf4t yiric4s, eJmfyut Uier^ d^us intrinftctts 



7 ' • *. -^7 .^ ~ J- . '*- ■ * ■■^" 



^_ .. 1 1 . II ■■ . ■ ' ' ' " ' *'"' 



^- ►.■ \ 



st- 



!;<.»• 7 p/ 



3o: Of ibe Seiond heeknpn* 



■•••■•«■'*• ^ 



0/! the Accufative of Greeks it$ 
OS, of this Declenfion. . 



A 



Grammar^ Lar. ^» ii« . 

Ttifa in o^ genitivum in o mittunt^ accufativum in 
on, &c. 



Animadversion XXX1X% 



T 



He Accufative of thcfe Nouns may alfo be in o, at leaft the 
Noun nAthos makes it fo fometimes, as well as in on, Comtmm^- 
tU ffqut ad sAiho monttm^ Plin. N^ H. L» i8. C« 35* 

'lUeJiugrami ' * . 

i>f»f oitbo aut Rbodoperty out alt* Cerdunia telo 
Vejicit, Virg, Georg, i. p. 37. 
SoXivy, L. 5* Dec. 5. Partus ad Toronem ac montem sAtbo^ Thett' 
Nouns aifo are fometimes declined of the Third Declenfion, accor* 
ding to the Latin Form. Thus Livy has iAtho in the Nominativei 
Ifec minus qukm in aitum magnitudine %Atho mons excurrit. And Cic. di' 
Rep, in Prifciuny oithonem in the Accufative,and *Atbone perfojfo, Fin.2/ 
p4 175. It is ottbive indeed in my Book, but whoevei* confidcrs 
the Senfe,wiil fee it muft be xAtbone^ wherefore I will tranfcribe the* 
whole PafTage, Vt fi Xerxes cum tantis dajfihus^ tantif^ue eauelhihk^i 
fedafirihi^fque cof lis MtUeff onto j»n£fOy ^tbone pttfoffo^ mariaambnLmjJet^ 
terramque nayi^avijfet^ fi^ cum tanto impttu in Graciam yienijfet^ canfm' 
ejus quit ex eo quareret^ tanturum cotiarum^ tafnique belli, mtl fc 
auferre ex Hymetto yoluiffe diceret ; certe fine caufJi videretur tanta com* 
tus\ Sicnosy trc. Where 'tis plain, that Hellcfponto junffo^ nAtbone 
ferfoffo, are put conjun^ively.^ not disjundively. The like is ©b- 
iervable of xAndro^eos^ the Accufative of which is oidro^eona^ in Pro* 
ftrt. L. 2. El. I. 

Rellituit famis %Androgeona focis, v^ .-<, • r 

So Prifcian quotes Minonis out of Sul. Hift, 5. So Cicero Declinal 
Minor, Minoem^ Radumantbum^ Aacum^ T. Q. L. I. P. 33^» But dicn 
this belongs to another Declenfion in Gree\ ; of which fee anon. 

One Proper Noun in tus alfo of this Declenfion is found to 
have the Accufative in o», namely Orpbewy for in Ov. in. it# w« 
X^Z^Orfbeon, 

Dirifiantq\ tuos infants ungnibus mrtus 
Strjmonia matres Orpbe^ ejft rata. 

Of 



Of the Second Decie»fioM. Si 

Of the Vocative of Greek Noms 
of the Second Declenfion. 



Q 



Grammar^ Lat. p. iz« 

JUaJMm Graca cmtratla in us, vocdtivum form ant in 
My ut Panthus, 6 Panthu, Oedipus, 6 Oedlpu. 



Animadversion XXXIX. 

IGinnot imagiftf where this Author pick'd up Oedipu in the Vo- 
cative ; and if diere be any fuch Word, as I think there 15 not> 
'tis of a different nature from Panthu^ which is contraded From 
HiMm , whereas this word has no Contracftion. This Mr. Letds 
takes notice of, but then he fuffers Oodip» to pafs Authentick, which 
I believe it is not. There are two ways of pedinine this Word in 
iMuty one with encreafe* as Oedipus^ OedifoAis : the other without, as 
Oedifusy Oedifi, Sem, Declines it the iirft way, OeH, cbor, 3. i^uluu 
Oedtfdem bic decety And ac. 5. fc. i. And the fecond, T^/^e^. uc, i. p. i. 
%4m$Jum vtrum Oedipe, So pUut,Poen, aci, fc. 3. The Nominative is al- 
io OtSfoieSy as w|m6^fM /oZi mfccre Oedifodd dutur^ Sen. Ocd. ac. 2. 
fc«i« 



Of the Vocative of Latin Noms 
(f the Second Declenfion. 

Grammar y Lat* f. ii. 

NOtahii (3 Latina qu^dam tarn in is quam in c, mif 
tere vocativum fingularewj Agnus, Chorus, Fluvi- 
USy LucuSy Populus jfro nationey Vulgus. 

Animadversion XL. 

THE Vocative in all Declenfions, but this, is the fame with 
the Nominative, and good reafon, iince 'tis proper to 
call upon things by their Name. But it feems likely, 

iluc in Iks Piopcr I^amcs of Pcrfons of this Declenfion this Ter- 

M jninatioa 



§2 Of the Second Decknfion. 

^ination in r, or /, for i>, was firft found out for familiirity^or 
Cndearmenc fake, as having a fofter found than us (as we fay com* 
monly to Children, Jj'/o Tonnny^ Billy) and afterwards fbread it 
felt into all Nouns ending in uf. But ¥oyulus icept ftill the jTermj- 
nation us j the Authors that were bred in a Common Wealth chinks 
jng'it pofiibly a diminution to the Majcfl^y of the People, to be 
treated in this familiar way. And this was the rcafon, it may be, 
why fhocoA prefcribes rather to fay, Felicijpme Populusy than Populc^ 
And iivjf, L. I . lays, in the Pcrfou of the Roman Herald, Cdudi 
'SupitfnTnf audi f-tter fatrate populi %Alhan\ j audi tu vofulus %Mhanm, And ' 
X^UC. Degener opo.ulus^ L. 2. . But then Cicero does not oblerve this 
Rule to 0^4V!»f. Quantum te popule Rdmune de me fefelUt opino. So 
S^uintilian, Tum te^ Popule^ judicii tui pdniteret^ Dec, 302. The fame 
J*hocas alfo prefers Lucus in the Vocative before Luce^ but he cites 
jio Authority for either, and for this laft I know none, Pro or Con, 
yir^* has ^n. S. Comi^er Htfperidum fluvtus regulator aquarum. And 
Sidonxiis^ Nereidum chorus alme. And here is all the Authority this 
Xule ftands upon, which as to all but Populus^ is only of one good 
Author, namely t^ngily and that but once, and in but one or the 
words neither ; but for x^gnus and i^ulgus there is no ground. And 
as there is no Proof that all thei'e Nouns here nam'd, keep us in 
the A'ocative, fo there are feveral that are found to do fo in J 
good Authors, which young People muft read, and are yet here* 
omitted. They are fome Subftantives, and fome Adjecflives, a| 
will appear by the following Quotations. 

fj*od fuperefi vacuM aurls niihi jAemmitu^ <&• te 

Semotum a curis ve.'am adhibe ad ratiomm, Lucr. L. I. p. ^, 

nAdfis UtitiA Bicchm dator, Virg. ^n. I. p. 14^ 

Vos . ■ ■. 

Putritlus /unguis. Per. Sat. I, V. 61, Poml)ilitu Sar^uis^ Hof. de Afte^ 
O Lifc.»Mf, ocellus aureus, da iftt^ argentum nobis^ Plaut. Af. a. 31 Sc. 3.- 
hieum mel^ mcum cor, mcus moUiculus cufeus, Plaut. Pxn, Ac. X . Sc 2^ 

and fo frequently. Nate pius^ Aufon. Profeff. 4. p. 66^ 
Jane veni, noviu anue vcni. 

is the burthen of the Song. Aufon. Idyll. 12 p. 172, 

Vacunde 6* mupce, 6* acer, 

Mcnti' bonus, ingenio ingens, 

Volucer pedcy corpore pulchtr^ 

±inguu catuf, ore canorusy 

Cape muHUt trifle parentum, Aufon, Par, 1 7. p, 57. ipcak- 

lag to a'Youth that was dead. Again, 

Hac put, fed mctflo trepiduntii vota reatu 

Cbrifie apud aternum pUcabilis ajfcrc patrcm 

Salvator, deus, ac domtnus mens, gloria, verbum^ 

IFiliusy & verum vero de lumine lumen, Aufoii. Eph. or. p. 44« 

Ajid as thefe Nouns in us are found with us in the Vocative, fo 
fuer, though not ending in us, is often found to have t in the Vo- 
fcative, not only in C4ciitus, and lAframus^ but in PUutusxoOy ftHnf 
j*nime 4^ ? Mo&, Ac. 4. Sc. 2. and frequently elfewhere. Bvt tkiaf 
yojfms (^ys is frooi the old word Puerus, And here again the An- 
(iQUtQn ai^ ^\enu an4 ihnx though roffius bad obfeiVid sioft of 



Of the Second Declepjion. 8j 

thefe things to their hand. There are alfo other peculiarities in 
this Dccleniion, but not hcing to be found in the Kooks wc have, 
I fjiall refer the Reader to Voffms for them, if he liave {o much cu- 
rioiity, which may- be worth hi$ while for the undcrflanding An« 
cient- Infcriptions. 



Of the Dedenfion of Ambo, 

and Duo. 



I 



Grammar J Lat. /. 23. 

Tjem anomnla ifla Amho &? Dho<, guus duai voces foetA 
etium in Accufativo Mn}culinas vfurpant* • 

Animadversion XLT. 



TH E Grammar is fliort in this Rule, and the Annotatdrs 
have not lupply'd it. For not only the Poets, but the beft 
Profe Writers ufe them fo too. f^ /'us quotes Cicero for this 
ufe of DIM) pTdtter not -^.fto fi' loijuitur nemo^ Fam. L. 7. Ep. 25. And 
it it certain he ufes lAmbo Co too. j^^/ %Ambo i, e, CrafTos unice diligoy 
Fam. L. 5. Ep. 9. nay. Plant. Rud, ac. 4. Sc. 4. makes Trucbalio fay 
to two Women, Ite domum tAmbo, And no wonder they fhould 
ufe thenx .thus, fince they are invariabie in Greek, from whence 
they had them. 

The Cafcum Writers uled Dm for Duo^hvLt their Authority is n«¥ 
.good* 



M% Of 



84 Of the Second Deeknfion, 



Of the Genitive Plural of the 
Second Declcnfion. 



N 



Grammar^ Lat p, zz. 

Otandx denique funt fyncofationet ift^. 

Deum 7 ^Deorum 

Virumj •* lyiromm 



Animadversion XLII. 

IT h^ been doubted by eminent Grammarians, whether Nen^ 
ters admit of this Syncope, and others expredy deny it. But 
Cicero has Decern millU TalentHrHj pro. Rab. p. 619* 
Trinum nundinnm fr*diSa die^ Id. pro Dom. p. 5XI. and before in. 
the (ame Oration. 

XC. MtdimMum Millia, Id, in Ver. L. 5. Or. 8. P* 315* And in- 
deed in this fort of fumming up things by thcfe Nouns, the contra- 
iftion is much more ufual than the word at length, as Sefterttum vt« 
defy Id. pro Fiac. p. 477* CCCC milU^t modiumy Id in Ver. in the 
Oration aforefaid, and that whether they be Mafculine or Neuter. 
But in Feminines X find no fuch contraction, iJibrarum being always 
at length. Alio the Numerals Mt/^nAm Tricenumy Sec. are com- 
mon. MtUenum Nuvtunu Plaut. Bac. ac. 4. Sc. 9. In other Neuters' 
it wili be befb to avoid contradion, becaufe thefe Nouns having 
three Cafes in um in the fingular Number, the conftnu^on may 
be fiich as may make the Reader talce it for one of them. Notwitb- 
landing whicii,?/WM/,has un^ttentum for un^uentorum^M nam omnmm 
unguentum odos pru tuo n*utt*i ejly Cure. Ac. I. Sc. 2. and again^ PoeiU 
Ac. 3. Sc, 3. 



Of the Third Declenfion. 
The Dative Cafe. 

Animadversion XLIIL 

THis Cafe ended formerly in f, as, 
— i^w« tibi ftne fervietj Catul. Carm. 62* 
Efuriente Iconi ex ore Exculpere firdtdam, Non. ex LuciK 
with Others Noted by Fojfius, which may be needful for the under^ 
landing Infcriptions, and Ancient Wjitf rs when they fall in the 
way. , cf 



' Cf tie Thkd Decltnfion: f ; 

Cjf the Accufative in em, or im 
o»/y, or cm and im both, 

Grdmmary Lat. Pag, x}. 

Qporundam Accufativi fleSuntur tantum in ifll: ui 
vim^ rsvintj tuffiwy fititny Magudarimj amujpm^ 
Charjbdim* 

Sic fS quorundam fluviorum accufntivij ut Tiberim^ -^r^- 

Animadversion XLIV. 

To thele Rules I have feveral exceptions. Fir(l l/Ugui«rU and 
cbarj^if, art Greek Nouns, and in fuch the Termination 
im or in is general, as I Hiali prove, when I come to his Rule 
of Gxeek Nouns^whereas this Rule confines it to thefe two. Second* 
iy the Accuiatives of Prober Karnes of Rivers in isy all end in im^ 
whereas diis laft Rule again mentions only two particularly. Nav 
, HOC only the nanus of Rivers, but ail proper Names alfo in tV, att 
' make im or in, in the Acculative, except the Names of Men and 
Women, which alfo make it often in im or m, though not always. 
And that whether they are Greek or pure Latin Names. 

tAcim. Claud, de Rap. Prof. L. 3. t/UUm, Claud. Lau. Stil. »4ihe^ 
Jim. Claud. £p. Pal. & Ser. Billnlimy Mart. L. I. £p. 50. Bsiim^ 
Claud. Nup. Hon. & Mar. CyropoUm. Curt. L. 7. U<trftim. Curt. 
L.a. Nemefimy Tibul.L. 2. El. 3. Ofirim^ Tibul. L. i. El. 7. f^" 
frpoUmj Curt. L. 4. Tjgnm, Luc. L. 8. And the Reader may feake 
my word for it, there is no Example to the contrary, only that for 
m ibmetimes in the Poets he ihall find i», in like manner as they 
change am into 411, and em into en^ for their conveniency in other 
Decl^ifions. 

Thus Uartial has Bstin in the Acculative, though i^ be a meet 
Latin Noun, CorJuhu B^tin amat^ L. 9. Ep. 62, upon which Mr. Ixeds 
has this Note, AVr imiunius Murtiulis^ €p*i a B^tis (nomine pure Latino) 
flexit Bsiin ^— Cum dixijfe oportuerit ( mjx metri ratio refugualfet ) B^tim* 
ButBttt, Martial has not only Batin^hut BUbilm alfo, though a meet 
Latin Koun^ Savo Bi&ilin optimam metallo^ L. 4.. Ejp* 55. L. 10. Ep.xo* 
Secondly 9«/iii in the Accufative, is found not onfy in Martial^hut in 
Sil. It. Nosdedimus Batin ntUlopotare Jub hofie^ L. 13. p. 2ll» In Stat. 
Gen. Luc. L. 2. Batin Mantua, frovocare noli ; And in Plit^ Sif^ulis 

J^9^ ill B49ji ^nimfenu 2^. H. L. 3. C u Thcrc was thmfbre 



1^ Cf the Third DeeUfifitm, 

no reaibn for Ko^tfi to call it InfoUns^ nor £or Mr* Leeds to riy^ nee 
imtMi»s Hartitlif* 

Here is alfo an omidion of Burtm in the Rule, Virg. Geor, x* 
which is the only Accufative Cafe I ever met with of this word. 

The Annptators add to this Rule. Centujfis^ DecuJJis^ and ^/w. 
Til not their way to produce aoy Authority, nejither can I find 
any in my Collections for the Accufative, in the two firft of thefe} 
but Centulfe in PerJiuSy 

Et centum Grscos curto Centujfe licetur^ is a probable Argument that 
the Accufative ends in fw, not in im only, becaufe from Accuiatives 
in im only, are generally form'd Ablatives in i only.Cr n/i#^ in the abl. 
Ag. L. 1 5. c. 19. As for Pelvim^ though it be found in Otro, yet CeU 
fus has Pelvem feveral times. L. 4. c. 24. p. 1 90. and twice afterwards, 
L. 6. c, 9. p. 308. So little Reafon had Fofmsy who from JVbmi*/'sAu* 
thorities, has mifled the Annotators in this point, as well as Mef- 
feurs de Part Royaly to reckon Pelvis among them that make im only 
in the Accufative, and Mr. Leeds after him. 



»••■ 



Grammar^ Lat. p. 2,3. 

OVadnm Aicufatives fleElunt in im & em communiter: 
«/, buris^ felvisy clavis^ fecuris^ fttffis^ tor^ulsy tur* 
risy reft is J febrisy navisy bifennKy a^ualisy htiyvel em. 

Animadversion XLV/ 

THis Rule is falfe ; for Bipennisj Buris^ Securis^ and Twqkis^ do 
not make the Accufative in em and im both, but fbme 01^ in 
rm, others only in tm, Sipennem is found in Claud, in £«tr. 




Securis has no other Accufative, than Securim^ as VoJ/ms and Mr* 
Leeds fay. But Valerius Probus is of another Opinion, as wc find by 
ot^etliusy L. 13. c. 19. where he fays thzt Virgil ufed Securim\^ JEh. 2. 
for the Euphony it made in that place. By this it woiild feem, that 
Securem were the more common. Bu,t this muft have been a mi- 
ftake of Valerius Prchus^ or elfe the Books are all alter'd fincc his 
time. For as wc have them now, there is no other Acculativt 
tihan Securim to be found in yirgUy and it is not to be fuppofed they 
ihould all be for the fancy'd Euphony of Valerius ProbuS^ as, 
JEratam quatiens Tarfeia fecwrimy JEn, II. p. 34^. and 
Turn validam perque arma viVp, perque ojfa Secunm* 
Congeminat. id. Ibid. p. ^47. So 
Vihratque ineerta Securimy Ciaud. de Rap.Frof. 5. • 
tAncipifemquemanu tollens utraqueSecurimy Ov. Met. 8. p. itf/. 
^uam te Secunm pMas injecijfc fetitioni tus .' Cic. pro Mur* P» I/X. 
In/iigere Securim reifublics, let. pto Plan. p. 540, N«^ 



Of the Third DetlenfoH. ij 

Now I cannot think that in all thefe Places Securim is ma<ie u(e 
pf for the fancy'd Euphony of Valerius Probus^ but as in hit Judg- 
inent the only, or at leaf): the more preferable word. 

However, Vojpus^ Mr, Leeds^ and the oinnotators arc all in the 
wrong, in totally excluding Sccurtm^ which is found even in cictnroy 
in my Book, %Ad tju% fecurtm funeftam ejfe fervatos^ in Vcr, L. 7. or 
10,0,^ 3^4. and £0 Gronovius alfb Publiflies it. Ovid alio has Svcur^ 
in the Ablative, which giyes countenance to this reading of cicerQy 
|br as much as Accufatives in im only generally make the Ablative 
in t only. The place in Ov. is Cyd. Aeon, 

Non ego confttteram fumfta felt at. t Secure^ 
So HAnfius publiflies it. 

Tor^if alfo has Torquem without dilpute, Cic. de Fin. L. 2. p. 1 58* 
l^ut I know no inftance of Torquim \ neither does any Grammarian 
of Kame, place it among thofe that make em and im both, howf 
ever the Annotators come to let it pafs without remark. 

The Annotators add Sementis to this Rule, and fo far they arc in 
the right, Pliny ufing Sementem^ N. H. L. 18. c. 4., and Cuto Semens 
fim R. R. c. 30. and Columella^ alfo R^R. L, 2. C. 10. But theft 
fhey fubjoyn, Reperiuntur etium Cucumim^ Pulvim^ Cutim^ frdfepiwy 
ftrigdim^ fentim^ gummim^ cannahim^ avim^ cratim^ lentim^ mejjim^ ovim^ 
ratim^ &c. anclhere they are to blame in feveral Relpcdts. Firft 
in inferting Fulvim^ Sentim^ lAvim^ Cratim^ Meffim^ Ovimy Ratimy 
words to be foiud only in obfolete Authors, with Prafefint^ Cntim^ 
StrigUim^ JLenttm^ for which there is good Authority, Plaut. Cure. 
Ac. 2, Scii. Quintil. L. le. c. 2. Non. in StrigUtm. Cato. R.R, 
C.27. Secondly, Cucumim^ Gummim^ Canahim^ are the only Accufa- 
|ives, whete as by this Note it would feem they were to be found 
in em alfb : Indeed there is alfo Cucumerem^ but that comes either 
from CttcumnTy or at leafl; Cucumis Crelcent. They might better 
have added cUvim^ for that is found in PUutus^ Mod;. Ac. 2« 
Sc, i,^ But above all, the Rule that Sdopfius gives in this 
Caie^ is moft extravagant *, namely. That all Feminine non crefcents ' 
in i/ of this Dedeniion, make the Accufative in em, and im- 
both. What Countenance this very Learned Man might find 
from any pieces of Antiquity, that they formerly did fo, I know 
not ; but certainly in the Authors as we have them now, there i^ 
no Colour for it -, and that is the Standard we mufV obferve in 
Writing, otherwife in uAng oiwim^ CUffim^ Na^im^ Pellim^ Peftim^ V. 
VaUim^ yitim^ icc, >ve ihall but puzzle our Readers, and expoie 
our fdvci* 



'. 1. 



Gritmm4rf 



SS Of the Third Declenfioit. 



Of the Ahlative Cafe of the 
Third Declenfion. 

GrammATf Lat. f. 2j. 

AT neutTA definentid in al, ar €^ e, AhUtivum magna ex 
farte mittunt in 5, ut VeBigalj Calcar^ Mare j Ah- 
lativo VeHigaliy Calcari^ Marif ^c» 

Animadversion XLVI. 

THE ezceptiont to this Rule are not well ftated. For Ijt^ar 
i$ found to hzYC lAqueare in the Ablative, once in ^. CtU. 
I ijt mtor auri 

Stth Ldque^e damus Ammum non tungit iivarum^ 

Secondly Mane alfo has Mane in the Ablative, as well as Mam 
^fuh obfcuro maney vel etiam crepufcuUy Colum. L. 7. c. t2. And 
ib Opfins or Jiirtius^ Bell. Afr. Prafertim cum mlites 4 91411^ diet j^• 
jimi fuh armis fletijftnt defatigatu 

So bene mane Cic. and Others. 

Thirdly Par^ which is (aid to have e or i with its Compounds, 
lus never r or t in the fame Signification, but r,' when it is-ufed 
Sttbftantively, and t when it is a meer Adjective ; only the Com« 
pound Imfar^ has Imfare once in yir^. EccU 8. f, 22. when it is an 
Ad}edive. 

Vifpar Diffare^ Claud, de Rapt. Pros. L.2; p. 2^1. 
Htc Hyperiomo folem de femine nafci 
Veeeraff & fariter lunam^ fed Difpare forma, 
and Compar Comparcy in Mart, once %Atlas cum Comfare Mda ; but 
then this lad: is put Substantively, and fignifies a Jfellow, or M^naly 
the Poet meaning that the Mule was a fit Match, or Fellow for 
him, i.. 6. Efig. 77. And thus Par in this fignification, has ?4rr. 

Cum Pare qudq^^ fuo cctunt^ Ov. Faft. L. ^. p. 45. and 

£f docuit jungi cum Pare quemque fua^ Id, raft. L.4. pi ^l* 
Otherwife P-tr with its Compounds,always malce Pari, as Serviurfsiyt 
upon the Place aforecited out of rir^. IMP%AKE autem fr6f$ee 
9netrumy nam 4& hoc Impart dL'imus. And this diftin^ion the Ai^ 
notators have pafs'd over unobfcrv'd. 

Fourthly, whereas che Author excepts only particular Kamei 
in r, laying, Et hac propria^ Sora^e^ Prdnefte^ Reate^, it is certain that 
no proper Name in f, is ever found with t in the Ablatives 

iuiy more tbia tiioft he msMfm i aad this is aUb overlook'd 

hy 



Of the Third De$lenfion. 89 

hf tke Aanoutor^. Lififrlyy U»e hA Mare alfo hi the AbtatiV^ 
once in Ovt^^ P^»o Jk marty 'ttiSt* %»* ^ £rl»3» and Lucr.X.u 



*■■ u ' - i - M- " I I l i <i r . . 



Of fji^^ Names of Fejiivals "which 
want the Singular Number. 

Grammdrf Latin, f, V!^ 

PEfiorum nomina qu^e tantum fluralU funt, Genithmn 
HttirJim in oruiti' mittnnt^ ^c. 
hitefdimi dutem in lUm, £^c. 
At^mkdo iferi tarn in oruA);, quim in ium, (£c^ 
Dafhos v&ro & Ablaift^os in bus ; ut Saturfjalibus^ Bac^ 
chanalibus. Prdter Quinquatriis^ quodjuxtafecundam decli'* 
n n tionem format fradi&os cafus. 

AkiUiadveiision XLVIL 

AGainft-dn^kultf I have' two things to obJeA. Firft againfk 
the exprcffion frdur 2^in^atrtisy which fhould regular- 
ly have been frAter SiiuinquatrU^ becaufc of what follows, 
^uod juxta, fecundam dicHnationhn format fnradiff'os cufus. For J^t«- 
ouamis cannot be (aid to form the Dative and Ablative Cafas. 
ont is it ietf, if there be any Aich word, thofe very Cafes, and 
t^inqmitria J^c word that forms them:* As we do not fay %Aman 
ibrdis the Praeterperfecft Tenfe in aviy but ^mo. Secondly, it is 
difputa4>k, whether there be any fuch word as S^MnquatrU in the No* 
minatf^ and much mof^ S&inquatriis in the Dative and Ablative. 
There are reckon'd up indeed by Grammarians, all fignifying this 
Feafl;,- four words of different Terminations, ^inquatn* by 
Diomedtu ifuinqikttnu by Prifcian , ^uiuquatrus , and S^in^Of 
tres by Cbm/ius and Frifcian : but there are but two of them* to 
be found in Authors, namely QuinqiMtrus^ and SiuintMatriu^ and this 
laft but in one place of Suet. Dom. c. 4. and that of fome Learned 
Men hlive doubted, becauTe cbarifius^ look'd upon to be the befb 

^anunariaa, faji it is Hjuinquutrus pluraliter^ non £j:*inquatrta. And 

fkrro^ a better Author than either, fays this Feaft was called gmn^ 
qiM^TMiy- by s-Produdlion of j^mW^ by the Adjedlioii atrus^ in imi* 
otioa of. the tufcuUtd^ who added the fame to Nouns of Nuni* 
bnr M- fignjUSt (o m^tngr. day( aft^r^ £ StxunuM^ SfftUMtnn, 1. e. ptfl 

W dim 



90 Of the ThirdDecUnfion. 

Srm fcptiiHum jiiu^ Aut l^nduf, Vojfms indeed {ay9> Nam fifium b$c 
SJ^uimqi^atrUy & Sli^iuq$t4ttrm vocab/itur : ut ex Vnrronf^ Cicerone^ OvUio^ 
iielUaj Fefta^ & xAlw conJUt ; but there is no mention of Sb^n- 
^ftasrui in any of the(e Authors. Indeed ^uinquatriis is found in. 
fome Editions of Cicero^ L. 2, Ep. ad Fam. 12. and ad Att. L. 
9. Ep. i^. in Gr«vfw's Edition, and in others the 15. but then 
both the(e Places appear to have been corrupted, as may ap- 
pear by the Notes upon both, and particularly thoie of Mi* 
Uff'iHJ. upoii the latter. There is behde thefe Places, otue more 
in Suetonim^ where reciting part of ^A^uftus*s Letter to Ti&niw, 
he reports him to have written Nos mi Tiheri ^inquatriit fatk JMtcutide 
e^imut^ which place has not been coniidered by any body that I know 
of, but yet wiU hardly ftand the Arguments that are brought a* 
gainfl the word in geaeral, in the places afore mentioned. But how- 
ever this be, 'tis certain i^inquatribus is the more ufual and 
undoubted word. There are two inftances of it in Cictroy Qum-^ 
quAtrihus freqiienti fenatu caufAtn tuam egi, ad Fam. Ep. 2$» L. 12. 
yenit ad me Mutim i^*inquatribuf, ad Att. Ep. II. L. 9« which 

makes it very probable he ufed it in the fame Declenfion in 
the other P/aces, one in Hor, £, 2, Ep, 2. v. 197. R/K/ j^wV 
quxsriims. Juv. Sat. 10. V. 1 1 5. Totis ^uinquairibus ^ and Colum, 
L. II. c. 3. Now what a Rule is this, which prefcribes the 
ibte ufe of a diiputable word, and takes no Notice of that 
which is ,indi(puuble ? And yet here the oinnoutars are filenc 
too. 



Of the Ahlative Singular of the 
Third Declenfion. 



O 



Grammar^ L&C. f» 14* 

'VoYum accufativus in im tantum dejinh^ its iAldtivuf 
exit in i, ut Sitira, Tuflim J ablativo Siti, TuflL 

Animadversion XLVllI. 

His Rule, as it is ftated without Exception, is not univer- 

fally true, for Cunrubir makes only Cantuihimin the Accuit* 

tive, yet has Caunabe in the Ablative as well as CmhuM, 

■ ■ Tibi tortH Canabe fulto 

Cana fit in tranfho, Perf.' Sat. 5. V. 14^. Bdtis has only Bdtim 

or B*tin in the Accufative, and yet Lhy has B*te in the Ablative, 11 

Super Ato B^teamni Dcc.3. L. 8. fUn, has Bdtiy N.H. 4. L. 3. C. I. Ti" 

irit alfo has Tigrim in the Accufative, and yet Tigre ^unveAj^ T^Th 



T 



i 



in the Ablative, as Euphrate ^ Tigre incultis amnibus, Tac An. 6* p. 
254. This laft is, overlooked by FoJ/iusy Mr. leeds^ and thtoinrnfm' 

C€ndi$ 



t€i<trs. aad Mefficm dc ?%n Rojf*/, and B^tt alfo by the Utoiit*»*«r#. 



Of the Third DtcUitfotf. 91 

Cdiudu alfo is found to'davc only r4ii4/fm in the Accufative, and yet 
C^n^di only in the Ablative. CAtMli uno^ Li v. See in its Gender. yeUit 
has VeStem only, and yet Ktffi in the Ablative. Ter, Euu, sAc 4. ^^,7. 
Kf^ has X<]/lfm or Kr/firm, and yet only Refte.Striplis has moftly 5m- 
gUtm, and yet only Stri^Ui^ in the Books which we have left ; tho' 
Plin, in his Book, Dub, Serm. allow 'd of Stri^Ury and here alio the 
Annoutors are ihort in the Account of Reflis and yicfis, 

StMMps has no other Accufative than Siuafim^ but the Ablative 

l%Sin*tft^ in Co/mm. L. I. C. 59. Servara rafu confeffu tu Sinupe,' And 
fo tApicim has it frequently. And fince this Grammar has (akcn 
no notice of the Ablatives of fuch ^ou'ns as make the Accufap>e 
in em only, it may be proper here to obferve, that Btfepnit^ which 
makes the Accufative m em only, has moft commonly the Ablative 
in ^ as 

Correfta Aura Bipenni 
limina ferrumfit. Virg. iEn. 2. 
and yet fometime in e alfo, as 

Jlfd ^tnntfuos c^dit violent a lacertos^ Tib. L. 2. £1. 6> 



Guamfiarm Lat. ibid* 

APjeRiva^ qua nominativum in is vel er, ^ C9 neu* 
trum fdciunt^ ahlativum mittunt in l folum : ut BfT" 
ti^ moUij dulci ; ablativo Forfij mollis dulcij i§c. 

Licet Poetje metri caufa e pro 1 ufurfent. 

Cotter A AdjeBiva tarn in e quam in i mittunt : ut CafaXf 
dupteXf (Sc. 

Prdter pauper^ degenerj uber^ fofpcsy hafpejj qu£ in C tanr^ 
turn faciunt abUtivunu_ 

Campurativd etiam bifariam faciunt ablrJtvum : ut Me- 
lior, do^^iorj ablativo Meliore, docl:iorc, vel iifmiliter 
& fubftantiva qu:edan$ ; ut Ignis, amnis, anguis, fiipcUcXf 
unguis^ yeftis j ablativo e veil. 

AnIM ADVERS ION XLIX. 

HEre Ihould have been a caution given about the place of 
fnch Adjedivet as arc found to have e in the Ablative, in- 
ftead of i •, namely, that they fliould be placM as near the 
Snbftantive as may be^ to avoid ambiguity, which the Poets con- 

, N 2 s^ i^ 



X* 



92 Of the TM DetUufiftt. 

Sff^ ff^fi^ ^fff*^f^i' Ov. Met. 1 5. 

fi^oTy Oy. Par. Hcl. 
Ofmne ferenne latcns ^mu ferenf^A vocWy Id. f^» 3» 

^onaly Adjectives in U, \yhen they are jptft duixftantively, )iiji,y£ 
fhe Ablative in r or in t, as t4S^'y F4pnturis^ NatMRs^ Fftruetis^ 
jUvulii^ Soduiis y Tvremis ^ as VoJJm ptgyti, Moreoycr. theie 
/idiediye^ in is , when they become Proper N«Mn.es miik^ ihe 
Ablative in c only/ as Natalify hfyrtUlify Men fo cidTd^ in'tKeA^ 
laqve Natalcy NLutiaUy as the fiMne ITofi-ts proves. To the Author*! 
jEX9eptionspf?4»pfr, deienerymber^^Q. I h^f this to Objed, Thfi 
%mo of them, namely degener and t*^ are found in % ^fo in thf 
^blative, though he allows them t only. Thus, Vhfri i^r fit^ 
joioy Curt. L. 3. Z/fcrn cintitfoloy Sen. Her. Fur. Ac. j{, Sc i. T^ai 
facundiJiy Auf. Obit. 1 5. Z/Drrf/o/o, Colufn. L. 5* C 6, ^dfub di;gei$m 
hoftfy Luc. L. 4. p. 95f 

It is yet further to be obferv'd o£ x4^je8tives thajt m^Jce the AV1|? 
live in e or t, that in what are commonly cali'd Abl4tiv.es abioliftc» 
J^articipUs never end inr; and if the Subitantive be Neuter, and th« 
Ablative not ^bfolute, whatever the Ad jecf^ive be, they hardly f 
ver end in e^ as Regtumte Romulo, Viitrici fcrro^ not ^^J*^nti^VwKf : 
^idiich though as neceflary a Note, as any of this kind^ is "yet o< 
verlook'd by the xAnnotaiors, Laftly, there are feveral Subftan^es 
which make the Ab^tive in ^ or t, and fome in i only, befide'thofe 
that are here mentioned, which here follow in Alphabetical Order^ 
which are mofb of them prov'd by To^M/^and for tne reft I ihall cite 
Authorities, 

J^ftattf, commonly J^fUtij Lucr. L. 6, p^ i^. tAmne .coi|iiii|)ply, 
I rarely. %At^t^ commonly, i rarely. %AnH4i only, \>ut thip' mfj 
be faid to be an Adje^ive ufed Subftantively,with'XtWr undemood* 
%Ave commonly, i rarely. Bile commonly, 1. Amph, Acl 3. 5c 2. 
I^ucr. L. 4^p. 1x3. Bidtnte^ ori, but this may be£UdaUb't^ be 
an AdjecfTive. Cuntdi only. Cane rather, fcarce i. dpite coma|on« 
tYj CMpiti^ Sil. L. ^. p. 96. Ctve commonly, i rarely. cUjflt com- 
monly, t rarely. Fine or 1, Conuncnti^ Tac. An. 4. p. 197. V^pf^gguixr 
monly> t rarely, tu^ commonly, % rarely* I(v> or i \ bnc in 
the Phrafe, o<^« ^ Jgniinterdiccre^ ^m is peculiar, aiid JQ^'nr not 
allowable. Imhre commonly, Imbri^ Virg, Georg. i. p. 39. ' JEo. 4« 
J ^7». i^^ commonly, t rarely, I^f i</^ cOmmonJy^ i r^r^ly. ^e 
or i, Mente commonly, t Colum* L. 10^ M^^. co^mo^ 
ly, * rarely. Mejfe conimonly, i rarely. Monte cominolily , 
i rarely. Nnye or t. Occipite or i. Orbe cpmmooly, i raa^ j. 0yf 
commonly, i rarely. Parte commonly, i rarely. Privir coppuapor 
ly, Pir/vf, Tac. as I think ; but the Column of Quotations is ip^ 
fac'd, and I cannot recover it. Pofte commonly, i rarely. Rure 
or t. Se^etf commonly, i rarely. Sorde more common, 1 rare, Sorte 
compionly, i'. rarely, .$V^/?^, or i. fJriPr comgiairfy,' it rare- 
ly. »t^t^ commonly, 1 rarely. ■ 
► The oinnoufors have reckoned up almoft all thcfe, but then they 
neither re^ any whither for Proof, noi: yet di^iogtU^ ^^$W€m 
fuch as ^re common, and fuch as are rarie ^od unulual ; hy wkidh 
Wejnsi :^vhocv<r writes by this Rale, runs the bi^^f^pf uw 
gfch prmwtiw, as the ereaicft part rf iu4 S^ffS.Wvf WfvA 
mtt withal} 10 that one S puzzledj and the oth^ mmaio'd: 



Of thfThif.iDffifn^. 91 

KtA apon this Account, a11 this Ezadncfs is no more than 
iifiedfal. 



Of the Genitive Plural of th 
Third Declcnfiqn, 

» 

Grammary Lat. p. 25*. 

EX ahUtivis in 1 tantum, vet e £^ 1, fit Plurnlher 
, e^fivits m i^iiH uf Utili udlium ; puppe «#/ p^ 
puppfun. 

ANlMADV^RflON L; 



B£ficU die Author's Exceptions to this Rule, t];i^ ^t^ ^ev^DJ 
words that make the Ablative lingular in> only, and yet 
have turn in the Genitive Plural. As firfl: GentiUs in as or ity 
^Udl ?h»"g|*| jK^ua. .thi^. ace mcfx Adj«^4ves, «hey -oaaiM « 4tf t 
in the Ablative lingular, yet being put Subftantively to denote a 
PcrfbiL, have only e in the Ablative, as far I have obfery'd, and 
yet imm in the Genitive Plural, as > oprpiuatium fremitus efi incrediU- 
bsy Cic* ad At. L. 4. £p. 7. and fo Samnitiumj i^iritium^ or Samni^ 
fmmu SisrtniMm by a Syncope, as every body knows. Ap^ not oolf 
dm Qcntilcsy but other Kouns in 4U are alfo found to hfVit 
tifwi fbuietimes in the Genitive, liiough only r, in the AblMtiye, 
au, MStOiumy %Affimtatiumy Culumitatiumy Civitatium^ dptimatium^ J^ti^is 
tdumm, as Fogius proves. Of thefe ^Affiniuti indeed is found once u% 
the Ablative, as has been faid before from Vojfius^ but yi no Clal^ 
fick Author. So ?d^4¥V ^' F^l^wm. f9rr^u^$y or Fornutiumy 
at the iame Vcffiut proves. There are found alfo cbmpedium and 
5rmi»#fiim, Ac. 3. Sc. 3. Extifpicium the Subftantive in xAcciuj, 
^igretjrifimm Pl^t. Q^. Ac. \> ^c. 2. H()i»tifitf«r is i^\ f^me Edition! 
pf '^*%?. ,M 3i«. «nd 3^ *f%jr appto^. of it^ :|mc th^ 
{rcDoltpbf Wit^t^ 



GnM(9K9Kra 



94 ^f *^^ T^i^^ Deciefffiofi. 



Grammar 9 Lat. p. ±^. 

I Tern f rater ijia ; Suffticum^ comflicunty firigilum^ or* 
tificum, vigilum^ veterum^ memorum^ f^gHum'^y inor 
funu At flus format flurium. 

Animadversion LI. 

BEfide theie ntmti. by the Author as excepted, ihoold hivt 
been added Comfotum^ Impotumy Con^enerumy Dtgemenmu Ptihe* 
puMy ImptAeruMy Sexetunty 7A>trum \ and Compounds of Cvrfm 
and Ttfy as Bieorporumy %Al%feduniy which has vAlipede in the AbUtive 
vhen It is an Aa je^ve;> as appears by yofim from faUrim VUecus. So 
Uofpes the Adje^ive has Hofptu only is the Ablative, and Hofpitum 
wtiuk ufUally in the Genitive Plural, yet Com, Sev. hai HoJfUimmfim* 
yienm^ de Atxu 



i i 



Grammar^ Lat: ^« ibid. 

4 

SVnt (S qtke Syncofen aliquando aimi ttunt ; cujufmoSfuni^ 
' SapientAm fro fipicntium, Serpentiim fro Serpen- 

Animadversion LII. 

THis Rule is ihort, in not giving auAccount of what Nouns 
admit of this Syncope, and what not -, neither, have the 
tAmtotMtors fupply'd it* Wherefore to give the Reader Ibsne 
aim in this matter, it is to be obferv'd, that words principally fub-' 
je^ to this S3mcof« are Participles, and other Adje^jves in mj» 
as in the Examples in this Rule. Thus yiriH has Vavfntum^ Momm- 
tmrny Ru.lfntumy &c» and St4a, Sonium Theb. 3, Secondly, all Sttb-> 
Aantivesin 4f, except Gentiles, as, civitatHm^ Optimttumy Summ4$mm^ 
^r. which though they make e only in the Ablative Singular, as hat 
been (aid before, yet make <»m fometimes in the Genitive Plural, 
and by a Syncope nm more ufually* yirg. has alfa ^^efi&m 
fyr •4grefliumy Georg. I. p. 28. and C^le^m for CctUftiumy Mn. ?• f» 
244* But then there are fomis Nouns that will not admit of this Syii» 
fK>pe I and fudb art firft, SubftantiTCS of the Heutc r Gender ia 



Of the Third DeclinjSon. 95 

r, as liarf^ Kete. N^vim indeed has Kegnator Mdrum^ but in that he 
was never fbllow'd by any body. Nouns in al or ar alfo reject this 
Syncope, as %Ammd^ LatjutMy as having at iirft ended in e after / and 
r, which in procefs of time was retrench'd. Secondly Adjedives^ 
of one Termination will not admit of this Syncope, as Fehx^ oUrox. 
Gen. Feliaum^ oUrocmmy never Micum^ %Asrocufn^ yet Locu^Us has Zo- 
cufUtium and L^cufletum* 



«j»hi 



0/ the Genitive Plural of the 
Third Declenfion. 

Grammar f Lat. ^. ly, 

OVanJo mminativi JinguUres duabas confonantihtts fini^ 
untur genitjvi flurales exeunt in ium: ut^ Pars, 
Urte, fgc. 

Excipe Hycmum, Principum, Partidpum, Mimid- 
puni, Forcipum, Inopum, Coelibum, Clientum, (Sc. 

Animadversion LIIL 

THe Rule here is obfcure, for words ending in x, end in two 
Confonants x, being cs in one Letter ; and yet words of 
this ending are not comprehended under this Rule by the 
Author, or his Rule is falfe> if they be*, all Subftantives in x hav- 
ing um only, except thoie mentioned in *Aninuiivirfitm 4.^ And the 
Exception is faulty, concluding as it does, with an ^c^ whereas 
there was but one word to have been added, namely Confors^ Geo. 
Plur. Confinum, to di&inguilh it from the Nominative Confortium. 
Compounds from Capio , as PurticepSy Frinceft^ and fortefs^ quafi 
Ferriceps, with all of like derivation, make »m, not if»m, to di- 
fiinguiih them froni the cognate Nominative, which they all have 
but forceps^ as Particifium^ Principiumy Manctfium^ Mumeifium, And 
Ibr the fame reaibn Stntx makes Senum^ to difbinguiih it from die 
Kominative Stmum, Now thefe Et cAter^s^ in Rules are very dilcou- 
raging things, and may w^U make the Scholar apprehend there are 
4 great many other words to be added, or elie no Man would in rea« 
foa conclude with an ttc. The xjtnnotutors add to thefe Exceptions 
thde Words, Exd^ GRYPS GRYPHHM, LYNX LYNCUM, 
SPHYNX SPHYNGUM, PHRYX PHRYGUM, ^fimilUMo^ 
fObUfta CrdCM. And this indeed the Grammar ihould have taken 
Notice of, but it has not« neither here, nor in the Account it gives 
of Greek Nouns. But then whereas the Notes fay, EtfimilUMo* 
mMUta GrscMp they ihould have iaid £t Graca omm'4, for all Greek 
Nouns make the Genitive in »m, of what Number of Syllables fo- 
ever they coafift> witnefs ^timn^ Cjclofum^ CMjbtm^ at every body 
IcMi^rt. QrtunfMTj 



^ Ofthi Third DttUti^if, 



Gr/tmtrt hat. /. )Ud. 



u 



Bi in nomifunvi & genitivis finguUribus reperiunn 
tUY fares SjUabdj genitivus flidralis exit m iunt 

AMlMADVEltSiaN LIV, 



THe Exceptions to this Rule arc not (iiffici^nt, for f^ratn, 
Maut^ PateTy hav^ equal Syllables in both Caies, and yet 
make utH in the Genitive PHiral , as well at C^emnn 
Fanum^ Vutum^ ^HVtnum^ dpumy sAfuvh^ which are the Author's 
Ei^e^tions. it maj be the Author might mean at much bf 
his ^c, at the End or his Exceptions, but I know not who could 
find out this Meaning. And thi> is a common Fault, and yet a 
Ytffy great c^e, in this Grammar, namely, after the reckoning up 
of iome Woi^Sjto conclude with an 6^. when the Words omitced, 
are not of the fame Special Kind with thofe mentioned ; and alike 
fubjed to tHefRuIie : rorinfuch Cafe there is no Means to £nd 
out what is iti^endied bfy the 6'r>vhich ciin f^^fohably kav«noplacein 
a Kule,but when the Words there mention'd,and tho{e omitted, are 
of one and the f^me Special Kind, and alike fubjed to the Rule. A9 
i^r Example; having ^ena Rule that Adjectives of the Com[»ira^ 
tlye l!)egFee, as it' i^ conifAonly callM, make »m in thtt Genitive 
Pliipal, it is fufitcieht* t'o iAftaixce' iii ttiis manner, as ZMFiohnKy 3ie* 
6orumy &c. bfcaufcatf.tkdf^ilafifd/UkeKiAd, NaitteF^ Cotifi* 
fa'tlves, andfo tkiy l>e eifily uAddrftood'; but ^hat Likehm it 
there between ?4ii»m in the Excej^iohs, and U^>m In the &c. Or 
%Apt0m andf Pr^uni^ and fo in ttiV r^% uYilefi that they be M BH^ 

Suable^, and ffon drefcents .' btft then all futh Words are not dU6e 
bjt(f^td this ]Kule of Exce^tioi^s, th^ moft i»art of them xibHrM 
flf»iA, as by the Gtfiefral Rule. B!*eude b/f/»r, wmch He allows t<Aim 
otiynA^um^ n&'akds u^'tfiR alfd Ov. Ji/tet, 15./. 373. r^^v. ft R. L. 3; 
c. i6> Colmn, ij, 9. c. 1 1, aiid el(ewhere\ , 

And Voli*cris of Which he makes no Xteiition, has Miemmmm 
cdtiimonly,, when it. is put SubftahtiVely, fo conlmoriiy' iiAfeei!^ 
as not taneed* Pro6f, thoU]^ it has Voiuerian^ too, as d^fm eXtomty 
and- proves by Ttc. and Sl^infd, bcfide which rd^/ quotes ait Amiw 
fStyforitoUr6f^4ry. RR^t/. i. c. 39but ih ri\y Book it » YO^ 
^um. It. is fu'rtDSe^ to be obfei^'d that iwiir ^i thefe Hf^it ertJceiOs is 
ibnietimeS contri(fVed by a SyACoM, as C^^Mfat Cdi^tmti^ Sib L. 4^ 
|.<^5* CUiitm for di^iuifiy td.L.i. p.i^. iCf^w/Sjli fol' Mrw/iwfi^ Ov.ftriK. 
l* 9. p. 83. And this S^oobe' is not bnly to be found in th)^ Pbtfts^ 
bat in the' ]^#6fe Wi^ets alfo, of which ^/^ giver feveVal ihftancei 
lii VUnfhn^ «Ad fr^fyfw one,, of *rfilil^foi^*^<^^ in 6;sm frp Sexn^. 



Of tbt Third DeclenfioH, 9^ 



mmmm 



Grammar 9 Lat. f» i$* 

AS format Affium^ Masmarium, Vas \^adis, vadium^ 
Nox no6Hum, Nix nivium, Os olTium, Faux 
faudunif Mus murium^ Carocarniuih) Corcordium: A« 
litiium ah ales ajfumit u. 

Akii^adtersioN LV. 

THE Author here feems to aim at a Rule for Monofyiiablei,' 
moft of the words in this Rule being fiich; but then forget* 
dng himielf, after his manlier, he reckons up Caro among 
thdn, though it be a Diil^^Uable, and non Crefccnt^ and fo contain' 
cd in his former Rule, which makes it fuperfluous here. Neithelf 
is %AUs properly Reducible to this head ; but ihould have been an 
Ezception to Noons that make the Ablative in r,of hiore than one 
SrJlaDla^at befide this Irregularity iif theAfTortment of the words, 
tnore are ierer^ Monofyllables omitted, which make the Genitive 
Plural in imn^ as well as thofe he xhentions. Thefe are Brs Bcjpum. 
C|r Catwmy Dos Dotiumj Glis Glirium^ Lis Ixtium^ Os OJ/iumj and Os ^^ 
Hmmj i£ Uiere be any neceffity of ufing it in this Cafe, rather than 
brmmy at F(tpits observes* Cic» ufed Murufft de Nat. Deor. for Mu* 
fimmy n Cbarifim obferves ; but now it is Murium in lihoft Editions, 
ihe place is coward the end of the fecond Book. ' 
. Aflui now after all here is an Obfervation wanting, which School* 
Bovs winhanUy mike c^themielves^amely of Nouns that have no 
fingular Kumber,or at Icaft noNominative Cafe fingular,as Manes, 
MtKmmjhrehy the old obfolete Noun, Trecum. In all which the Rule 
U CO co^fider, which of thefe Rules they would belong to, if they 
had a fingular Number, or a Nominatite Cife fingulat, and to 
fona the Genitive Plural accordingly. So from Voris obfolete in 
the Nominative is made Vorium in the Genitive Plural, and .fronl 
tte oUblejte F&t/, for which by Syncope, Yts afterwards came in to 
be uied, l^um. So CeUrmn, iMCtrum^ Procertttn, from the old Ceier, 



Of 



9 8 Of theThiri Deelenfion* 



Of Greek Nouns of the Third 

Declenlion. 

Grammar^ Lat. f* 1^» 

GHacofonte derivata fleraque^ quando juxtd litigud fuA 
morem varinntur,Geninvum mittunt sn OS, ut TltaOy 
Pan, E)apbnis, : dativum vero in i breve : ut Titaoi^ Pan% 
Daphnidi, Phyllidi: accufanvum in z{nijifint Neutriusn* 
neris in a non terminata) ut Pana, Phyllidaf Amaiyll&n 
Orphea, 

Animadversion L VI. 



THE Reader is mightily beholden to the Author for this 
Kule, by which he learns this ^reat Secret, that Greek 
Nouns, when they are declined like Greek Nouns, make 
the Genitive and Accusative Singular, like Greek Nouns, namely 
the Hrfl: in o/,and the latter in «.But to complete the obligation^ he 
ihould havefaid what Greek Nouns the Latins DecliiiM according 
to the Greek form; and what not : for 'tis certain the Ancients have 
made a difference between fome Greek Nouns and others, in this 
point. To begin with the Genitive Cafe firft. Nouns that en- 
creafe with d in the Genitive Singular, do among the Poets, often 
follow the Greek form, and make the Genitive in o/, as in the 
£fth of the Greeks, from whence they come : Thus Dafbnid9s^ 
Fb^fUidos^ the Author's inf^ances are to be found among the Poeti 
with oifopidosy Ov. Met. L 7. p. 14.9. oithamantidos^ Prop, i^^ 
ofrcadosy Stat. Theb. i. p. 3. E<vrid9s<^ Prop. 1. J. Car. io« Bac^ 
che'idos^ Stat. Syh 2. p. 55. Bufiridosy Stat. Tneb. 12.. Bnfeidasy 
Ov. Am. 2.. Chloridosj Catul. p. di. Ctebremdosy Stat. SyL t. p.2i. 
Chr^feidos^ Ov. Tr. 2. HelUdos^ Ov. Met, I, 2. Ifidos^ Plin, 277« 
ZatAof^ Prop. 1. I. Car. 2. Mdotidosy Luc. L« )• Mareotidiy iVo- 
madof, Sil. L. 2. FalUdosy Stat. Theb. 5. Ov. Art. 2. FhMfidosy Or. 
Met, 7, Prop. L, I. Fhocidofy Stat, Theb.i. Sfhyt^osy Theb. 2. V.55& 
StAch*doSy Luc. 1. 3. p. 74. Strymoitosy Stat. Tneb. ^.Syrtidos^ LucX.^* 
Th-iidosy Prop. 1. 2. In Fatronymici^^ this Greek Termination is 
fbll more common, as JEolidosy Ov. Can. Mac. t^nniffidosy Id. FaC 
5. %Atbamantidosy Lean. Her. Erymuutbidos , Ov. Tr. x. Euritidos^ 
Oy. Dejan. HsrcJ^fidos^ Prop. l«£l.i. ItMcbid^s, Prop. Li. 

Prop. 






Of the Third Dectenpcn. 99 

Prop.- 193. i'^oi^'wyOv.Cyd. Aeon. MemphitUoty Ov. Art. Am. 3. 
IMeiJot^ Stat. Theb. 7. Phorcydos y Prop. 1. 3. El. 21. Fb<H 
romdos, Ov. Met. i^ fborcyniJory Sil. 1. ^.6- ante. Stat. Theb. 3. 
Sut. Syl. I. Tantaltdosy Prop. 1, 1. El. 30. Prop. 1.2. EI. ^.Tfe«c»- 
fiMffiulo/, Ov, Met. 1. II. p. 240. Tritomdosy Virg. ^n. 2. 
Tdmeffidosy Luc. 1. 8. So Mmidos^ aiid Tbebaidos names of Fables 
or PoemS) rather 0/ than it. But except it be in thefe latter, 
and Patronymicks , the Termination ig is the more ufual c- 
ven amoDjg the Poets^ and the Profe Writers hardly ever decline 
tHeoi other^vife than in M.Beiides thcfe^there are otherGreekKoHns 
vrhich make the Genitive Singular in 0/, namely luch as end in 0/, 
pure, f. r. with a Vowel before os in the Genitive Greek, as Hdrejis^ 
HMTefioSy fo Metamorphojisy Poefis^ Itys ItyoSy Ov. Met. 130, &c. And 
iKxaufe the Greeks decline thefe Words fometimes in f^r, as well as 
f^, the Latins have imitated them in that too, as Hdrefis, Hdvefioj^ 
or Hereftosy fometimes they Decline them after the Latin form, 
without any encreafe, as W^refisy Gen. Hsre/is^ and fo of the reft, 
Thefe areall the Greek Nouns that we find dcdin'd by the Latins 
according to the Greek form, with the Genitive in oj, except P^no/, 
the Author's inftance to diftingui(h it from Panuty Bread, As for Ti- 
tumoi^ which the Author inftancesin, I have never feen it. However 
this D^ JSX^ftoSy tAikLHtoSy %AcberontoSy %AlcimedontoSy xAndro^tonot^ tAn^ 
tenorasy t^fyanakosy tArubos^ %Atbanuintofy tAilantoSy Cuflorosy Cbuonosy 
CecropoSy CreontoSy Cycloposy DamonoSy DidonoSy DolonoSy Erycofy Kelica^ 
nof^ Ixionosy Jafygosy Ibidosy Lycdonosy Lacedsmonosy MacedonoSy Ji4ero^ 
foSf inSefitorofy MimantoSy MinooSy NeftoroSy OrionoSy PtlopoSy PbaUridosy 
Stysosy Tboantosy are, I am confident, never to be met with in good 
Authors. 



Of the Acctifative Jingular of 
Greek Nouns of this De- 
cknfion. 

• • • - 

THIS Rule is no lefs obfcure upon the Acciifativc too, for 
want of fomc neceflary Obiervations. As fir ft it is ro 
be obferv'd, that this Accufative in 4, is in a manner 
peculiar to the Poets, yet not fo peculiar neither *, but that 
they ibmetimes make uie of that in fm, and the Profe Wri- 
ters fometimes that in <«, as %Adon'tdemy Claud. Nup Hon. 8c 
Mar. Od, i. ^tbiopemy Id. Bell. Gild, cblamydemy Virg. Jtn. 49. 
neither has this word any other Accufative in any Author. 
fieStvtemy Sen, Troad. Ac. 4.SC.1. Jafonenty Her. Epod.3. and othors. 
On the other hand the Profe Writers fometimes ufe the Accufative 
ill 4) isontrary to what Uejfitwrs de Port Roy^l determine, as cbuUcdon^^- 

O 2 in 



y CO Of the Third Deeknfiou. 

in SaL Hift. 4* ^Stwra^ Cic. T. Q^ 1. i. Mtmpon4y Cuf^ 1. 4. 1(4^ 
irdtboHM^ JS'cp. Vit. Milt. plympiadA, Juft. I.7. fo drn. Nefos; 
To^d4manu , Curt. 1. 5. SaUmina , Nep. Vit. ThemjC Zofjj* 
roua^ juft. 1. ^7< p* 200. Secondly, there are many of thefe wor4s 
found with the Accufative in «, which yet are not found to have the 
Genitive in 0/, as thofe above mention'd in theGenitive Cafe^whe^eat 
by the Authors Rule, thej that have « in the Accufative, i^em to 
liave as alfo in the Genitive. Thirdly, Greek Proper Names in tf, 
that are Mafculines, feldom or never make the Accuiativc in «» but 
in un, or in moftly, fometimes in rm, though H. Sufhens in njs Boole 
%e %Abufu LinguM Gr*c£^ fays, he has never i&n f^iidem : but uiis was 
his overfight, for Virpl has it, Mn, 5. ^. i9i. and 7f*y. 5<r. 6. b. 
87. "So Ei*polidem^ Perf. Sat. t. V. 124. There are alfo fome Gre^ 
Kouns of this Dedeniion that have a double, fome a treble Aco^ 
pitive, o£ whf ch the Author gives the following Rule. 




Of thofe that h4ve 4 Dquble 

Genitive, 

Grammar i Lat. f.i$> 

^Vnt qud duplicem genitivum factunt j dltentm in 01 
non purunty alteram in OS furum. Atque h^cfrc gmith 
vort^ ratione duplicem accufativum quogue formant ; Mlierum 
in in, aherum in a : ZJt ParK genitivo Paridos fS Patios^ 
accufativo Parida (S Parin : Themi genitivo ThemidoSf 
ThemipSj accufativo. Themida (^ Themin* 

An imadversiqn LVIL 

THis Rule is very obfci^re. For it is not certain whether l(he 
' Author intends it of fuch Greek Nouns 'as have both at 
pure and impure . in Greek; or Latin. If he means i^ 
of fuch Nouns as have both thefe Terminations in Gretk only, 
the Rule is infuDicient. For not only thofb thit encreaie in ftf*pi^« 
^ that Language, but they alio that encreaie in as impure, haye 
^any of them the Accufative in m, or mi in Latin, it he mea^s 
Ills Rule of fuch Greek Nouns as inake os pure in Latin, then it ii 
iibtorioufly falfe, and one of his inftances,' namely ?«rA»/, js, { 

felj^vie; 'never found in Latin, whatever Tbemioj b^ But becan^ 
he youn^ Scholar may have occafion to i^e fome of th^ wor4^ 
^ibecia|ly jn Latin Verfe> before he has either Gr^ qr Latin 0* 

»>».*•.,• : . J : ..V... ..;• ■■.u,'..."- >■ .*.... :. ^gpafh 




Of the Third Declenfon. lo j 

.^._^ toiudsc of them by this Rule, I ttuW fubjoyii a Catalogut 
oFtne i^ovt ulual« and the ufe of them in this rcfpecf^, with iuch 
btherii ilfb, which h'e may be apt to take, as belonging to thit 
Xulc. But £rft I muft diftinguiih between Pro(>cr Names bjf M^ 
and Gods, Women and GoddefTes, and of Cities and Couhtrie%^ 
and Common Karnes ; for all thefe are not equally capable of tl^if * 
diverfity of Formation in the Accufative, though by this Rul^ 
for want of this 4iftin<ftion, one would think they were* The Pro- 
per Names of Men and Gods therefore are more eipe'ciallyiiibjeA 
to this double variation. The proper Naitnes of Women and God* 
clefTes, are fome of them fubjecf^ to it. Common Names as Jtiffm^ 
Fyxisy Tjrantusy &c. are not at all fubje<f^ to it ; fo %ifyin^ Pyxin^ Tj^ 
runmmy &c. are unheard of, though the ufe of them, for want of 
diftindion, be countenanc'd by this Rule. Laftly, thofe that hav^ 
this double variation are not oniy found to end in m, in the Acctt* 
iatiyC) but in tm alio, which is another pmifTipn in this Rule, 



yi Lift of Proper Nantes of Men 
and Gods from the Greek in is, 
which thovgh encreafing in the 
pther Ohliques, make in or im 
in the Accufative^ without enr 
creaje. 

ADonit appears to encreaf? in this Obliques, by iAJonidem, the 
Accuiative in hauAUn^ Nup. Hon. dc Mar. Od. i. 
Fgnus reverfum fptrnit v4donid<n^ and yct has otdonim aUb 
in the Accufative, Prop. L. 2. £1. 33. 

Ttftis qui mlfeum quond*ii^ ftrcujfit tAdonim, oiufiity ldy{. 6» 
But then Pliny declines it without ei>creafe, }Jortof return ^Monit^ 
& oUcinoi^ N. li. L. 19* C. 4* 

•Jj^exis has %MeMis in the Genitivc,iVam otlexidi^ manum amabam^ Cic. 
ad At. L. 7. £^.2. and oUexim in the Accufative, In tuk qucqu^ 
eptflolk oHexim vtdecr' 4^noJcere^ Id. ad At, L. i ^. £p. 1 5* And fb 
rut. 

'%A»«hu h^% oimAidis in the Genitive, tAnuhtdia ora vntndiy Ov. Am. 
!• 2. £1. 13. and yet %Anuhim in the ^ccufative, as, 
' wdb»/a 7^ n^Q Utrtmtcm of^ontrc Cinubim^ ^^^P* ^'3* ^^^' ^^* 



102 Of the Third Declen^n. 

M^yak has Bryax'tdis in the Genitive, as funt iuGmio tf 4Im fign* 
muomorea, iUuflrium Mrtificumy Liber fater ErjMxUis & dter ScopSy 
Plin. N. H. 1. 3^. c. 5. and yet Bryaxin in the Accuiatire, as 
ScopM babmi smulos, tMdem dtMie Bryaxiny & Timotbeumy & Xjtochu* 
rem^ Id. Ibid. 
Iif/ir«f has Bufiridb in the Genitive, as, 

olMt UUitdati nefiis £i»/iruiltiar«/.Virg. Georg. 3. and yet 
Sufirim in the Accufative. 

Mr^Q ego fodjiHtem feregrin§ temfU erwurg 
Bufinm domuli Ov. Met. L. 9* 5- 184* 
VAfhms has D^pbmdis in the Genitive 

■ Cum Dapbnidis %Arcum 

frepjHy Virg. Ed. 3. and yet Duphnin in the Accufative. 
.— — ^— Hon ego Dapbnin 
• Judice te metuam^ ^i^g* E^^* 2* ^^^ eliewhcre. 

Uaeris has Moeridis in the Genitive, as Vhifuit Mceridif Ucus^ Plin. 
K. H. 1. 35. c. 12. and yet Virgil makes the Accufative of the 
fame word, though not fignifyiug the fame thing, to end in im^ 
as Lufi Marim videre friores» £cT« 9* 
NMs has Kabidi in the Dative, Vt meis ab tergo tutis, fecwriur heUum^ 
Nabidi itferam^ Liv. Dec. 4. 1. 1 . and ATtfbiii in the Accufative, 
, Decreto de exercitu parando adverfus Nabin fiUfo^ Id. Ibid. And 
the fame Author has aifo NMiem in the Accufative, ^i poUim 
cendo fe adverfus Nabtdem belium geflurum, &c Dec. 4. 1.3. 
Ndydftn tyrannum duobus continuis prceliis fubegit ^ Jafb. 1.31. 
"p. 260. 
^firis has Ofiritn in the Accufative, but then this Noun is dedin'd 
by the Latins without enereafe, as ^Abydus l/lemnttnis regia^ &Ofiris 
temph inclytum^ Plin. N. H. 1. 5. c, 9. 
Mxclam4re Ubety populus quod cUmat Ojiri 
Invento^ Juv. Sat. 8. v. 29. 
Tarts has faridis in the Genitive, as, 

Vardana qui faridis dhrextt fpicuU dextra, ^^S' ^^* ^* ^^^ ^^^ 
where in him, and others, and in the Accufative, Farin^ Farimy 
Tartdem. . 

tAccufoque Parin ; fradamq} Helenamq) repofcoj Ov. Met, 1 3. p. 2o8. 

Et face pragnans 
Cijfeu regina Parin creat Virg. Ksi. lo. 
Ju>folvit Pbrygium vefbra rapina Paring Mart. 1. 12. £p. 
^ Taridem is fuppofed by Henry Stephens not to be found in any 
Author, at leaft he fays he has never feen it : but F^jpm afferts 
it by unqucftionable Authority, namely that of Vtrgily Juve^^ 
naly and Suetonius* 

Solus qui Paridem fuetus contendere contra^ Virg. ^n, 5. 
Vtq\ magisftupeas^ ludosy Paridemque rMquit^ Juv. Sat. 6' 
Et funt qui tradunt Paridem b^ionem occifum ab eo Suet. Vit. 
Claud, c. 54. To which may be added that of Tacbm^ H'tftrtO" 
Mem PaJtidemy An. 13. p. 308. And that the Latins form the 
Accufatives of thefe fort of Nouns in dem^ as well as in and im, 
is demonftrable further by EupoUdem^ alledg'd by To^m out ot 
Perfiusy and the inftances above produc'd by me. of nAdonidem and 
NJ>ydem or Nabidem, But for the Accufative in da, and Parida 
, the Author'^ inftance in particular^ I have never fcen any fuch 

thing 



Of the Third Declenfion. i o j 

thiRi in the Proper Names of Males, tho' in thofe of Females 
nothmg be more common. 

ThaUns has PbaUridis in the Genitive^ as Vt virtnte frdditi in VhaUr'v* 
Ss tatiro be^tti fint^ Cic. Fin. 1. 5. p. 288. So Sen. £p. 66. Val. 
Max. 1. 9* c 2« and yet PbaUrim in the Accuiative, as, Si Pb*l^ 
rim crudelem tyranttum^ &t\ Cic. Off. ^. p. 189. So he again. Fin, 
1. 4* p. 24i* and others. But then this Noun is alfo declin d 
by Seneca without encreafe, Sicut in Pbalari^ quern uiunt^ &x. 
Sen. de Clem. 1. 2. c. 4. 

Mefcuporis is found to have KbefcuforiAi in the Dathre, as ^Au^ujiy^ 
f^^f^ Tbracum Rhefcuforidi fratri ejus, partem filio Cotyi fermijir^ 
rac. An. 2. p. 99. ana Khefcuporim in the Accufativc, as /^itur 
Ebejcuporim tjuoaue Thracia regem afiu t^greiitur^ Id. Ibid. 

Serapu has Sera fUi in the Dative, as Sarafidi, at que Ifidi antiquitut fa* 
cratum, Tac. Hift. 4« P/ 671* Suet. Vit. Vefp. c. 7. Serapim in the 
Accufative, as Cur non in eodem genere Serapin^ Ifimque numerenrns^ 
CicN«D. 1. 3* p. 135. SerapHj Mart. 1. 9. £p. 30. Catul. 
Carm. 10. 
But then Ptiny has Serafis in the Genitive, as Non ahfimilis Hit nar* 

ratur in Tbebis deltAxro Serapis. N« H. 1. ^6» C 7. So Val. Max* 
1« I. c. 3. 

Tbyrfif has Thyrfide in the Ablative, as, 

Et certamen eraty Corydon cum Tbyrfidcy m^^num^ Virg. £cL7. 
Tbyrfim in the Accufative, as 

Hoc meminiy & viStumfrufira contendere Thyrjim^ Id. Ibid. 

Zeuxis has Zeuxide in the Ablative, ^ as ^*arum altera efl de BUndenif 
Zeuxide^ Cic. ad Q. Fr. L. I. £p« 3. .and Zeuxin in the Accufative, 
as Sed ut ad Zeuxtn revertat. Id. Ibid. 



Of the Accufative Singular of 
Proper Names of Women and 
Goddejfes in is taken from the 
Greek, 

> 

TH £ Proper Names of Women and GoddefTes in 1/, taken 
from the Greek, and encreafing in the Obliques, mod: 
-xommonly make the Accufative nn^ular in dem or da^ and 
yet Ibme few there are which make it alfo in in or ttn. 
Iris makes Irim in the Accufative, Irim de calo mifity Virg. /En. 4. 
Jfts, has Ipiis in the Genitive, as Xfidis ofpidum. Plin. INf. H. L 5. 

CIO. 

ffijM in the Dative Juxtn •fptdtim Copt^n infuU eft facta Ifidl, 

Ijidis^ 



J, • • , ' 

to4 Of the Third Dedenfion. 

tfi^i I^ Il>i(i« i- lo. c. 33* jmd ^ec ifim in the Accu&ttve, at 

Nos in temfU tuam Romans recepimns ffim, So Cic N. D. I. 5* 
p. 3d I. This word and Seraf is it declined without cncxtaie, by 
Cictro^ Pkrro and Cinctus^ as chariftus iays, and Foffius and Mr. JLerii 
from him. As for Serapi/^ it appears to have been fo declin'd 
by CicgtOy and Kt/. M4jr. by the Account of it above given; 
but of Ifis there is no fuch remark. But the inference that 
hir, Lttds makes from hence, wiJinot hold, which is^ That 
fuch other Greek Nouns in iu may be declin'd fo too. His words 
art PMTMfyllMce ttium Serttpisy&ifis Varro,TulIius,6' Cincius mfU»* 
trunt (Sofipatro tefttj & dixit Plautus Epid. Ac. i. Sc. i. Turn ilU 
frognatus Tbtti fro Tbttidey qt^d foruife non in animo babuit cUrijfunui 
ttofpusy cum vtrto dtdit.lefidiffimo Er^fmOj quid de cl^mxti /Exyptin^ fro 
ciimatide fcripfirit^ Upoh which I obferve, firdb that there is np 
iUch word as cUnufisj as "Mr^JLeeds calls it ; but C/fmtfrtr, mention- 
ed by ?Hny. K. H. I/. 24* c, iQ. and c. 1 5. in which lait place he 
particularly takes Notice of this Clemutit JE^ptia, which Foffuu 
taxes Brafmus for declining without encreafe. Secondly, Fofius 
was fo far from not having this in his head at this time, that in 
liis Addenda to th^s Chapter he £iys, Serapis & Ifis mare Gr4uo 
Serapidis 6* Ifidis. Sed Varro, TuIIius 6* Cincius (Sofipatro ttfte) 
ttuun dixere bujusSetSLpis^ hujuj Ifis,&c. as in Mr. Leeds.ycffm mmi 
fore, in his Cenfure of Erafmusy was aware ofSerMfissMd Ifititi 
the Genitive, but againft doing the like in other words where 
there was no iUch Authority of the Ancients. 
Semiramis has Semiramide in the AblatiVe, as Ofpidit tftond^an CUris k 
Semramide eon.iitifi Plin. N. H. L. d. c. 28. Juft. L: i. p. 3. Par 
terc. L. I. p. d« and yet Sewnramim in the Accufative, as BiciU hoc 
nlli femins fort rtfponderity quafi aUuditni^ in tAJfyria ^saquc rtpkij[4 
Semiramim^ Suet. Vit. Jul. C. 22. 



Of Proper Names of Countries^ 
Towns or Cities, or Common 
Names ending in is in theGreek^ 
and encreafing in the Ob- 
liques. 

TH £ Accufative fingular in Propel Names of CooiitrieSf 
Towns, or Cities, or in Common Names endinsr in u 
from the Greek, and increafing in the Obliques, midk Gomr 
motily ends in dem^ or da^ very rarely, and but in ibme words, 
in m or i m. I ihaU give fuch inftuiecs «i I hm dUirv'd of 

th* 



Of the Tbkd DicUnfion. iqy 

ihdf laA Temuaa^oat, andleatc the Reader to condnde, 
that all others of this fort make dcm or da. in the Actuiative. 
UMv bas«>MM iA the Accufatire. 

mrtr^.-'iAivmifuam cUJfims iAttiim^ Lucl. 5. 120. 

Bat Xiyy makct the Accufacive to end in dem^ ointiochu* admotd 

nd tJmliJtm cxercitHf dcc Dec. 4. 1. 5. Sfatiw has tAulida, 

Hans ti\n Pbdhias acies, yeterem^ut revolvat . 

fboeuU? quis Panopem ? quis %Aultda.? cy*k Cypariffon? Theb. 7. 

BUt has E&n in the Accuiative, as oifiM Mobiliffima circa I^mffacumy 
^ %jB0fcmmfmn \ Grscutvari circa \Elin. Plin. K. H.l. i^ c. 3< 
%A Sjfomi BUn ufifue Solin. «. ^. But then Seneca has El'uiaj Btidd 
cUrmm, Troad. Ac. 3. Chor. 2. //*/h« has Elidem, Tacitus in 
€xili»m Blidtm frof4£tns efi, 1. 5. p. 57^ 

llns has ifri'm in the Accilfative, as ^Ac vcro nefando ijuidem audttum ej}^ 
Cnctiikmy *^ Jf^tM, out fetem viotatum ah M^fto^ Cic N. D. l.u 
p. 33. 86 Plin. N. H.l. 10. c. 12. Hardly ever Ibidem^ or lhida» 
Om JMlead has this 1^, but then it is the Proper Name of a 
Fcrlb«> ilms 4i^nhag§s imitatiS in ikida. Ov. in Ibin. So it is 
in fbme Books, but HAnfiut reads it /^ic/f . But then it is to be 
cbSbnfdy that JU/ the name of the Bird has two manner of de^ 
^luunfli^ ene with encrcafe, the other without. For as Jbidis 
lalbind in Ov. 

f^9 ftmup UiuiiT, Cyllemus tbidisaUf^ Met. 5. p. io2. Plin. K. H. 
I. 3|o. C.7. MtMm MeU, ^uM Ihidat appellant, 1. 3. c. 18. foClf^ 
««ro has ihesm 2^4 ^^yffi*^ N. D. 1. 2. p. roc Plin. K. H. 1. io« 
C t8. jUiMi Cin^tfi, Id. L. 30. (.15. 

Jru hat Ifim in the Accufative, as Prater Jnm, Plin. N. H. 1. 1 3. <^ 2 . 
and aUb Iridtm, Im^enit & Iridem in muri ruhro^ Solin. c. 4^. But 
di^ tids word has alfo a two fold declining. For as Pliny and 
C lii i M ii fc i hav^ 2rft{ii in the Genitive, rwrn /riJ(5 ^4n pondere, Pliiu 
ff* H« I. 23* €• 2. T<fm vero in^'i ^raca, nee minut anifi JSE^tii 
ffri fmifve, Cel. i. i2. c 51. So Piiny has alfo tris in the Geni- 
tive, and Iri in the Ablative, as DtUgentiorgs admifcent — iris radw 
cem^ K. H.). €• 2f. Cum Iri artd^y & falis exiguo^ Id. Ibid. 1. 22« 

Msms hat in the Ac^ufative M^ori'i, ll!«ortm, Maondem^ Maotidu, In 
Euxinmm ^ MUqhh deyexa, Plin. N. H. 1. 5. C. 5, ($. Claud, in 
Rufl L I. Inter pontum 6* Maotim, plin. N. H. 1. ^. c. tf. c/fi 
I/Uotidem fervmit, Solin* j. 3^. In Maotida & Tanaim obverfi, Met. 

^ I- P- 3 V ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^' found declin'd without cncreafc^ as 
wall as with, as <^ ori 4i»tfm Po»f t o^ or MMOtisy Plin. N. H. 1. 5* 
c. 9. And ^e fame Author has os Maotifis, according to the 
more nfual ws^y of Declining, /. 2. c 108. 
9h^s )iat PMny and Pbafidem in the Accufacive, as 

SftSJbat di^erfa hods , Pbafintj; Lycumq\ Virg. Georg. 4. fub 
ninem. and Curt. 1. 7. tjuam circa Phafidam apparent , Solin. 

4|i^ has i^yrtim in the Aecufativc, as Contingens Syrtim Minorem^^lin, 
JN* jM. I* 5* C* A** 

ulr AMcwii^^ *f($^f* ^^tm comple£titur ora^ Luc. 1. p. p. 248. But 
tluA tms word is' tot the moft part declin'd without encreafe, as 
Meretdce in Syrtis extimo cornu efty Plin. N. H. 1. 5. c. 5. 
luttr dft0 Syrt€s^ Id. N* H. 1. 5. c. 4. In hrtvui ^ Syrtit^ Virg, 



io6 Of the Third DecUnJion. 

^n. T. though not always, for Luc^n has Colaet qui SyrtiAat wrvd] 
L. 9- p.2$o. 
Xbemis has Themidh and Themi* in the Genitive, as Kcbert Stephens 
fays in his Thefturw. He quotes no Authority for it, but there 
is that ofHjgutMy Fab. 183. It has Themin in the Accuiative, as 
fatidicufMi'j Themin q-'d tunc oracU tencbut* But Tbemidu^ the Au- 
' thor's inftancc, is unknown. 
Thetis has Thetidit in the Genitive, as 

Jupiter 4cquorcd Ti^tidis connubtafn^it^ Ov. Met. II. p. 1 67. and 
yet Tbetin in the Accuiative. 

Sic pro te timuijjfe Thetin, Stat. Ac. 4. p. 4^3. but this Noun is 
alfo declined widiout encreafe. VUut, Epid* fAc,i.Sc,u VUfrogn^m 

Tbeti. 
T^rii or Txhris (for it is written both ways) has Tybridis^ or Ttbridk 
" in the Genitive, as 
Uec tecum sAn^omum {tjui'^unq\ eft) quitrere Tj/brimy Virg. iEn. 5. 

Si quundo Tybrim^ vicinaq-y Tj/oridi^ urva^ 6-0. Virg. Mn, 3. 
But here is to be obferv'd, .that though Tybrtj which is but a con- 
tratftion of Tibens be declined with encreafe, yet Tibtris it felf 
never increalcs. 
Tj^ris ovTi^rishasTygrin orTi^rim in theAccufative,thoueh it encreafes 
in the other Obliques, and that whether it be put tor the Proper 
Name of the River, or the common name of the Beaft ib cali'd. 
And firft for the Proper Name. It is true moft Audiors de- 
cline the Name of the River without encreale, as Euphrate & 77- 
^re incultis amnibusy Tac. An. 6» 234-, TranfmiJfoq\ iemne Tigri^ Id. 
An 12. p 275. and the fame way Pliny always declines it, as will 
appear, N. H. 1. ^ c. 26, 1. 6. c. 9, 15, 27. But then .fo/tmi has 
Ve Ti^ride quoq'y hoc loco dicere par efty fpcakingof the River, C. 50. 
and preicntly after, Cujus pifces nunquam fe alvo Tigri^is immifcenty 

Suantnm diftant a Tiiride Gades^ Claud.de 4tO. Cons.Hoil.Paneg. 
in Eutr. 1. 2. but the Accufative is never other than Tigrin 
or Tigrim, xAut xArmm fxrthm libtty uut Germanit Ttgrim^ Vir. 
£cl. I. 

Libertas ultra Tigrim^ Rhenumq\ recejpt, Luc. 1. 7. p. 88. 
Nee nifiper Tignm^ &c. Id. Ibid.^ For the Beaft, nothing is more 
common than for it to encreafe in the iingular Number, and ex- 
cept it be in the Accufative, I think it always docs €0 

-^— iluus forte gerebat 
T^idis exuvtoiy Stat. Tneb. 9, p. 353. 

— — ^•— — T»ni me de Tigride nutam 

Tumfvrrumy 6* fcopulos geftare in corde fatebor, Ov. Met. 7. p. 95. 

Contentm gemtna Tigride Bacchus erat. Mart. 1. 8. Ep. 26* 
And yet the Accufative is Tigrim or Tigrin only, as 

Immmem veluti pecora inter inertia Tigrim^ dec, Virg. iEn, O. 298. 
Tigrin Hyrcani & Indiftrunt^ animal Velocitatis tremenday SCQ. Pun. K* 
H. 1. S. c. 18. 
T«w genituf Talao viSfori Tigrin inanem 

Ire Jubety Stat. Theb. 7. p. 227. where fUcidm JjtBoMtm Ikys Up- 
on the place, Et notandum qt4od metri necejfitate Tngrtn %Jkeufat\» 
vum gracum pofuit pro Tigremy but this Tigrem of lA^4mtim is un- 
known to all the Authors. In the ^lur^ I^T^mber it is general- 
ly dcdin'd without «ncretfc, as 



Of $he Third Dectenfion. 107 

■' ■ ' ' ttyrcan^tj^y admorunt ubera Tigres^ Virg. Mtt, 4. p. 
Et uda mtro Umbt4nt retimcuU Tigres^ Stat. Theb. 4. p. i 52. 

D^fhnis 6r^memm cmru [uh]uniere Tigres, Virg. Eel. 5. ib Georg. i. 

i^iffcit anbac frnvai infuUTigres huhct ? Ov. Ariad. Thef. 

And thi$ is fo general, that Ro^rr Stephent in his Thefaurm takes 
Notice of it as a hngularity in the Author of PhilomcU among the 
Works of Ovidy that he has TigriJes in the Plural. But it is not 
fo lingular, but that it is to be found clfe where. S^ui^pe cum 
Tigridtf & BUpbanti tttntitm requirantury Solin. c. 16, p. 354. tAverfi 
cotunt nee hi tantum, fid & Lynces^ & Cameli^ & Elepbanti^ & Rbino^ 
crrotesy ^Tigrides^ Id. €.4. p. 272. 



Of the yiccujative of Nouns in y s 
taken from the Greek, 

C'^ Reek Proper Nouns inys commonly make the Accufative in 
-mr ynySLS tAut Cafyn^ out celfis in puppiiuf armA. Cuyci^ Virg. ^n. i, 
-1 OccUi Cotyn jubtt, Tac. An, 2. p. 100. 
Ifmasrium pcUex Cdstica plorat Ityn^ Mart, 1. lo. Ep. 5I. 
Lihyn domuit^ aurta pomu tulit^ Mart 1. 9. Ep 104. Neither is there 
any Exception, faving that }m in fome Books may be found 
inftead ofjn, as 

[ncreptt ahfumptum nee fua muter Itym^ Prop. 1. 3. Car. 9. 
Common Greek Nouns alfo in ysy make the Accufative in 
j«, or ynty as 

ChelyS't Ace. Chelyny or Chtlym, 
Hie delynj bie flavam macuUfo Nebridit tergo^ itc. Stat, Syl. i. 
Car. I. 

Ct^netitnttmef, intendt Chtlyn^ Id, Syl, i. Carm. 5, 
Odifii<j\ Cbelym, Id, Syl. 2. Carm, i. $yl. 4, Carm. 6. Claud. 
Rap. Prof. 1. 2. Prjcf. 

But Cblamyt has ChUmydem only, neycr ChLmyn, 

Torto ChUmydem diJfibuUt auro, Stat, Theb, 6y p. 221. 

yltubit ChUmydem^ Hor. 1. i. Ep. 77, 

E' PbrygUm v/lfcbanio ChUmylim^ &i; Virg. ^n. 3. p. I 52. 
So JSjo* 4. I ^4. ^n, 9. p. 294* 

Voffim has comprized under one Rule, all that I have fa id 
upon this Head , namely that Burytonts in is and ys , declined 
impurely have i«, j», a^ or im ; OxytoneSf x or em ^nly : but 
then this requires more Greek to underfland it , than many 
Readers, ;uid efpecially School-boys have, and therefore I have 
chofcn to ihew. ap leiigth the ufe of the Particulars , which 
the School-boy may have occalion for before he has io much 
Greek. 

A 11 other "Nouns taken from the Greeks whether proper orCom- 
moiij make 4 or em in the Accufative, though Commons make 

" P 2 moftly 



X o8 Of the Third DecleMJioH. 

tnoftly em, as ChUmyiem, TerifcMem TyrunnideMy and ytt fo at not 
to exclude a from all,, as tAtta^dLid*^ Plin. K. H. 1. 85* c» i). «><- 
JbfllU^ Pltn. K. H. 1. 19. c. 8. Btmnda, Id. Ibid. 1. 20. c. 4* Qf^r* 
rt//4, Id. Ibid. 1. 21. c. II. Endrofmda^ Mart. 1. 4» £p. 19. Jjimfa^Uy 
Pers. Sat. ^. Pelorida, Mart. L lix Ep. 37. Nturada^ Plin. K, H. 
1. 2^. c, 10. Fo^/ and Mtjpeurs ie Tart Koy^ fay. That the Termi- 
nation a in all Greek Kouns, is for the Poets otdfi but hcfid^ the 
inftances above cited 6ut of Fliny^ which fufficiently difprove fheir 
pbfervation ; he that will but look into Jmftin^ Ntfoy^ MeU will 
find a Multitude of like Accufatives in «. Aod even Cicero has 
Kon igitur Hc&ora traxifii, fed corpus ^uod fmertit BeSt^is^ T. ^ !• 1, 
p. 319. 



Of Greek Proper Nouns front the 
Fourth Declenfion ^th^ Con- 
tra^s. 

Grammary Lat. f, ly. 

^OEmhiina in o gcnitivum in As, acciifativtBH in 
mittunt^ , 

Animadversion LVIII, 

FIril: here is no Rule given for Mafcultnes in 6/ fttom the Greek 
«t>c, in which there is fomethihg peculiar^ which ihbald have 
been remarq'd. Secondly Feminines in 0, atelfbme of them 
found to haye alfo another manner of declining befide that here 
mentioned. 

Uinos is a Mafculine of the fame Declcniion wkh X>iio Sappho ; 
and as Robert Stephens fays in his Tbefaurus, makes Minus in the Ge- 
nitive. So indeed it may do by the Rule of Analogy, bnt 1 don't 
rcmeniber where it is €q declined. Tropertim has l/liwk in the Geni- 

Vxorem quon4*tm m^ni lAinois (ut aiunt) 

CorrupU torvi Candida forma 6ovtf, 1. 2, El. 32. 

Cicero has Minoem in the AccufatiVe, and Ovid Minba, am} Mttior in 
^he Ablative, according to ^he fame form, as Minoem^ SjuUm4mtbtm^y 
J^4ci*in, T. Q. 1. !♦ 33^ 

Mtl^n^^KHy j^c.'Qv. Met.L 9. Cum MinoeUeo, Id. |bid. 



OftheThkiDetkufun, ipp 

Sddlufi^ as quoted by PrifcUuy makes the Genitive Minonisy ^h Mi" 
mouis tram atqj <ypef fugeret^ Hift. 5. Befide thefe Feminines in are 
found fome of them iometimes declined after the Latin form even 
in the Authors which we have left. And it is Grange how this ob- 
servation came to flip Ko^, who brings no other Proof for it, but 
from Prifeiam out of oiccmt^ Ennius^ Pacuvtus^ V'^itiu and fomethinc 
df ^l^mtus which ii not «o*^ ettan^ ^^ % ftrtc/'d necefic)r,^ wImcIK 
he ezpreiles thus, J^am *etfi in^fmtivo Didus,^ i» JL^rci/fativo pido,\iyl 
piduo dicatur: tamen cur non tUic DidoniSs/ncDidOHem dicere lictAt^cum 
ik Mh^ c^ Didoni, tn uAUtivo Didone co^arkur mfi.^ tt )E y^iik dictre 
Herodotus er K\ioi, non poffum aliter quam in Cfione.' S^tomodo 6r £»- 
mm dixit . P<tnos Dione onundos. But I fee no fieceflity <f( ren- 
dring it K\iOi by in Clione^ iince Julm Hyginus \(sLi lead t1t% way 
to in Clio, in the following Paflages, Jupiter EfAfhum^ quern ex lofro^ 
cremiferMt^JBgypto oppida comrnumre^ ii>Hpt r^nare jtffiit j Fab. 149. And 
again. Mfffbut ex lo jnachiJiliA . c. 155. There is uien bo neteflky, 
and thereJEore that Plea will not do. j^f^pufiiiim 3ias a Paffiuze upon 
this S^AftSk worth the reciting. 1. 1. c. 5. jfuuc recentiores tn/tttuerum 
Gwwcit uomimbus Grdcm decliudtiones fotiiu dttrey quod tameu non fem^ 
per fieri foiefi* Mibi autem pUcet haimtm rationem J^qui quonfipte 
fatitmr decor, Neque emnkjem Caljfpfonem dbcerimp ut junonenu qinam^ 
qttM Jecufme anttquosy C, C^^tr utitur hac rmione decUnandL By this 
bximtuum excludes the Feminines in ofrom the Latin Declei&Qn; 
tor it muft be a ftrange nicety indeed, if lie means only Calipfoy and 
and much more, if he means only tlus Caft of Cdipfo, But w^it 
ever mighc be the Practice in £ititttilian'% Time, we have cert«Htily 

food reafon for the u^ of theie Nouns in die Latin form^ not 
irom the fancy'd neceffity of yoffiuj, but the itfe of ^ood Aatnon^ 
which, where it can be had^ we mult always foUc^y. Hj^inut, as ha 
lias Vxorem fuam Ino, 6* fiUum ejus Meticertem Phrixo dedtdit necMxdoe^ 
Again, Btlnofuam nutrieem eripuity Fab. 2. ind Imftiyu Inus^fyhm 
^3. ibhas he likewife PofUa. r/fciit Inonem in Pern^fo effe^ ^id'j^an^ 
Imnem fumpfit^ j'jd). 4. and %Arcgs CMlifionis iy Jovit fiiius, Aftron, 
1.2. JufUn Yizi %AugA)tit emm Tyriif animos Didonis exemplum, T. ji. 
p. I X^. T^uitu^ has Didonem TbeniffMrn Tn^ proftf^am lUas 4)p4S sd>^ 
4^^ ^^» An. 16. p.4?5> 



Of 



116 Of tie Third Declett^oit, 



Of the Ahlatives of Greek Noms 
encreafing with d in the ob- 
liques, 

THe Greeks having no Ablative Cafe, 'tis no wonder the 
Latins ihould Terminate it, as they do, according to 
their own Dedenfion^ fb that moft Nouns taken from 
die Greek, make the Ablative in r. But Nouns of this fort 
in tV, which are dedin'd without encreafe, make t only in the 
Ablative, as Nirrr/, Nemejiy foefi. Such as are declined by the Latins, 
both with, and without encreale, have the Ablative in r, with en- 
creaie, as Nonu Thetisy Gen, Thetidisy Abl. ThetiJe, Nom. Thetis» 
otU. Tbetiy from Gem» Thetis^ as Tftfc'tan colIe(!ls ^o have been uftd 
by the Ancient Latins, from that of fUutus' 

Turn tile frt^maus Tbcti fine perJaty £p. Ac. i. Sc. i. 
This Voffius quotes as a lingle inftancc, and makes Thetide Pre* 
ferable, as no doubt it is. But whereas he denies Iris to have 
iWin the Ablative, laying JtcW /m, indity iridemy Vf/iVfm, iride non 
Iri ; it is a miibake, for Pliny has ZW in the Ablative Cum hi gridiy 
*• falis exiguoy N. H. L. 22. C lo. 

And Cxroalfb, Vna. cum Iri eontundMy R. R. c, 107. The reafon 
1^9 becauie though it were mofl: commonly declined with encreafe, 
yet it was alfo &metimes without, as Diligentiores admifcent Mufti'' 
chen I "Et Iris tantidcmy oleumqucy Plin. N. H. 1. 14. C, 2o. 

' Mr. Leeds has ftated this Matter better than his Author, in al' 
lowing of /rtin the Ablative ; but then he contradicfls his Author 
without giving any notice of it ; which in a Book, that bears the 
Title of a meer Contraction, fhould not have been. OVftl^^ Nouns 
in jr/, make e regularly among the Latins in the Ablative, and by an 
Apocope jr, as Nom. Cupysy Abl, Capye or Cafy ; Noni, Cotysy Abl. 
^otycy or Coty, Ctpuam ab duce eorum Cafye appelUtum, Liv. 1. 37. As 
yoffiug cites It. Latino %Alh<i ortw^ %Alba %AtySy %Aty Capisy Cafy CApetm. 
Ipfe cum Cotye Thejfalonicam efl proftifMy Liv. 1. 42. As ybjfius cites it, 
Cvtye fratre tnterfvhoy Tac. An. 3. p. 135. and An. 2. P. i«o. And 
though I cannot think of an Example of Coty in the Ablative, yet 
there is one of %Aty in the Lemma of Catullus de BerecynthUa & Jby^ 
which Evinces either of thefe Terminations to be indifferent. 

Further yet, it is to be obferved. That all thefe Rules hold only 
of fuch Nouns as are entirely Gree\ even to a Letter, and that en- 
creafe in Latin in the fame manner they do in Gree\ \ for where there 
IS any Variation in either of thefe, they always have La in Termi- 
nations in thefe Cafes. So Ujax in Latin, being AUe in Gree\^ has 
tAjacis and tAjacem in Latiny never *JjacoSy or tAjaca, And %Apoilo in 
Latin being A vvWaci in Grre^, and encreafing by i»» in LAtin^ other- 

wile 



Of the Third TkcUnfion, i 1 1 

wiic than it does in Grtt\^ has never iApolUnos ufyollindy but l4poUimsj 
%AfoUintm only. Z>rAco alio has Dracoms Draconemy Ov. Med. }s£ 
>let.2*p*i8. becaufe 'tis Draco in Ldtitu ^%w in Greel^ SoSy^ 
fbacem^ C^laud. Bell. Gild, never Syfbaca^ becaufe Sjfbax is no Gred^ 



Word. 




LaStn 

of Cicero, Varro and Cinctus^ as has been laid before, and I have (aid 
of fns> So ChremeSy PhiloUcbefy Tbalrs^ Gen. Chremis or Cbremetisj 
Acc. Chremem or Cbremetem or Chremetu^ Pbilolacbis or Pbilolacbetis ; 
Ac. 7^««i or Tbalitemy Ter. And. ac. 2. fc.2. ac. 2. fc. 3. ac. 3. ic. 3. 
ac. r.lc. I- Hor. 1. i. fat. 10. Plaut. Mofl:. ac i. fc. i. ac. 3. fc. i« 
ac fc. 4. ac. I. Ic. $. Capt. ac. 2. fc. 2. Cic. K. D. L. i.p. 37. Div. 
1. 201 • So Oedifus is Declin'd without encreafe by PUutus, Pttn* 

ac. I. ic 3* 

K^on tfH tpndem bercU orationi Oedifo 
Ofm conje^ore eft. 
And by Cicero^ de fato, 

Et ex eA Oedifum procreaturum^ p. 285.' 
But then others decline it with encreaie : As, 

yiultuf Oedipodem bic decet. Sen.Oed.ac.5. fc.3.and eUewhere. 

Polypus the Fiih tho' coming from nZt in Gree)u does not encreaie in 

XMtin, as Gen* Po/jf t,Cato R.R. c 1 57. Po()^t/,Plin.i2. A.1. 9. 9. C2p* 



Of the Genitive Plural of 
Greek Nouns. 



THE Grammar is filent of this Cafe« but it ought to have 
been Remarked* That it ends fbmetimes in •», according 
to the Gre^ torm^ as Mttamor^bofiin^ HebdwirndSp^ Hdrt^ 
ein. &c 



Of 



119 Of fkt Third Ihcteiifhf$, 



m m . ' mf^mmrmmmm^f^tmm^ ■ ■ — ^— 1^— ^— ^^H, 



* « 



Of the Accufative Tlurd <i 
Greek Nouns of the Third 
Decleniion. 

Animapversion LIX. 

OF this Caie the Grammar is quite (ileiit, and yet tkcftf was 
the more reafin to take notice of it, becatub Tliny in his 
Book DiAni Sjermoms^ M€har'tfiut fays, allow'd of im AccuCi* 
ti^es Plural ia *s of this DecleAfion^ Nee fmama^ reSti Scmus, SuU 
iwn «mm moamen ^citft^im fktr^b in as v^ luT. ^ H'^ <towii»<fi»# fttmkdi 
mfomakit. Thus he. How 6r this might hold in J^iWs Agf, 1 kno«s 
not, but certainly in the Books that we have, beiide the Inftances 
given by VoJJius^ fome of them out of Cicero himfelf, there are fe- 
deral othep Aeeufatives Plural in 4« of Greel{^ Nouns, which flaak« 
the Accufative Singular in a, even in the Profe-Writers, not 
only of Proper Nouns, but of Common alfo, as MtbiopM^ Mel. 
Li. ^^as^ MdtUi* ^rto«4^> Nef .' Vit*ThnotU. Dtlpbt^^iolitu 
C. 22. ^,99ainamUify Mil. L I. UAVp^^mM, Cmvt. 1. 4* M^cedot^^ Juil« 
L II. p. I20. and often elfewh^e, Nafttmonoiy SoUn. c. 41. fbitnicusy 
Mel. 1. I. Sfhyngas^fk^^^ C^irt. t )• J« 9n4 with the Poets 
nothing is more common. Now the Annotators have over- 
look'd all theie Obfervations but one, upon theie Greef{^ Nouns, 
though yo^s ^d. MfJ^yj^ dff' P(f9f ^^Jli^% from whom thqj^ Tranoi 
fcribe,hadthQught thetn coiifiderable enoMgh to deiervea lUmafk j 
amd^ no douht^t none oJT th^m, but^ weU. d^^^srve it, j(s liiat ene 
they have taken notice of. Further, it is to be ebfervVi, Tiiat l^s 
Accufative from Greeks inysy is found contraded, as Erynf(fjfyt 
^rinnjoj^ Sen, Oed. ac, 3. fc. i. 



0/ 



Of the Fourth DecUnfioff. n^ 



■kia 



Of the Dative and Ahlative Plu- 
ral of Greek Nouns of the 
Third Declenfion. 

THere is one thing which this Grammar takes no noci^^ of, 
nOr the Atmotators neither^ as to thefe Cafes, whi^h yeC i^ 
oUervable \ namelv, that iome of the Poets decline Grrri^ 
lioiifls in each of them as ine Creeps do. Thus Fropertius has DryMfin^ 
tUmadrymSk^ tbyidafiny kr Drjtiiiims^ &c* 1. 1. Carm. 2o« according 
to the Emendation of Jo>ftph Scal'aer^ and Upfius^ which I prefer to 
thereadingof my Boole, which has for Drjafin Dryddis^ for K«irf4- 
Jtryrfm^ HmmtJrjtu bine ; for Thjniufin TjHniacif, 



Of the Fourth Declenfion. 



V 



Grdfhmari Lat. Pag. 17* 

Uteres k mminnttvi dnus^ tufnultui^ omatut dijtefunt 
anuisy tumult^ omatl in Genitivo* 

Am IMADVERSION LXL 



NOT only the Ancients, but fome alib of the befb Age^ ufed 
the Termination mj, not only in the Genitive of Jum/, but 
of Vrmetus aifo^ as Ujus falivam ejfe ^uStint^ VenettuMy Vafro 
K. R* U c. 2. and niany others ; as Domuisy ttu^mgf Graduisy Fartuisy 
ViBuity mofl; of whidi are found in V,iyroy as Vofius proves. Kay, 
i4ieili»s (a)rs. That r«irro and N\i%diusy the two Leamed'flof all the 
*•»•«• Writers,neYer Wrote otherwile. This w/, with others, was 
concraifted into ksjht which reafon it is long,contrary to other End* 
iigs in us t But Jb^i*/f<»i always wrote oi for usy is tXwMS mt^t for 
9»ims mem^ ot Dnm accord^ ;o she comjuon way of ipcakii^ as 



\ 



f 14 Of the fourth DtcUnptm. 

Suetomns lays. Neither arc Tumultus. and Ornatus the only Nouns of 
this Dcclcnfion that arc found to end in t, in the Genitive ; but tAJ- 
yentus^ Vru^us^ SiwLtus^ ^dfhuSy fome in Terence^ ibme in ?/4Mav, as 
Voffius proves, and Senatus in Cicero too,beiide many others not found 



but in Authors of elder time. 



« I ' ■ lli^^*— — »»d>M^ 



I 

Of the Dative and AUative Plu- 
ral of the Fourth Declenfion. 

Grammar^ Lat. p. I7. 

H\ 
j€C Ddtivum & AblativumPlMralem in uhusforpnanty 
Acusy lacus, anus, arcus, tribus, ficus^ fipecusy 
quercQs, partus, ^rtus^ vera ubw, C^ttera cmnid in ibus : 
Mt^ Fru£libtts> foetftnjs, manibus, cbotibus. 

Animadversion LXII. 

•' 

Acuhus^ ¥icuhusy 2^ercu\msy have no Other Authority, but that 
of this Author, though if there were a neceifity of ufing 
thefc Words in thefe Cafes* J /Xonld iather^Tttrminate 
them in nhusy than in/ib«^ becuife of the Atial^ |hey^ k^^e with 
1ACU4 and Specusy as ending in cusy which make the Ablat^e in itbus. 
Fortus^ which by this Rule, fhould have only ubus, has both iSms 
and ubus as yojfiuf obferves from ^'«A»'> SeU Civ, 1. 3. where the prin- 
ted Copies have both promilcuoufly, but the Manufcript^ he i^ys, 
.J\|ive Fortibuf. But Portibus is found alfo in Petronius^ Navj^U Parti" 
bus fe gravatim iufinuant^ P* 21 5. and ForttSus is fbufid fevieral tines, 
particularly in Ovid. ;. 

Veruy which by this Rule, has only Verubusyhis really rrri&M/alfo, 
as is to be fouiid in the Ancient Booksi, as ysjfius fayi^ and the In- 
fcription produced by ?tm«/ iipon that oFKt>jt/, Mn, t. 

Parr injrftfia Jtcant^ Feribujqi^ trementui fgunt ; as he reads it. 

A^ for the Second Xule, that all others end kiiliMf^'lt is notfo ^ 
for^<^){<«/has1>othiS5'^7hW, znd^utfii^s. 

Et Mo^fiii tote locA mueft^uf itnfUt. VfTgi Georg. 4. >n. 91. = 
And fo it IS la tSie ik>lio Bdition, Printed «t Safil. 
S^^IHbus abfitrnpHf triftem^ jam filvert nodum 
CiKperat. ^tit.TPhcb. i4.V.^4:tf. 

tors etiam vi^i/ imnHk Stf^JMns Mmtt, Catol. Argonaut. 
OilumieiAm 'fy^fMwsi'mfiet. Virg. JEn. 9, p. ftpi. 

'■•■'•*' $0 



Of the Fourth VecUn^on. n j 

So it is in the Folio Edition at Bafil^ fet forth by Qeorgius Vahriciusy 
But in my Book it is J^w^yiiU/. 
- Genu alfo has Gentsbusy as well as Genibus, Sen. Thyell. ac. 3. fc, !• 

BigKU wuaabraJxd Genubuj Ubant, 

Vrater 4 Genuous manusy 

^Aufer Id. lb. ac. 3. fc. 2. 

GtMta quid Gcnuhus mfig 

Vies advtduu^ Id. Theb. ac. i. ic. i. 

Genubujqttc tuii regalU tendo 

Bra£bi4f Ov^lfh^i, Hyp. 
So Fi^s quotes ||t, thpugh iii xny Bo«)c.and others, it is Genibu^ 
And €0 poffibly in <»hcr Copies, thofe Parages in Seneca may have 
GeMlmsy but Grammarians oeing divided upon it, whether G>»t- 
bus or Gentibusy i^uefiibus or i^ueftuhusy or both; and fome Copies 
having one, fome anotjier, it is i^t the Reader Ihould be acquainted 
what he is like to £nd ; and fo this Rule is at leaft faulty in this 
reipe^. 



■•^"•^■"•P"— ■— ^■nii^W^^ii"^ 



H 



Of the Fifth Dedeftfion. 

Grammar J Lat. ^.17. 
ANIMADVERSION LXIIL 

Ere is omitted by the Qrammar, and the Annotators, That 
th^l^jVM.Y^ Siugjular is foun4 to end ip e *, as 
PfnMdnit comniji^ Vid e , l i t . ■ Hox. 1. 2. ^t^ 2. 



Qa HE^ 



ii6 ' Of Heteroflites. 






O F 



HETEROCLITES, 

O R 

Nouns that have different Genders, in 
different Numbers, or want fome^ 
Cafes, or one of the Numbers, or 
are of fever^l Dedenfions. 

Of Nouns that an of one Qender 
in the Singular y and another in 
the Tlural 

Gramtnarf Im, f. l8* 

DAt prior his Humerus J^eutrum genus falter utrumqi t^c 
Hac mnribus dantur finguUriHf fluriwd neutriSf &Cf 

AnIMAD VEflSlON LXIV- 

THe reafpn of this difiference of Gender in the Kpuns of 
both thefe Rules is, that thefe Nouns had formerly o- 
fher Nomina^ves Singular; from whence thefe Plorat 
Terminations, that now feem to be irresular, were regn- 
Itrly deduced. Yet that there is Gt^fgiorm in the Singular does not 
a^pejir. K«^/ denied it, ^nd P% fpeaking pf i( (f 71, iwfs mwit \ 



Of Jptotes. iiy 

e^ifftii if eoJem nomine ofUumy N. H. L. 5. c 30* Xoov, whkh 
the Author fays has Loci or Loca in the Plural, bias only Xfo, when 
it is put for the Places of Arguments, as Traditi fimt * qujbiu ea, du* 
euntmr dnflieet jLtct, urn * rehus tpfis^ •Iteri affumfti Cic ad Brutt pr, 
p. 184. and ExcttiUmus nunc aJ^mentoriMm Locof i^nt, L* 4. ۥ lo. 
And when it fignifies Place heft Locoy tho' Fir^il has Pevenire locos 
Idtosy Mn* 6. which Mejkurs de Port Kojw/ think to be a fingle in* 
ftance. But fUmm has alio S^uos locos adytis ? Trin* Ac. 4. Sc. 2. 
And SJlmfl Proximo! loco/, Bel. Jug. p. ^o. and elib where, Viriil has 
Xocoj NOVO/, JEn. I. p. 103. Dtvenere locos^ JEn, i. p. 104. So J¥j\. 2. 
p. ii<C Enplorure /ore/, Sil, L. 4. p. 50. L. 12. p. 1^2. and with Ptf- 
tercnlm 'tis common. CMrhafus has Carhafa in the Plural, as is welf 
fcnown. Xoctf xAvernoy Lucr. L. ^. P. J9i* makes %A»trnA appear to 
be but an Adjecftive. And it may oe thefe Names of Mountains 
are ail but Adjeiftives, with *i^%a or Cucumina^ underftood, Sil. 
having dorg^m* Cucnmnoy Pai^sd jn^o, Vefcvaju^u, 



»■*— ^^ ■ l i I . I un 



Crafnmar^ Lat p. 23. 



\Jvj£ 



nullum variunt Cdfum^ C^c# 



Animadversion XLV. 

AVtotes are properly fuch Nouns, as have no variation from thO 
Nommative \ but then there is this difference to be obferv'd 
in them, that one Termination in feme performs the Office 
of all Cafes, and in others again, but of fbme certain ones, which 
the Author not obferving, has made his Rule the lefs ufeful. I 
Ihall give a dire^ion in this Matter, when I ihall come to deter* 
mine which theie tAftotesy or Invariubles are. But firfb I muft take 
notice of two faults m this Rule,Firft that feveral Nouns there rec* 
iLoned are not invariable. Secondly, that there are other Invari- 
able! befide thofe here mentioned. Firft fomeof thefe Nouns 
in • are variable in the Plural Number, as Cornuy Genu^ ITeru, Nay 
there is Cornus in the Genitive Singular, not only in lucan^ as thi9 
Author takes Notice elfewhere, but in Pliny too, fbr a real Horn, as 
Cornns Ceinnni einisy N. H. L. 28. CI 3* and elfewhere: which tho' 
it iheuld not be Genitive of Corm^ but of Comus obfolete, may 
yet iupply the Pla^ of it. frt^gi here reckoned for an Ap- 
tote, ot invariable, is but the Dative Cafe of the old word 
¥rmxy which is found in Ennius, An. 9. and 17. and reviv'd by 
nJmfonuiSy Idyll. 5. fp that Strvus Fr«gt, is as much as Servus aptus 
.IWi^ or ad Vrugemy and Frtigi is the Dative Cafe, by an Ellipfis of 
mJfimg* or elie the Genitive of Fr$igif\ which is no more than 
wnat happens to other words of the Third Dedenfion, as has beci> 
Acwa \fmttl which Conjcdure is further confirm'd by the Accuf. 



1 26 Of Jptotei. 

Plural. ^ ha^ the Kdminative and Accufative. Humts it fi)Un<l 
in the Nominative only but may be allowed the Vocative. In* 
ftar has the Nominative and Accufative. Interi\u has the Accu* 
fative and Ablative. Ntceffe and Neceffum have the Nominative 
and Accufative. Neqtum has ail Cafes in both Numbers, or 
rather it is contradled o£ nequU^uam^ and fo Servm Kcfuam is Ser* 
V s ad ffcquicquamj i. C. utUit or iftUs ad nei^ni'quam, P^ratm has the 
Nominative and Accufative. Fondo a Pound Weight, if it fo fig-^ 
nifie, has the Nominative and Accufative Plural. Potis and Pote 
have only the Nominative iingular. PrduhiuiH has the Nomiaa- 
tive and Accufative. Prafio is rather an Adverb than an Adje^ive. 
iSemt or 5^tf has the Nominative and Accufative. VoLufehu ^e 
Komiiladve and Accufative. Nouns in t, j, and », reprefent 
ail Cafes in the Singular, by the confent of Grammarians, and 
Prifcian in particular, thougkthey are hardly fl>und in the Da- 
tive Toty 2*^t and its Complinds, and Numerals from Three tor 
a Hundred, fupply all Cafes under one Termination. But though 
Ctntum be invaruble, yet the Compounds of it are VjUriable, as 

ZHtCtnti^ Uuctntxs^ Ducentos^ Scc. 

Laflrly, the Names of the Letters in the Alphabet, and all He^ 
brew and Barbarous Nouns which have not Teritninations de- 
clinable aaording to the Latin ufe, have alfo all Cafes tindcT 
that one Termination. Though later Writers decline XXtvii 
Davidis^ oShfobam tAbrJfa, or by adje<^ion, tAbrabamuf^ J&ridhtim ^ 
and even in the Ancients is found Bo^udis from Bti^ud. Def* 
fauteritu adds to thefe %Ador^ Nux4» and Ptdum, Butolior isde^ 
dinable, as appears by PrifiUn from Gannm , out of whom he 
quotes it in the Gemtive thrice , as alfo by %Aufium in AImo* 

Hinc %Adory atqi*t %Adorit de polli»e fultificum fur. And yet %9L 
Stefhem has put down %Adw as invariable, in hitThefamrut. Stt* 
^0$ is found in other Cafes, and Pedum is ufed fo feld«ni by 
thefe Authors, that it is unreafonable to conclude from tfaeooi 
that it is invariable, efpecially fince it is the only word we' 
have to exprefs that thing, and therefore requires all Cafes. 

Mr. Leeds adds Mane , but this word has undoubtedly twd 
Terminations. For tho' ColumelUhaa Mame alfo in the Abiativei 
Suh cbfcuro Mit$ey 1. 7. C 12. Primo Mane^ 1. 12. C I. yetl^Jb^i^ in 
Ceirihis Et ^tlidovemens Mani^ and PUutus^ m Mani ud yieffermm^ MofI* 

Ac. 3. Sc. 2. and S'ifi dudum k Mam ut, &c, Pocn. Ac. 3. Sc. 3. 



Of 



Of Monoptotcs. 



Of Monoptotes. 

Grammar, Lat. p. IQ." 
Stq'j Monnftoton nomen cut v»x cudit una, &C; 

Akimadversion LXyi. 

THii Rule ii faulty in manj- refpedti. I Jhall affign ^aebError 
'lAtftr die feVMlWonJj, whkh beckufe they *ti tttMyr, 
fbr the eafiet Sitiing^ them out, f HiaR pM io'*n Alpha- 
bniuUj. . f 

b^B ii A Monoptote, and amitted in thiiRuIe, as, 
jtU ^s-tIbMi«»*i* iwnificrtB fiti,'fkiiinj; uiijMt^lgv. PJaut.Mcr. 
Ac.i. Se. J. rtt II. fydj, vttfrri^w. Id: Rud. Ac. a. Sc. i, 
K«bn Jrf wiM quottf die Accufative out afpituiuj too, fttifrt' 
imtmi, fameti, nijkeUb'M, bat he nam« no pracCj ahd I an- 
lidt fcidit. 'life* iitVfo iiftd in the'Ablati+c by tuerttuii, nei- 
tttirr lui it airf other CaTe. 

ittSrira »«fr»*iir'i»07Wi, c/f^oo; /antfq; f. j, 0,84. 

t.jHbrCf ii s fecond omiflion, forit hiii but thh'MeCafein theSip* 
gular Mumber, and To is a MoKOfHitt in relfecA of that Number ; 
though in the. Plural it hare ^mkigei, zaA ^AmbjiHiij, fcaicely 






-Wd here to haTC no other Cafe in the Singular, has 1/^0/ 

iti (Ui KtbiHoMtTt orer and over. ' 

Won ^m f'lUx, BOB prtJj, a/is/i^ ropJo, Sil, I. 6. p. IW. So I. ?. 

p. 11. I. J4. R^aj.'!. rtf. p. 2'ja. So TitifK, NiM f^Tti igiiirum 

' h^b^nt jui^ mtcbimmiar^y ■*- ^A, flrtBjBa (,■«.«*, An. 12. p. 
291 And if here irbefuppofed tobe Plural, it is undoubted- 
ly Singular in another Place of the fame Author, v«h</7i 6a- 

ftium iif firliUi'i' iffit virirb.,i, TdC. An. 3, p, 74, 

J?ir{>ijl the Qenitive, it a third OmilTion. tjiiitpitn ut fefi ft dicrre 
rmiSr, 'jifchjgathQ' inifrral', «T jtii/ueJ ilSi, qaorulu jrrcitrai* futrut, 
nimimdofiim, dtcli caufi -iarrtf i.e. for" firm filu, /er j fliin*, n^drr 
friltnci, rtr. (* fcr.t- ;. *>t J- So ^Jio," alt v^(, i, i. Ep. i3. 
arid elftwhere. 

Cm i« fourth OmilTion, not only of this Grammar, but of all the 
Grammaiiani, neveithelefs it it a Montpuu, having the AbU- 
live fingular only. And that it is ufed in this Cafe at well 
-~ - iM by Pfautiu, Caf. Ac. 4. Sc. 4. Nolfiiif, & 

wtfitt. So r-trilMi alfo, yrffififUiM «crT militU, ■«' 



»», appeart 



t^u 



122 Of Monoptotes. 

feire a^men^ locum c^fhis cafcre^ noStu^ Diuq\ coufilioj ac fi res pcfieretj 
nuinii bojhbus obniti, Hift. 1. 2. p. 501. 
Sr^o is a fifth omiiitoiu for I fuppofe it to be an Ablative fingular. 
Cicero recites it out of the old Laws, Eiq-, tiuem frodunt f aires con- 
fulum ro^^ndorum Ergo, de Leg.l.3. p.352. and uies it himfel^ ie 
Opt. (sen, (h\ tAtqueiuprsdicatur^eum donariyirtttty Ergo, i.e. grutid, 

' yiriAiu "" ^ 




speech mult be dehii'd by their iigi 
cfTeDcc, and not b)' their Dedeniion, which is but an Accideot« 
Vatice is a fix th omiluon, for it is io far a Monoptote^ that it h^ no 
other Cale in the Singular, but in that it is ufed not on]|y by 
OisU in Ih'iHt which ^olfuts Cites, 

VtqueSyracuJto^raJiri^aT!aucePoeUj = " 

Sic tnims Uqueo Jit via cUuft |m«. But by l/Unid alio^ 
Cum flaret mudikk Buuce December €trox, 1. 7* £p..^tf« and 
by Horace^ 

PocuU lethMOs ut fi Au'entui fomnos 
sAiente fu/uce tr4xerim, £pod. 14. 
' fprtuitu \s a fevcnth omiffion, for it lias no other Cafe, aod yi^ afl 
the Grammarians have omitted it. nAut alia. tortrntufiUHtioy plin. 
N. H. 1. II. C.37. 

So where it is faid in fome Books, and mine in particular, dfr 
& Fortuito n«vtr ti« portum dt^latu eft, ad Her. 1. I* p. 4. ■Growo* 
liius reads Vortuitu^ and io Stephens quotes it. Cicero alfo ilics it, 
2:*odyerhum tibi nonexcidit^ ut Cape fit ^ Vortuitu. Phil. iO« and 
in like manner, Div, u and Cafar^ non bdc omnia FortMCJCiK ma fine 
eonflio accidtre potuijfey Bel. Gal. 1. 7, p. 14.7. So Hifti^^BjeL Afr. 
I know Stephens^ and other Didionaries make it ^ Adrdih^ but 
Adverbs in u are contrary to the Analogy of (he LatinTongue^ 
and not to be fuf pos'd without necelHty, which the^ it none 
here, Ablatives in u being regular, 
. Cratiis is an eighth omifTion, as 

Faccjum tu praco omuim auritnm populum 
%Age nunc refi.ie^ cave modo ne Grutiis^ Plaut. Afin. Pfol.' U e. fv 
nothings which is a jeer upon the Crier, who would not do anj 
thing for nothing, which the fame Author alludes to in ano- 
ther place, fpeaking to the Crier. ^ \ . 
Mxerce vocem per quum vivisy & colis. Mil. Prol* ib again 
K^c meum adepol, ad te ut mittam Gratiis, Id. AC 1. Sc^t* ^'^ 
tkcr is my Cuflom^ fays the Baud, to Jlnd^ meaning tKe Whore, 
tojou for nothings Now though Gratiis here comes nrom Gratia 
or Gratia Plural, tban\sy which with this fort of People was 
counted nothing in comparifon of Monev, which t^ey ovly 
valu'd, yet in this figniHcation it is not to be found biic in tliie 
Ablative Cafe, and io upon that Account may deierve a Place 
in this Rule -, or at leait fome fuch intimation of the xdt of 
J t to prevent faying, 06 G^tium or Gratiasy which would' MC be 



^. 



Of Mofloptotes. laj 

tkcit^ or Im^m (for 'tii read both ways) is a tenth Omiflion. 
fnfe&i Md iHciu Unonem redi^it, f , i*. to a ftrai^bty or JVc fluj ultrum 
Plauc. Can ac 2. (c. 5. f. r. «>li /o£-4 twdrtf, from whence tncre is no 
moving, or N^^tU Jnciia^ alluding to fome fuch Play as Draughts, 
or Chefs. So Hem nunc hie cujusefk\ Vt ud JnciufedASfm, Plaut. 
Trin. ac 2. ic. 4. or in other Books ^ Incius^ i. e. ad incituj calccsy 
orfMs cieri mam fcffimu 

¥ecu in the Ablative is the eleventh Omiflion. 'Tis true, this 
Word was formerly us'd in the Nominative, as appears by ¥efluj^ 
but th«t was out of ule before his Time. It is to be found now 
only in the Ablative in the Singular, and that only in Pl^tm in 
thne Places, Kud. ac. 4. fc. 3. Sirujquamofo fecuy and Bac, ac. 5. fc.2« 
twice, Cmm bs eumt fie m ftcm pulitunm. Cum « fecu Cdttro ahjunt. Jn 
the Plural it has Pecm^ Peeuumy Pecubus. ' See for the iirft PUuu 
Merc. ac. 3, fc !• Uv, I. 25. Solin. C.25. for the fecond, Fcflus in ?r- 
'^MHii, where he fays, Pecuum cum dixit Af. Cuto per cafum Gtnitivum^ i 
fim^ulm cafut reStt fornuvity quo utebantur amtiqui^ id eft Fecu, For the 
lad, feciMcr. 1. 6, Pecubus baUmtibuSf.p, 201. 

FoWa, if It fignifies any number of Founds, as I have faid before, 
is a twelfth Omilfion. I iliall now tell the Reader the Reafbn of 
this Query. Itfeems unnatual to many knowing Men, whom I 
havedifcours'd upon this Point, and ibme Writers, that the latins 
ihould have a Plural in 0, of a meer Latin Word, contrary to the " 

feneral Analogy of their Language, which admits of no other 
lural in o. And therefore they think ail the Sentences where Pen- 
^0 occurs befl refblvable by fuppoling it to be che Ablative Singu- 
lar, and the Word libra in fome Plural Cafe, to be underilood for 
the Subftanttve to the Numeral Ad je<fxive jjyn*d with Pondo, So 
that Fondo fignifies no more than Weight, according to fome cer- 
tain Standard, as Troj or tAvcrdufoia witn us \ and by Centum Pondo . 
is to be underflood Centum UbrM Pondo^ a hundred Pound by fuch a 
Wei^C Suppofe for Inf^ance, W^ith us a hundred Weight Troy^ 
is a hundred Pound Weight Troy \ this indeed fccms to be a rati- 
onal Suppofition, and will generally hold : But then when the Nu- 
meral Ad jedive is Neuter, there icenis to be no room left for this 
Suppofition, fince neither Lib/a can be undcrflood in that Cafe i ' 
neither is there ony other Noun of the Neuter Gender, and like 
Signification, to fupply its place. An Example of this kind occurs 
in Zh. Dec 3. 1.2- %Argemti Pondo binu. So Tonjuis u:r/eut duo Pondo, 
Id, Dec.). 1.4. But that it is Singular ever, as Mr. Klr^roo / would 
imply by the Example he gives in his Note of Vnicum Pondo, I ' 
cannot believe. But whatever be to be thought of this, 'ti» pafb 
doubt that there is fuch a Monoptote as Pondo in the Ablative for 
Weight in general. 

But then as this Author has confidered things, here are abun« 
danceof Words more wanting in this Rule. For if ?»{/», Promptt*^ 
fdrmMt belong to this Rule, becaufe of their Nominal Confl:ru<fli. 
on, in being either governed of Prepoiitions,as in Prom.tu^ or in ha- 
Ying AdjeSives joyn'd with them, as y^/w, or ln]u^u mco^ or iii 
their governing of Genitive Cafes, as f^mi'i/W Confulis^ iniuffu Senatus^ 
then abundance of other Words fliou'd have been added to them 
ibr the ikme reafon. They are thefe that follow : %Accerfitu, sAccitu^ 
oUtmift^^ %Adje&u^ %jUmiifu^ oidmomit^^ Mmotu^ iMvc£fUy iJffiiffu, 
^AIUi4am^ ^Mmam^ tJff^fiu^ oirmatm^ ^fpnju^ OlftipuUtu^ off" 

R a tre^atu^' 



i24 Of Monoptotes. 

trtitatM^ CuifaOvj CarftUy Cir€mmje&u^ Ciratmwtff^ C^^S^X^ihOt*^ Col* 
lifuy Comprejfu^ Comceffuy Cmdliiitsty Concttjpt, CmAuu^ CttfliifUy Con^ 
ji'ffu, ConfpiratVy Contemfiatu^ Dmmn^tu^ DtitUf DtciStu^. Dtfoj[u^.Dc* 
itfUfm^ DiJ'pe/jt4^ Difffitu^ O^n^Uy Domtli*, Effl^tdttf^ SlHh*% Sfirtau, 

nutUy Incujfuy Iniu&Uy Ififtifu^ InfufUy Injt&Uy lnftruih*y imtrcuffu^ 
imerduUuy Interfofitu^ InveBu^ InventUy fnvifatUy iJ&u £rOfll jLg« to 
cbaQfe, LocutUy Maff-aiUy hiijfMy iA^lStu^ OhferY€tn^ OhtrtSt^t^y Offenfuy 
OffrejfuyOrAtUy Peccatmy Percuffuy Perftaiu^ Perfuufry PafhtUtUy Prmf»hf 
rutUy Pr*untasuy PrecMiUy Pr&imfftty Prommeuau^ Provifi^ ^ajfjfSy j^4- 
JffUy Recujfuy KefuutUy KeidfUy tUftMtUy fjefmlfuy Ktffaerjuy Picfpr^u^ 
Sciffuy ScUUy Scriptu^ SpecttUtm^ SpiratUy StifuUMUy Sf^ufiy Smbaffmy 
Sfubjelfuy SubflrutUy S^J^cEtu^ Su&Uy SufpcStu^ Tritm^ Verhttatm^ Vin^Uy 
yblutatu, I have only nam'd them at prefent, that the Rea- 
der may find them for his tUe, reierving the proof of them 
till I come to Supines. Much the greater part of thefe are 
omitted by Fofliiu and his Followers, the largeft LiA of chem, 
namelythatofthe Annotators. confifting only of fourteen, and 
even nx of them being fbuna in one or more Cafes bsfide the 
Ablative. 

tAffaiu put down by them as a Monoptote has %Aff>itus. Sen.Med« 
ac.2. fc. 2. 

!^aflrospropiHSu4ffdtuffetit» otffdtibus MzniL ^ ^* 1. 126* nffretfut 
%4ffatihus ora, Claud. £p. ad Probin. 

% Affin*s ctum mtditdt4que verba 

KMider^ Sat. Sylv. 2. Bit. Mel. 

tAffatufque pioSy Monitnratf^ fomnU po/cdnt, Stat.Silv.3. Laclu £truf. 

yariis ncc non tAff^t'tbusy ipfa^ &c, Id« Theb. 12. V. 17^- 
Hortdtu put doKrn by them alfo as a Monoptote, has Hwrtants in 
the Kom. Plur. Tac, An. i* p. (5. 

Aon voxy non mutui Hortutus juvabant, Hwtutibm» OyM€ZA,J»^li^0» 
Hisy ut qudque fU efiy Hortatibm impU prinu eJK So ^i/wi l.S. p>I 23. 
%Affatur vocty & bUndis Hcrtatibut impleU 
' In/Hn^u is another of their Monoptotts, and Kehert Stephens gives 
no account of any other Cafe, though as his mamier is, the leading 
y^Otd is Inftinifus bujas Inftin^uf, But JHuintilUn has Inflin&m in the 
Nom. Futalis Inftin^us^ Decl. 4. and Injliu^Hm jiXio^ Prdfilibo fortajfe 
tanquum ftf^uar CUffki vocantis InfiinStum, Id. lb. and D^cl. \y 

Monitu IS another of their Monoptotes^ but Ovtd lu^finwrax mo- 
mtus. Met. 2. 

<Monitufque deorum 
PerdUer* t Met. 7. 

inter opusy monitufq^fy gens mtiditere feniUt, Id Met^. Bcfide Stat. 
Theb. 5. 

. Momtaf^ue yetuftij And P/tn. Paiieg. 
' OhjeEtu is a Monoptote with them, and Mr.«KW%r, 4|nd ilUiirrf 
Stephens give no Example of another Caie : But Tdcituf hat Hi w 

iium Qf>jeUus, An. 14.0. 347. 

Kqiatu is another ot the Annotators Monoptotes, hut Cicero has 
Kobis adKq^atumrefpondent, Flac. p..47l. . 

ro^iM, Mr. Leedsy and the Annotators. have alfo omlttjBd ^Afg/ih 
Diuy and Pecu^ whether defignedly, <>r:by oVerfight) I .jcnoiw noc 
This is certain, that they hare taken notice tt moy . otjhefni iu 
o'tktt FUces) upon no bmcr Aiidioriqr, Ji{tub^hmkc ahy osm 



Of Diprotes. 125 

of 4 betteTv if we believe the Cricicks in general, or Voffm in par* 
cicaLir, who diiputin^ againft Qhrrtus Gijfinlufy fays Eodemque trr^u 
reiiqmft Obertum Glffantumy qfti lAtint diet ne^uyit^ in^rutiis tuU^ ^o uti 
ndtmms iffmm fUutum* And ycc this is but in one lingle place. 



S 



Of Diptotes. 

Grnmmar^ Lat. /^- 19. 

%)ni Diftata quilus duplex flexura ranafijitf 
ZJf firs firte dnbit fcxto. 

Animadversion LXVIL 



THis Ruk is partly falfc, partly jthort, as will appear by 
what follows. 
. For/, which is faid here to make only Vortex makes alfo 
Form, Forri and Vwtemy but then it muft be in Conjunxftion with 
fome like Cafe of Vortuud, As Fortis Vortun^^ Vorti foytun^e^ Vortem 
Vanutmm \ which the Annotators not having^ taken notice of, have 
left their Readers in Uncertainty, and liable to miftalce. See 

Pius has not only Fluris in the Gennitive, but Plure aUb in the 
AblatiYe, as char'tfius^ L 2. quotes out of ciaro. plure vemt. As alfo 
out oi L$*eiliufyPl»re foras vendunt^quod fro minort emftum. Beiide that, 
FlMUms has PltfTc alttro tanto^ for twice as much, C^co Jive fr^tdonibus 
in Fr^gmemts. And Scaliger makes no Scruple of following him. Ex- 
«rr« 21. Flurem^ which the Annotators take notice of, I have heard 
of no where elfe. Mr. Leeds has put Plus in his Title, but has for^ 

fot to give any account of it in his Remarks. Tuntundem ha& alio 
tmtanum in VlpUn. Befide 

ITtcem and Vtcey which arc all the Author (ays he has read of this 
Word. There is alfo ykis ; as, NeUcra. regU vicis defer erentm^ Xf». 
1. I. and utlienM v'wis. Id. Befide which, j^ins'Uian has it in the Da- 
cire, SubfHtmt vid curs fu* fropinquos^ Declam. 6, V<,J^uSy and Mr. 
Igtdi after him, give the fame account of it from Pbocas and (^Ari- 
Jim, but take no notice of thefe Authorities. 

Bat then beiide thofe Nouns that are here put down fbri>x/>* 
<9fr/, which are not fo ; there are others omitted, fome of which 
may be call'd foin fome refpccftjnamely in re(pc<ft of one Number : 
Others again are entirely iuch \ I fhall take them in Alphabetical 
Order. 

Mru and JBnhus are the only two Cafes of ^/ in the Plural Num- 
ber* I iUall giYC Examples of them under the Rule for Metals. 

^* nAtki$ra$m 



126 Of DiptotcS. 



%Ai\nPntHn and %Ai\A.tr4tu are reckon'd by ^t.ljtis^i tlie biily twd 
Caics of chat Koun. The firft he takes upon the Authority of 
Voffius without any Proof, neither is there any that I know of in 
thefe Authors. Ro&err Stephens takes no notice at all of any fuch 
Word in any Cafe. But they are both out, and it is fo much the 
more ftrange in MuLetdsy bccaufe Vbffius takes notice of the Accu« 
iktive in pUutuSy 

DeAuntfe^ Dlvina hum^nuq^ omma^ trrhem^ ac liheresy 
In ditionemy <ttq) %Arhitraium cunSti Tbeh^no foflo, 

Amph.ac i. fc. i. 
But then even he too forgets sArbritratut in the Norn. Sing. 

Meus iArhitrntus eft lingua quod juret mea. Plant. Rud. ac. 5* 
fc. 2. 

So again, 
Tuus xArbitratus fit^ comburas^ ft Velis* Id. Af. ac. 4. ft. i, 
ChMs has no other Termination than chao in the Ablative, when 
it (ignifies the fuppofed Chaos befbvc the World began ; as ybr^il 
fay» of Clj/mtne Georg, 4. 

%Aqy Cbuo denfos Divitm enumerahai Amores, 
For ^o I choofe rather to read it, as it is Printed at Uafil by Sehaflia' 
nus Hcuric Prm, than %Atq[i Cbao^ as it is commonly read* and as 
yojfius quotes it. For the God Cbuos it has on in the Accusative, in 
many Editions, as I haveobfcrved w<mm4</v^)5on XIV. BucKo^j 
does not approve of that reading, for he quotes it. 
Et noSttm^ noStiftfy deosy Erebofq\ Cbaoftfy 
Evoca i . 
And inyirgily though iignifying a God, the Accufative is chaos : 
As, 

Tercentum touat ore deos, Erehumq\ Cbaofq; Gcor^. 4. p.I74* 
CYate is by fome Grammarians made a Monopote in the Singular. 
The Annocators take notice of it, though yojjfius reckons it for a 
Diptotty and MuJUeds after him. The Ablative Cafe is well 
known, and for the Accufative Foffius quotes Cratim out of Plautusy 
and from charifius Cratem too. But he takes no notice of the No- 
minative and Genitive in fliny, Tranfvcrfa pcftea Crates peragitur. 
K. H. i. 13. c. 12. Cratis 6r hoc genus dentat a fylis ferrets. N. H. 1.1 8. 
c. 12. nor of the Dative in P<ilaA, Olivas Crati fuperpofaas, Nov. 
Tic. 22. and in this alfo Meflfieurs Defort Royal, and Mr. Ixeds aro 
overfeen. Rob, Stephanus in his Tbefaurus cites Dentuta CraUs in the 
Nominative out of P/mjp, 1. 1 8. c. 1 8. But this is a Miftake among 
fome others of that Author, though a great Ma^in this way, for 
the Words of Pliny are C/ates dentatat fupertrabunt. There arc Other 
I)i<^ionaries alio, that give it a Nominative Cafe Singular, but 
without mention of Authority. It is entire in the Plural, except 
the Genitive Cafe,which I have never met with that I remember. 
Dica Dicanty the two only Cafes in the Singular Number are <>• 
mitted likewife, though as having Dicas in the Plural, it may be 
taken for a Triptotcy but there ii no mention of it in that Rule nei« 
ther. Phocaf fays, it is not found in the Nominative ^in^Iar, but 
that is a miftake, for Cicero hsa Scribitur HeracUo Dica^ inKcr.U}. 
Or. 7« And for the other two, there are Dicum imfingam tiUgran^ 
dcm, Ter. Phorm. ac. 2. fc. 3. and twica otherwhere in die lame 
Fable ; and %Adve,mt ,dies quo dit fefe ex iwftiimio^ ac ffge Rupilik Dicat 

jfottmrm S^4Cttpt ifir tirnina^ Cic* xn V tt« L $• or ;• 



Of Diptotes. 127 

farit and F^«/ ihould have been added among thek Diptotesy for 
they are'jplainly two oblique Cafes, though omitted by all the 
Grammarians. 
» JToJRus^ Meffievrs de Tort Kcyaly %Ahare\^ Dantfius^ and Mr. Ltedi 

add 

KLtSte and MaSti to thefe, but Cjito has lAa^ns alfo in the Nomina- 
tive^ as Mr. ¥ra%r has obferved before me; June fiter te hoc ftrne 
commovendA bonus preees te fftfcor^ uti fits volem^ fropitius^ mihi liberifyue 
nms^ domo, familUque mes Mu^us hoc ferto, c. 153. and immediately 
after, JufiUrhoc j'erto thmovendo hon^s freces^ utifiesvolcnSy profttius 
tnihi lihenfyue meis^ domo^ familUque mem Muftus hoc ferto. And I canr 
not bat wonder thefe two PafTages ihould have efeaped k^cffius, 6e- 
^de thefe Examples of Mu&us^ it is further obfervable, that when 
the Roman Sacrinces had the Wine and Frankincenfe poured upon 
them, it was proclaimed, Mu£fa eft hoftiny i. e. M^k aucfu^ from 
jvhence this Word was compounded. But then with the Verb eftoy 
was always ufed Ma^e ; and this even once in Horace^ though the 
Subftantive be of the Feminine Gender. 

. . : — ^Malffy 

l^ute efta in^t fententin dia Citonis. L. I. Sat. 2. 
And ^en Cc/o, who m another form of Conftnidion, has Mt^ui 
twice^ as has been obferv'd, yet with efto has Maff-e conftantly, as 
may be (een in the fame Chapter, as well as in the 1 33d. * Nay, if 
we nuy believe Foffius in his Cenfure ofpalmnm^ upon this Word ; 
it feemt as if in all forms of commending and exhorting, Ma£fe was 
always us'd in the Singular Number. For in thofe Paflages of Livy^ 
quoted hj Palmenutj juberem Ma^um te Vtrtutc efft^ fi fro meSi putriA 
t/ftf imtntJUret ; and jAuStus Virtute inquit C, Scrvili efto liherstM rep. he 
jays Sdme in Xt'vit Codicibus Ma£te uhique conftanter Itgitur^ non Maff-uSy 
vA Mctf »m. Z^ yulgafus loqttcndi modus videatur^ non quidem tJt'ione jnftJif 
fed eomfuetmdine' tamen obtinmjfe. In the Plural they ufed Mu^i, as 
Mtffi Vfrtmt^'inqini DeciuSy Milites Komani eftty Liv. 1. 7. and Ma«h 
tf^mto efle Odi ifaerpretes, rerumque nature capaces, Plin. N. H« !• 2*. 
C. 12. 

^ Mdne and Mani fhould have been placed here, though the Abla« 
tire be fbmetimes Mane alio, as has been faid before under %Aptotes, 

Udoy which Mr. Wan{tr adds to thefe, as the Ablative of Uelos^ 
is hardly to be found, but in Prudentius^ out of whota he quotes 
it. But 

-' MU the St|bftantive, has UiUi in the Ablative, as tAgeUms proves 
'hf two {places of IMHiusy L. i. c. i^. 

MdV may be faid to be a Diftote in the Plural, in point of Ter* 
Biination, having no other Voices than Maiia and Marikus. This 
lait fbme iiave difputed ; but . Cafar has Naves faulo Utioresy quam 
^uSbms in rtli^ms utimnr Mariims, Bel. Gal. 1. 15. and CurtiuSy Mare 
Caffimm dmU^ns cateris^ L 6, The Genitive was us'd by Navius Reg" 
sMfor marAm^ fpealdng to Ntptune^ but f think no Body has fbliow'd 
him dther in the contr'a^ion, or the ufe of it at length. MtMeds 
iidds, 

'• Saneiy as having only JiT^ifro in the Ablative, but this lafl Cafe 
is only to be fbu^ in Peftus out of Nanus. 

Os 



^ 



i«S Q/Dlptotes. 

Of may l>e iaid to be « Diptote in the Plural M9 to Terminativn, 
lor it has but thdfe two V^oices, Ora and Oribus, and this faft rarely, 
yet not io rarely as f^:Jfit*s thought, «rho quotes but two places out 
of the ClaiTicks, both oit^irgtl j one JEii.8. p.257. the other JEn.\ • 
p. 317. but fee ?d//a<:/. 1. 1. Tit 4.0.' Feb. Tit. 25. 

j'dulum is omitted here not 0>ily by this A.uthpr> but by all the 
Grammarians, and yet; is harUl:^ found to have any other Termi-r 
nation, but f/tulum for the Nominative and Accu^tive, and Paul^ 
for the Ablative ; .extept that Plai*tus has, 

Ptcifci cum illo tauU ,-ecMmia. potes^ Bacch. ac 4. (c. 8* 

As in (bme Copies ^ but in my Book it is, fuululA. 

JLof is attother of like fort, having but two Terniinationf in thf 
Plural Number, ^n. R9rrs and Rpnbus ; and that it has thcie ihall 
ble ihcwn, when I come to treat of Mafculincs, which are faid to 
want the Plural Number. 

Ruj has but two Terminations neither in the Plural, Rwra and 
Murihusy and this laft but once in Pliu, Ep. as i^ofius fays. 

Sirtmps fhou'd alfo have been among the £<t/rof.^ ftri^W taken, 
or fuch Nouns as have but two Gales, if that readine of FUtttuj 
be good ; Sirtmpfe i> legejiifit tjp yptfiiir, AnV ?roL w|iich Charifius 
approves of. 

Stmimecem and Sfmmcts^ may be apt to be taken for the onlj 

Cafes 6f that Word ; but SUu^ has axfb Semimecttm m tbc Genkiva 

Pittfal, as, * 

SejmwcimUthmmftr4^tti¥4Vfsu9^uUpulfft, j;„ 4. p. tfj. 

And, . 1 . 1 . t fff£ ctrngrt deeria^ 

tirufira. Scminecum qu^remtiahm^ C^ff^m, h,6, p. J»o« 

Sol may be laid to be a Diptote in point of' Ternunation in the 
Plural, having but two Voices, SoUs an4 Saltbms^ ai^aif beih«wn 
snder Mafcuhnes that are £/dd tp want the Pl^ifral. Njumher. ^ 

T(Ai and TtAo are reckon'd f mpngil thefe by ^ephni 'in his TV* 
pMtus, yojfmsy Mc$eurs de Pprr Aojw/, the Annotators, Hr. i^isy 
Mr. ir«%r, Ih^fi^^ ^^ ^bo not ; yet it is once 'uiJismi^^tm^ in 
the Nominative, Nunc occurunt effufa pntcoriidy 6r Imd^ ittrmts^ # 
eatpreffum demiln^fT^tm. Dcclam. 12. p. 139. r . 

yejper is 4 X>iff fit* too, haTifl^only Veffeirc ox Vejptn in t^Abl;^ 
tive. Vtfpm. ii comokonly faid, to be an Ad Yerb, ' l^ut tkt coiitrary 
xmtat by that of ^iwioiiw, Vit. C^lig. ^eftnft ittrnV^iifpfn memU 
M»tborib$n convalmjfe tandem percrehuilfet. There are alfo found teff^* 
wtm in the Accuiative, and f^^^roin the^W^tivt,'aslf4;^ob« 
lerves"; which whether they come from Vcffin zfjLtt the Slecond^^^ 
denfiofi, or from f^»s^, will PPt deeersune,' any mWtlMRt he. 
Tis certain this latter is never se^' though it wpufd ^f^pear oUiicgw 
Wift by Caleftm, ' 1 . •• 

But then this Rjule is furtl^er dei^iye in point of 4ie Si^pinei* 
which I ihall prove |o be X^puns, m^£t of diem of tiro-CaJEb^ anid 
Ibme of dnree, when I eopie.to t|:«a^ of t^ein iirtjueir nl^ Tibf 
only difficulty in this M^teri%wt^ic])i ^VM^ hai^.^Conftni- 
iftion of Nouiis, and which not ; I mean as to die Gbvefnm'eD^ of 
^nitive Cales» or bav^g A4jlB^CSM)f^Uwi^ 4Nm.it MMhis 
alfo I ^all there dcteuBiM. ' 

Of 



OfTriptotes. 119 



T 



Of Triptotes. 

Grammar 9 Lat. /^. i9« 
i^fi quibus inflcRis cafus^ Tr if tot a vocantur^ C^t. 



Animadversion LXVIIl 



T 



His Rule is partly defe<ftive, partly falfc, I ihall (hew both 
under the Words that follow in Alphabetical Order. 

^^fUfirty has no other Obliques but ^fluflra^ or tJ^luftriu^ and 
iApU^higy and yet is omitted. 

Dica, Dicum^Dtcoiy ihou'd have been here as abovcfaid ; and 

Maffttf^ Md£fe^ Ma&i^ neither the Annocators^ Mr. Leeds-y nor 
Mr. Walter cenfure the Author for allowing 

Ofis but three Cafes \ however, he is out m it, for it has plainly 
a Nominatire in Ovi^^ Tnft, L. i. £1. 3. 

iVbn 4ift4t frofugo t^eflify Opifve fuit, 

Precis which our Author reckons here for one of the Cafes of this 
Triftotty 11 never read that I know of, though l^ojjfiw^ %Aivare\y 
Mr, Ijeedsy and Mr. Wall^eY allow it. And if it were, the Noun would 
be ATetrsftotc; For Tertnce has ^eci in the Dative twice, xAndr^c^, 
(c« 4. Tbwrm^ ac. 3. fc. 3. The next Omiflion is of 

Sardisy S»dfm^ Sorde^ (in the Singular,for in the Plural 'tis entire) 
which) though Foffim has taken notice of, is yet omitted by his Fol' 
lowen, except Meflieurs De port Royal, St. %Amhrofe has Sordi* in the 
Notninatire, as yo/ius fays, but that is not a fufticient Authority. 
To the three Cafes, 

FSriy, l^ktmy and Krr« though the Author fays he has read no 
more, Tit one may add a fourth, by the Authority of SuintUiany 
omittea by Ko^,and his Followers. Subftituit vici curs Jus frofinqttos. 
'Decl.tf« 

This Author is in an Error too, in the Plural Kumber of this 
Wordf which he fays is entire, and neither Dwefusy the Annota- 
tors, Mr. Lfcds^ nor Mr. Wall{er^ cenfure him for it. Nay, Faruaby 
too, in his Grammar fays, it is entire in the Plural. But I do not 
know that I have ever feen the Genitive yidum or yicum. 



In 



I Jo Of Tetraf totes. 



A 



In the fame Rule. 

T Untum re Ho frugi egret ^ & difionis* 

Animadversion LXIX. 



FKu^is has FrMT, not only in Enmus^ is V^ifus obierves^ but in 
%AHfontus too* But being fo unufiul, it may be better to for- 
bear the ufe of it, for Tear of ihocking common Readers. 
The Nominative 

Ditio is not to be found in any of thefe Authors, but Brafmus ufes 
it in his Para^hrafe of the fixond of St. Zk%>, Vt aftareat quanta U- 
t'mi pateret cbrtfti Ditio^ quiim C*f.tim. However our Author is in the 
right here, and: the Authority of Erafmus is not fujficient in this 
cafe. I ihali (ay what I think of this liberty by and by* 



Of Tetraptotes. 

/ 

Animadversion LXX* 

TKere are alfb Nouns, to which the Grammarians allow but 
four Cafb. The nrft of thefe is, 
IXtf if, Dafiy Dapemy Dupe. Sut Cato has it alio in the No- 
minative, Vbi Ddpt proftfuta^ cwnefiMpHt erit^ verno arare incipito. R« R. 
c. 50. and again c 132. 

Ditiofiis^ JDifxoMf, Dmourm, Ditiont is the next. Only Brafmtts^ as 
has been uid before, has Ditto in the^Nominative. 

trcndit^ Frondiy 'Brmiem^ Fronde is another in the Judgment otcbif 
ri/iui. But Voffius proves the Nominative J^ons to be in iiie by that 
• of Ktrf, Georg. 2« From tenera» I wonder at uiis MiHake in Ciiartfiusy 
and ^at y<^us wou'd content himfelf with a lingle place, agaiaft 
fuch an Authority as that o£ch4rifiuSj fince 'tis fo common among 
the Ruftick Writers, 

Vnde Froms Ov'A»s^ 6" hubusfit. Var. R. R. L. I* C. 84. 
Again L. 2. c. 5. Vhi virpdt^ty & front multM» So Totft^fUte^ 6rde' 
inie autumuo fatietam frondey qns tt^men non anlte efi ut'Uisy fiMM amt 
nuituruerit vel imbr'AuSy Vel ajiduH roribut, Probatufyue maximi MmtAy 
poft fruxineoy nh h,te fopulnca. Colum* l,» 6» C. 3. 

Where Vrons muft be underftood with the Adjc^ives Vbneity 6cc. 

m 

Jovv, 



OfVMtsfMes. iji 

Jtvi, 3Wi, Jfevm, ^oVf, is a fourth, except that yWiW lf)Sttntfk 
has JovLf in the Nominative, which with fome other Singularities* 
makes me think that Author not to be of the Age he pretends to> 
Though JoVis^ doubtlefs, was the ancient Nominatjve. For he that 
Declines Jufiter^ 3^'^j txuj as well Decline fMus tApoUinis, 

Ntmo^ is thoudkt by (bme to be a fifth, as wanting the Genitive 
and Vocative. But mtiide, that one may fanfie a Vocative of this 
Noun, the G<mitive jyirmtauj is found in ?/aftf M/. 

Neminis mifereri certum eft^ quia mei miferet neminem^ 

Ofisy Opi^ Opem^ Ofe^ is a fixdi, but I have Hiewn Opts to be uled 
in the Nominative above, 

VtcuUsy FecuM^ Peatdem, Fecude, is a feventh. For Pecus in the 
Nominative makes Pecoris, Only Cdfur in *Au^ur4lib»s^ faid /mcer^t 
Fecmsy as has been laid before. 

Proceris^ Proceri^ Proarem^ Procere^ is the eighth, as Charijms will 
have it, and Vogius inclines to allow it. But I queftion much, whe- 
ther it 1MB found in any iingular Cafe, but the Accusative in Juvenai^ 
oigpofi^ pT^crtm. Sat. 8. 



O 



Of Pentaptotes. 

Grammar^ Lat« f. 29. 

^A rtferunt ut qui : quA ferccntantur ut ecquis^ fSc* 
Quinto hcecfafe carent cafu^ £^c. 



AnIM ADVERS 1 ON LXXI. 

Nothing more pr<qperly belongs to this Rule, than thofe 
Noitfts commonly call'd Gerunds, which I ihali Xhew to 
be Nouns in the proper place. In the mean time nothing 
hinders, upon that account, but the Latins might have faid tr\/it^ 
Jbmudmm, as well as abetntdum efh miln* But then in the next place, 
how die Gramnuurians came (all in a manner with one confent) to 
exclude the Pronouns firom the Vocative Cafe, except T«», Meus, 
iMtr uid N4firaty I cannot imagine. For they arc all properly Ad- 
jedives but B^o^ Tu^ Sm^ and as Adjectives take the Cafe of their 
Subftantives ; and as olttnas they are of the Vocative Cafe, which 
is ^ often as they are call'd upon, the Pronoun Adje^ives are fo 
too. For die only ufis of the Vocauve Cafe is to call upon the 
Perfim, or thins put Periboally, which we (peak to, to give notice 
to what we dircSft our Speech ; and is therefore, prc^rly fpeaking^ 
the only Cafe abfolute or independent , which we may make ufe of 
withoiu ttfotA to ai^y other Word* But when the Sentence be* 

S 2 gun^ 



1 3 « Of PentMftotts. 

gun, the Pronouns T/* or Toi, are to be tinderftood, and are fre- 
quently cxprcfTcd, as T« modo^unime mi^ noli te ynuccrure^^CT, An^.SLC,^, 
ic, 2. Tw Puvf 4«(;i Dftmunt^ Tcr. And. ac. j. fc. ^. 

«^/ /w CatuUe Jeftinatus Obdtdray ad feipf. DUt of this morC in 5j»f«f*', 

This then being laid down, it wijl be no hard matter to diftineuiih 
by the lignilicatibn (cxccut in Gerunds, which, as I have faid, want 
the Vocative rather by ui^ tnan iignification)what Nouns haYc,and 
v-'lut have not the Vocative Cafe. As for ^he Relatives j^«i,£_wi/r;«», 
and i^uicunqm^ 'tis pJaiH they cannot have the Vocative CafeT^ecaufe 
they always repeat Ibmething preceding, cither according to the 
Order of the Words in the Sentence, or according to the ordet' of 
Confbruiftion ; but the Vocative muft always be the firft Word oF 
the Sentence, or rather is not part of the Sentence, but an indepen- 
dent Term to call upon the Perfon we fpeak to.Intcrrogativcs alfo 
cannot have a \'ocative Cafe, becaufe they fignifie the rhing we 
make Enquiry of, and not the Perfon we dire<rt our l>iicourK to. 
But for Partitives and Diftribujcives, I c^n fee no re^oh but they 
may have a Vocative Cafe, (ince any part or Member of a Diftri- 
bution may be f^foken to, thoueh a meer General, of IndtyUuum 
vugumy and by confeuuehce calPcl upon to atpend. And th<!re is the 
fame reafon for Indefinites, which is but another Term upon ano^ 
ther account for Partitives, or Diftributives ; only ^is feems to be 
excepted, becaufe by a particular Propriety of the Latin Tongue^ 
it is never us*d but with «fome Cpnj^■elioil, and fp is part of* the 
Sentence, and can'nof for that reafon b? tHe Vocative Cafei But fot 
tAliquisy which is but a Conipoiition of tAlim iui^y it may have a 
Vocative. But becaufe iii Language it is generally difallow'd to 
follow Parity of Keafon> without the Authority of E^ramplc, t 
ihall fubjoyn here fuch of each Icind ^s are to be found' in Authors 
in the Vocative Cafe. amice r* muhis mibi Vnt Cephalio, Plant) 
'Frivolaria. So Kb^w quotes it frpm ^'*pfr^ though in my Book j 
there is no fuch thing. But then Catullm h^h Tu fritter omnes Vu^ dk 
icapiUutif, Carm. 57. Prifcian quotes SoUy 1'. 5. 

felix Irlhde talibtu fole amoribus, Hym. A. Ticida?. To theft add 
all Comparatives, and Superlatives, and Ordinal K'umb^s put 
Partitivcly, as //«mm^ if wm, with »^/foi*H,j2«i/9tt^, j^t/ifc-/, afi> 
Exoriare oiliquis noftris ex oJfibM ultor, Virg. iEn. 4, 

1 admire /o/^w/ wont allow this to be a Proof of the Vocative 
p( ^iquis. His reafon is, 

Nam'iiidem'dixero 
Exoriare %Aliquis Fsnfim fuccenfrs athorcm 
But then Snccenfus does not agree with oiliquu, but T'* uader- . 
Ikood, as in that of Catullm^ xAt tu Catuliedeftimttm Admrk, Of which 
form of Exprcnfion, I have hinted ibmething already, and 0iall 
ipcak more home t<> it in Sjntux, But then that of Terpncr^ .be con^ 
felTes, is plain, ' • 

■ tApertfe K^ltqf'is aStutnm efiium, Ad.ac.4. fc. 4* 
So for JsL«;/7'^ and i^uiiibtrty he brings two Proofs. • . . 

. ^^ITcfliraf ^ifque'redite d^mos. O'y* Ep. lJi4^.ProU[^ Anii 

ih*ilihvt hut\- dixit ^'c^nffige tutits m'/. 'id. Faft. 3. p. 50. 
And if j^'ifque\hd Vnm have both V^&tire Cafes, why not Vmuf- 
t^uifque !? Thefc, if "they are npt fufficientto ple4d for a liberty of 
ufing the reft in th^ Vocative, are yet abundantly enough to con- 
fute our Author, who excludes all. 

Of 




Of Pent Af totes. i j j 

Of the Pronouns^ the Subftantives E^o, and .^«t can have no Vo' 
(tatiye Caie, becaufe the firfl: is never to be uicd, but when a Man 
ipeaksof himfelf ; and Sni is a Relative, which is excluded for the 
realbn above mentioned in the conflderation of Relatives. 

As to the Pronoun Adjetflives, VoJJius argues rightly, that Tuus 
is not excluded by fignincation from the Vocative, becaufe the 
Patron might (ay properly enough, according to the Genius of the 
Latin Tongue, to hit Man-Servant or Maid-Servant, that was 
made Ave, to the £rft tuc nuncy and to the fecond, O tua nunc yir^ 
^ O your otvM M^n, your own MuiJ. But of Hicy Ille and 
Iffe^ the Cafe is plain by the Quotations that follow. 

Sfhnmncjol ttjOs^ ir H*c miln terra precantu Virg. ^n. 12. p. 3^0. 
Tmmbi IxbertM llU fattrna. vMt, Tibul. 1. 4. £1. 2. 
Jffc mem JEtbtr acctfe fumme freccs, Ov. in Ibin. 

But now. what in the Name of Sence does the Author mean by 
his Siskmto bdcfape carent cafu ! Cureo indeed is a Verb, that may be 
apply'd to a Subjed with ref^tfi to Something accidental, and mu- 
table as well as natural, and therefore permanent. In the Firfl: 
Senc^ Ss^ may properly enough be joyn d with Cureo, Thus S^pe 
may be joyn'd to Car*^, apply'd toMan with refpedl to Pecuniae as 
I fuppoie moft Men will agree. But then the Cafes of Nouns are 
permanent things, and if they want them, they always want them, 
as if they have them, they always have them, the' not always the 
adhial uie of them, yet the Capacity of being usM as occalion re- 
quires. So that Sdpe curcnt here, is downright Non fence : For if 
tnevhare the Vocative, theymuft always have it; if they want 
it tney mufb alwavs want it, no fuch thing in this matter as fome- 
times wanting and fometimes liaving, but always alike. And yet 
Mr. Wall^ will have the word Sdpc to be warily put in here, 
and teftifiet his Approbation of it twice for failing. And yet 
after all^the utmofbhe can make of the Author's meaning is. That 
he conceive f it t»as thisp that of the forenum'd fort of trori//, ftn if any^ 
0re found to baVe a, Focativt Cuff^ and if any are found to havc a yocw 
five Cafe^yetit is veryfeldom that they are found to have it. If this be the 
Author's meaning, he means one thing and fays another. For S^p^ 
citreut cannot have this nieaning. Nay, if it had, i^ would he no- 
thing to the purpofe. For thcfe wofds being exclfided from the 
Vocative by the Grammarians, upon an Account of their Sig- 
nification, the only Queflrion is, whether for that Reafon they be 
rightl^ excluded, and that they are hot, is fufHciently prov'd both 
by their fignification, and the ufe of Authors. And tho their ufc 
be feidom, yet that is no Objecflion. For 'tis a rare thing to meet 
with anj Noun in the Vocative Cafe } and thefc have it when there 
is occafion f/ir it, and that is enough. ' 

I have now gone thro* thefe Rules much afrer the manner of the 
Grammarians that have gone before mev-only making I'uch Additi- 
ons, as if they had obferv'd, I liippofc, for like reafon, they would 
liave made,and Correcftin^ fuch Errors as I found them guilty of in 
th^ Accounts they haVe given. It may now be proper to fay fome^* 
thme by way of enquiry, how far we are obliged in our Writing 
to obferve thefe Rules ; and that fo much the rather^ becaufe no- 
body tb^t I know of has hitherto done it, or at leafl gone to the 

bottom 




I J4 Of Penuptotes. 

bottom of this Matter* It has generally been thought that we are 
ty'd to follow the ufe of Authors in all things to a tittle, without 
Heviation, becaufe if this common Standard be once loft, there is 
no way left of Preierving the Language, which being now become 
Uniyeriai among Learned Men, would oe of evil Confequence, as 
obliging every Learned Man to write in his Native Language, and 
every Reader ^o un^erftand it. This indeed would be a great £vil» 
but I cannot f^e how a ftated Liberty of ufing other Cales of thefe 
Kouns, than' what are found in Lat^i Authors, provided they 
arc Analogoufly form'd to fuch as an 
to diis Pals. For by fuch formation 

whence they came, and fo all Ambig _^^ ^. 

^on, would be avoided. As for Example, Procerem is the oiuy 
Cafe of that Word in the Singular Number, but if a Man ihouki 
ufe Proceris^ Proceri^ or Procere^ it would be plain that it wai the Ge* 
nitive. Dative or Ablative of that word, and Co no Miftakc could 
happen upon that Account. Nay farther, this Language being 
attended \yiih fo many difficulties, by reafbn of fo many nece^Tary 
Rule^ even to preicrve it from ambiguity, it would (eem the more 
neceflary upon this account to allow of fuch a Liberty, where that 
is not to be fear'd ; for the more ealV attaining, and retaining of it. 
And of this Mind (eyeral confideraole Men ieem to have been by 
their ufing fome of thefe Words in other Cafes, than are to be 
found in Roman Writers. Thus Brafmm has Ditto in the Komi- 
native, tho' the Roman Writers ufe the Obliques onlv, becauie by 
Analog of Formation, thoie Obliques can come from nothing 
but Daio. That indeed of St. oMnroft is not fo allowable, when 
he ufes Swdk in the Nominative, becaufe the Obliques maj with 
equal realbn be fuppofed to come from Sordes. And fo be* 
caufe the Nominative of Procerem, may have been, for ought we 
know, Procer or Proceris^ it would be too much for a Modem Wri- 
ter by uiine either of them to determine a thing in it felf fo uncer« 
tain. But becaufe the other Opinion has gotten Poffeifioiu which 
is too apt with the generality to pafs for a risht ; it will be advi- 
feable for fuch, to whom this Liberty (hould appear reafbnable, 
to be cautious in ufing it, and without fome evident neceflity, or 
at leaf!; fome coniiderable expediency, rather to forbear. But they 
that deny it upon all Accounts, will do well to confider, whether 
they do not often allow of other Cafes in other words, whi^ arc 
not found in Roman Writers. And if they do not, for oi^t I 
can fee they muft, it being impra^icable to prove the ufe of e-. 
very word, befide thofe mentioned in thefe Rules in Roman Au- 
thors. However^ I determine nothing in this Cafe, the Reader 
that likes not this Liberty, with thefe limiutions, may keep as 
exad^lv as he pleafes to the ufe of Authors, and I think I haye 
given him an exacfter account of the ufe he is to follow, than he wi4 
meet with elfewbere* . 



^YMimrf 



Of Nouns thdt wMt the Plurai. 1^5 



Grammar^ Lat. f. %^. 

P^frid cunBa Notes quihus eft natura cocrccns 
Plurima ne fuerint^ (3c. 
His ftumenta dabis^ /^>{A> herb us ^ uda^ weta^Hy 
In quibus dutorum qu^e fint placita iffe requires : 
EJi ubi flurdlem retincnt hac, eft ubi ffertiunt, 

■ 

Animadversion LXXII. 

THE firft part of this Rule needed a ihort Note, nainelf , 
that whereas thele Proper Names are not fo proper to one, 
but they that are fometimes apply'd to fcveral, in fuch 
Cafe they may alfo be Plural, as Cdfarrs^ Catouesy Fa6ii, Lentuli^ and 
others*^ Secondly, the concluiion of the Rule is no Rule, but a 
meer bint, bv which the Scholar is only fent to Authors to And the 
uie of thbie Words, which the Author with all his Reading had not 
done himielf. For if he had, there could be no realbn for his not 
telling them what this ufe of Authors was. But then in this hint 
there is a ercat fault too in the word ?en{a^ which coming equally 
from fendSo or Pen^Oy Children muft needs be at a lofs to know 
whether he means things hung up, as Flax or Wool on a Diftaff, 
or things commonly fold by weight. *Tis in this lafl: Sence, Mr. 
WmO^ takes him, but even in this Sence alio it is Ambiguous, whe- 
ther he means things fo fold by the Rom^n/, or by us. If he means 
it only of the Konuin ufe, I doubt it will be no eaiie matter to dif- 
cover what they (old by Weight, and what not. 'Tis certain their 
Mooey went by Weight, ana yet nothing is more common than to 
find the (everal Species of it in the Plural Number. If he means it 




word fenf* is a very improper word in this Place, there being no 
Names of things that arc Singular, only bccaufe they are P^»/« in 
either Scnce ; but for fome otner confidcration, and probably for 
one of thefe two : either iirfl that thefe Names denoted the Matter 
only of which thefe'feveral Bodies confifted, which was but one and 
the fame in each Species,or that thefe things generally are aggregate 
Bodies coniifting of Particulars fo blended and confused, that they 
feem'd in a manner to be one entire Body, and therefore the^ u(ed 
them in the Singular only, as not coniiderine the Parts, which by 
reafbn of (uch confufion, were hard to be diftinguiih'd> and by 
coniequence enumerated. From hence it is poflible, that Grain 
and other fuch Minute Bodies, no matter whether fold by Weight 

or 



1^6 Of Nouns thAt nfAnt the Plurdl. 

or Mcafure, were generally confined to the Singular Numbei'. 
Though fuch of thcle as were of larger iizc, and lb more cafy to 
he enumerated, were ufed Commonly in the Plural, as Cicera^ Fafc^ : 
And it feems much upon the fame Account that Herbs, Liqiiids. 
and Mftals, were alio confined to the Singular Number ; becaufe 
the fir ft generally grow thick together, and are ufed by handfuls 
or greater Quantities •, for which Reafoii Flax and Hempalfofeem 
to have come in : Liquids and Metals are apt to mingle one with 
another, and to confound the conftituent parts *, for which reafon 
fat. Wax, Pitch, Glue, and fuch like, may alfo have been added. 
But whether this conjcdure be well founded or no, 'tis certain the 
Names of Grain, Herbs. Liquids and of Fat, Wax, Pitch, Glue, 
as a fort of Liquids, becaufe fuch when melted, and laftly of Me- 
tals have generally no more than the Singular Number. 

But as it commonly happens in Language, this general Rule is 
fuhjc(fl to fcveral Exceptions. 

oinifirfi in the Numes cf Grain there are tbefe that follote, 

fAvenA is found in the Plural four times, in Virg, Ed, 5. 
Grandia. Jape quibus mandavimus hordea. fidcis^ 
Inf'flix lohum, & /ieriles Nafcuntur tAvena, Again, 
Infi'ltx lolium^ & fier':les dominantur tAvena. Georg. I* Again, 
Iviulti ante occafum Maia ccpfere^ fed illos 
Expeifutafcges Vunis elufit Jlvenif, Georg. i. 
VoJJiiu is of Opinion that %Avena fignifies not Oats in general, but 
what we call wild Oats ; but he gives no Reafon for it, befides his 
own conceit, and yet Mr. Leeds and Mr, Wall^^r both follow him in 
it. For my part I am rather of Servius's Opinion, who lays *tis 
owing to the Epithet, that wild Oats are here fignified, and (b 
much the rather, becaufe he ufcs another like Epithet in the fecond 
Place, l^unis xAvenif, But there is yet a further Proof, that nAvena 
when it lignifies frumenti genus (as he allows it fometimes does) has 
the Plural Number from that of Plinyj N. H. L4- c. 13. ferun- 
tur & Oona in quibus ovis aviuntf isr tAvenit incola vivant. At leail; it 
appears from hence, that the other %Avenay which is called frumenti 
vitiuntj was not fo ufelefs a thing as he makes it, fince Men could 
live of it *, whereas he fays Steriles autem dicuntur^ quia mtti non fof" 
funt^ el quod gruna^ qua infummofunt^frim maturefcanty quamtfita im tmo^ 
And there is yet another place of P/mji, which plainly contradidis 
thiis Opinion ofyoffit^s. Primum omnium frumtnti vitium tAvena efi^ & 
hordeum in earn dc^enerut : Sicut i^fa frumenti fit inftar : S^iffe cum 
Cermania populi ferunt earn neque alia fulte vivant , N« H. L l8* C. 
17. It is ufed alfo in the Singular for a Quantity, as SimUii fatio 
tAvenoy Col. 1. 2. c. II. Another word oi like Nature, that is 
which is ufed for a Quantity, either Singularly or Plurally is, 
cicer, for the ufe of it in the Singular, though a Quantity be ^- 
nificd, there is that ofColum, L, 3. c, 13. ciceris modii tres oferk totidnm 
Jeminantur, And for the Plural^ that of the fame Author, r. 11. of 
the fame Book. Pubulorum genera complura (Ccnf emus hcin^ Under' 
ftood our of the laft Sentence of the Chapter foregoing) pent mudi" 
cam^ & viciam^ farraginem qt^oq^ wrdwaccam^ & aVerMm^ foenum ^rscttm^ 
nee minm ervum. & Cicer^t, 

The 




Of Nimm which r»Mt the Flural. i^y 

Tiienezt of this fort isy 

f'tboy as Jugerum agri fiAsfex occufttnt modii^ Colum. I2. C.io. and 
13. and Seqmtur tutura, hgumnum inter qus maximuj boMOs Fubd. 
Plin. L 18. c. 12. For the Plural Vae Misfutioy Virg.Geor. i. 
Fc/cro/*/ or Fbafeolus (for it is written both ways) is us'd in like 
manlier* For the ufe of the Singular, when a Quantity is iig- 
nificd, there is that of Colum. I, de %Arh* c 2. Milium^ & funicum 
hoe. tiwifare demetitur^ quo Fufeolus ud efcam fcritur^ And for the 
Plnralthat of Plpy^ L, 18. c. 12. 

Vaftolmrum funderftand Siliqu^) cum iffis manduntur granis. 
Clams alio, thoagh no Grain» is ufed thus by CatOy R.R. c,6* 

QUndk Modios^ CCXL. 
Hardemmy or Ordeum in the Singular, for a Quantity, is common, 
Herdea in the Plural f^r^t/ has thrice, once Ed. 5. (jeor^. i. in two 
Places. 

This was a 8in§[ularity^ it feems in Vtr^iTt time,fo that Carnificim 
had a fling at him for it, faying, 

HordeafuidUxkyfufertfi ta tritica dicat» However ^r^ifs Authority it 
Warrant enoi^ for us, but I wonder that Vhffiuj Ihould be fo 
iharp upon Carm^ufj as he is in his Note upon this word ; for 
at that time the Cafe was otherwife, the ufe of the Age being 
a Rule to them, as that of good Authors is iince to us : And it 
ieems by Cormficius^thsityi/pl had broken it upon that,which i% a 
thing Ycry commonly Cenfur'd by the Criticks of the fameAge. 
But wt have fince tliat a farther Warrant from that of Juv, 
Jmfimdet jumentis Hordea. laffisy Sat. 8. 
None of the Grammarians that I know of, have made this 
Obfcrvation,whidi yet is neceflary,for fear the Reader ihould 
infer, as it is Natural to do, that becaufe it has a Plural,there- 
fbre the Singular figni£es but one Grain : whereas not only in 
diis,but in other iiurts alfo,the Singular is often us'd for a Quan- 
tity* as I fhall obferve throughout. 
Imbms h alfb ufed in the Singular for a Quantity, as Lupini modii 
decern obnmntur unm OperJiy Colum, 1. 2. c, 13. and in the Plural 
alio, as i^ui/imul atque ofcilta Lupinorum ederunt^ reliqua pars enafci 
M» fottfi. Colunu 2. C. 10. Lupini quoque Sjlvcflref funt, Plin. 
N. H. 1. 22. C, 25. Tbermimum Subaud. oleum r Lupinis emollit. 
Id. L 23. c. 5* 
A/«w» is yet another word of like Nature. For the ufe of the Singu- 
lar whim a Quantity is meant there are many ihftances, one out 
ofCtUnm, mayfuifice, Pifi modiostres, vel quatuor ferere oportct lin 
MreoHs denum fedumy L. ii. c. 2. for the Plural, that ef P/mjr, N. 
H. 1. I ?♦ C 7. i^rundam caules fparguntur in terram^ ft non habent 
^dmimcmlmm^ ut "Hforum, 

It mky be proper to adjoyn to thefc, as belonging in one refpecfl 

or other, to Grain, the confideration of the words following^ 

Unyi, Ein«M, furfur^ Lomentiimy TaUa^ P(Men, Kfffcf^^o, Vrrdo, The ule 

of vhich, though overlook'd by the Grammarians, is yet 

neceffiuT to be known. 

Unif ^nines one fort of Chaff beaten off in Threfliing, and is for 

che moft part Sinsular, tho' a Quantity be iignified, becaufe of 

die difficulty of diftinguiihing thefeveral Parts, SLi.Simntu6' 

etfpUAy mifto Ucere ex fiumento^ Var. R. R. 1. 3. c 57. Duriffima 

«inVfCollMn« L 2* €• lo« 

*' X F^nw« 



1 3$ Of Nouns which want the PJurAL 

farina is never ufed but ia the Singular, except twice in the AuthpF 

' of Moretumy afcrib'd by ibme to Vtrgil^ as« 

Transfer t inde man»fufas iu cribra Farinas, And 

tontrahit admiftot turn font es^ attfte farinas 

Tranfvcrjat durata manu, 
Vurfur is ufed for a Quantity in the Singular^when it fignifies Bran ; 




Ik 



laft u{b of it is the mofb common in this Sence, and whenit fig- 
nifies' a Dlfeafe of the Head, it is never otherwife than PluraL ' 

JLomentum, Meal of Beans, is always Singular. 

fuUa is ufed frequently in the Singular for a Quantity, as 

oit ft luxuria, foliorum exuhtrat umbra 

Ne^uicquam fingues palea teret area ctdmos^ Virg. Geor. U 

Servius indeed cenfures this PaiTage as contra artcm^ becauie of ?<- 
iea in the Singular^Ctying, Et notandum PaUam diStam in pngnUri 
numero cohtjr* oTtem : nam t^ua ex flwrihus coifiant mmeriftmt taMtum 
flurulisy ut cancelliy bi^a fcofa^ licet abutantur poet a. But either Ser^ 

Vws is not the M^n'he is taken for,or thisPaiTj^e has beeofoift- 
cd into his Commentaries by the ignorance of fomc after Cri- 
tick, among fome others of the like Stamp, feveral of which 
there are, as ^ahricim fuppofes : for nothing can be more falfe 
than this Rule, that alf aggregate Bodies are always Plural | 
for u4rena is fuch,and yet is more commonlySingular, foisCinit 
alfo,and Lana^SLtid many others,as well as thofe Ihaye inftanced 
in already, which are of that Nature. Nay, as wc find by 
*4^eUiusy Julius' Cafar thought it a Soloecifin to ufe *^ena in the 
Plural. And for the Word Falea inp^ieular, not only Fliny 
has Var quia djpculter excutitur^ conyentt cum falei fuA condu and 
Palea pluresgentcs profceno utuntur. N. H. L.I 8. C. 30. In like 
manner, L*2:;. c. 25. and elfewhere: But CoUmHU 9i£o has 
^*o pa^o Paleuy qua Uvior tjl, citra decidity L. 2. C. lo. Befidfcs 
that PalUdius ufes it fo commonly. In the Plural it is not 
doubted of. 
Pollen is another of like Nature, as confifting of indifcemible 
parts, and yet though moftly fingular, is alfo found in the 
Plural, as C^rica tunja miflis Pollinibus largiffime prabetmtkrj^^Xi. R.X« 
L; I. Tit. 2^, 

piper 7* 

Zingiber P with other Names of Spices, are 3ingular ftnly, except 
cinnamumy which has the Plural commonly, as 

Et fluere excujjo Cinnama fufu yitro^ 'Mart. 1. 3. Ep. 54. 
T<im bene rara fuo mifcentur Cinnama nardoy Id. 1« 4. £pb 13* 
Cinnamaque^ Coftumque fuam^ fudaiaque li^no 
JTiura ferat^ Qy. Met. L. 10. p. 21 i* So again he* Ecff. 9« and 

otl^rs, ' "^ • ^ '^ ^ .V^'^'^.' 

p^f<(o r^ Singulars only, exfept that in Plimyt is read Car* 

hu^uit ^ Kulti^inufi^ renMt dmo^lirdim»s y?L'*^}'if f^^S&ft^^^^* 

L I7« €• 2^9 •• ' •' * * ■•'.'■.''* 



Of Ntmns which tvaat the Pkr*L 1 19 



•i^"^p 



Of the Names of Herbs. 

OF theie> fuch as ire of any confiderable Magnitiitde^ as to 
be tefily difcernible one from another, as they grow, are 
frequently Plural. But becauTe there arc fome Exceptions, 
J Hull put down fuch as I find in the Plural Alphabetically ; and 
that Co much the rather^becaule no body that I know of,has nand- 
led this point with any exadnefs. Vojfms reckons up Curduoiy cicutit^ 
lidlvasj Vrticas^ and Concludes with ^ trvctnta, du^ which is too 
'looic for any thing of certainty to be had from it, Mtiffieurs de 
fvrt tjsyi taj ttkewife, there is an infinite Number of others. 
The Jbrntuawi^ Mr. Leeds and Mr. WJI^tr put down the particu- 
lars redconed up by Vofim with an, trc, as much as to fay, and the 
r9fk j9m mty jo M{. Wherefore to fave the Reader that trouble, 
hlen follows a Lift of fuch as thefe Writers have ufcd in the 
Plural* 

UbnttMN. MAbrotom^ grjvts, Luc. 1. 4. p; 98* 

tMjmbU* TrifiU deformes f^triunt %AbfyntbiA C4tmp% or ^Alfimtlnd^ 

Or. de tont. L. j. £K 8< 

Sed veluti fuens nAhfintht^ tetra medentes 
Cum dare coHantur^ Luc; 1. i • p. 26* 

%M$t. Jifios virides cum fins radidbus lavahit, Apic Cepur. C. 2. 

Jeamth^* ■ Tortas imitutur oicantbos^ Colum. 1. io« 

«fromr4. Jjirida terribiles mifcent tAconisa novercdtj Ov.Met.x.p.p» 
Vi S9*Us berbas^ %jicomta iUinc nominemus, Solin. 1. 5^. 

«i|rit/» 2t^ viridtfs \Alg4$^ ^ rubra coruUa^ &c. Anion. Idyl. ^. ^ 
And again, Vt multo jaceanf nJJ^um Mu&a receffu. Id. Paulifl^ 
Epift. 9. and Claud. Nup. Hon. & Mar. 

vm«« %^ia^ Serf^Uumque^ berhas contutidit otenteSy Virg. £e. 2. 
%Myq^ MraffufficiSf & olcutia Ute 
Vlpic^u Colum. L 10. {9*Ji^' UoreiU 

i4l^^i» Simul & corrudam fuba.ud. feri jubet, unde tAjfara^i fianti 
Plin. K* H* L ltf» C, 3<^. So Omnium bortenfium Uunjtma cur a oif* 
fm^Ui^ Id. lb. 1. 19. c. 8. and frequently. Inter hoc %AjfaragQrum 
etUm JetmHu fpar^ere foffumus^ Pall. Feb. Tit. 23. 

Menmnem is uied in the Nominative Plural by Serenus^ but the 
Quotation is blotted, and I have not thd Book by me at prefent. 

ietaSm.Sma qui BetaSyfumco maJfi flwente^ of time feri fjri/hW»f,plin.N« 
H. 1. 19. C. 8. Coiocafia fUntarii fonemus^ ^ luSfucaSy 6* Setas, PaU* 
Apr. Tic- 3* And yet though ft has the Plural, it is obfervable 
that it is uied alio in the Singular, when a Qiiantity or Number 

■ is Ipokcn of, as Jyo/irt Beta genera factunty vernum^ 6* autumnaltf 

PIJ11.N.H. Li$. cA. 

Mhs N^itdmmflmmimeas Memphis amtexere BtUot 

K<BipeUi. Luc. 1. 3. p. ^3. 
Mrt^fcis^ De omnibus Brajicis muUa efi. illiufmodi medicamentofior^ Cat« 
. jL]U«i57« MnS^fieftres ir^^at ^ Uffiim ^, PliiuN Ji* !• 3a« 

~ "■ ' T a ••/« 



!i4o Of Nouns tohkh tMfft the Piardh 

c. 9. But then it muft be confefied that it is ufed here fer die fo 

veral Species of a general, and not for feveral Plants only, 
'Butborum. Relinua Bulbomm genera differunt cohrCf Plin. N« H. L l^* 

c. 5. 
Car duos. CarduoB ergo duchus modiis fermttj Plin. N« H* L 19. C 8. £t 

de Carduorum fatu inter borttufiu dix'tmm, Id« lb* 1. 20. C* 23* 
Cafias. yix bunnies apibus Cafias, roremq\ minifirat, Virg* Geor.2« p*49« 

Subjiciunt ^agmentOy Xkynmmy Cafuijifj recentes Id. Georg;. 4. p. 8$. 
Centaurea, Cecrofwmque Thymum, & gravetdentU CentdMretU Virg. 

Geor. 4. p. 84. ottrofoifi^*, gra:^s & triflU Ceniaurea, Lucr. L 4* 

p. 90. 

Cicmm. Nil (rater gelidat aufa cotferre CicHtm. Juv. Sat. 7. V. 206* 
Efi miin difpariSm febtem c^mfo^tiCicutis 
^ftuU. Virg.Ecl.2. 
Colocafa. jAiftaq', ridenti Colocafia fundet acantbo, Virg. Ed. 4. 
Cnriandra, Tempus barisfatio^ /tfictf^)* ^'^^ Cwiamdra 

Nafcuntur* Colum. L lo. 
* ■ Et exiguo Coriandra trementia filo. Aiicft. Moret* 

Corrudas, Sylvefires fecerat natura Cwrudas. Plin, N. H, 1. f 9, c. 4. 
Crocks. Ipfa Crocos tenueSy liliaq-^ alba legit, Ov. Faft. 4.p. 68. tmleft 
here be meant the Flowers, not the Plant. So 7<»v. ikr. 7. >. 268* 
Spirantef^y Crocos^ & in urna perpttuum ver. 
tytifosy ad vioUm^ & C^foSj & cuna Tbyma voro, Ov. Faft. 5. p. 84* 
Tondentur Cjtifij Virg. Georg. 2. p. 55. Namfumtetiamvemididtatf 
^uentibus Cjtifij Colum. 1 9. c. 5. Si femen non hahukrisy ettfmmfm 
Cytiforumvere difpomtOj Id. 1. de Arb. c. 28. 
Erucas* Erucas vtrideSy inuUs ego primus amnras 

Moti/bravi incoquerej Hor. 1. 2. Sat. 8* 
fiticunu EtimUtkdwamfipdAytUkmmf^mamflii 

Sternere fubter bumum, Virg. Geor . 2. p. 6S. So Cdimt,ytmei & 
graminis pernicies repa/Hnatio eft ; fili^is frequens extirfaHpj mm yet 
aratro fieri potefty quoniam fapius convulfa intra Inenmtim monmtttuTy 
i. e. Filices, L 2. c 2. Juncus^ t^ gramtUj & tiltces finqntmii aattb* 
ttonevincentuTi Pail. Ma j. Tit. 3, 
VviM. Hoc menfe in locis ficcis caliMsy five fnaritimis fana rHtdantmr^ 

Pall. Maj. Ti^ i. 
frandna^ Interdum magis frofunt Gramina condfa^ Colom. L tf. C To. 
AI4/4 Gramina paftus, Virg. JEiu 2. p. 1 2 9* ^uid comilMiily rlle^ 
where, befide others. Malormn Gramimumy Solin. c« 55. Pafl. 
Granunibujfy nOvisy ^ kngo murmtre furgat* Stat. Thebu 4« V.4t8a 
iJeUeboros, ScylUmfy Hellth(irofygra»ef^ nigrumqite bitrnmen^ ^ci Virg* 

Geor. 3. p. 72, I 

JUrba is uled In the Singular or Plura^ when a Quantity is €gni« 
• fied, as . ... . H 

Servamnm ttfas tdti Hon yidit in Herbi^y Vk. Geor. 4* p. 8$«- 

Cafkpis armentaindemusy ' •' • 

' Caprigenumq; genus ntdh cuftode per Herbttnit Id. JEh, 3. ^ 14^. 
Itnmbi quod mtlRs amor efimedicMifJierbisy Qt. Met. i* - - " 
«^m' ferfillumqi Herbof contimdit o/fiifr/, Virg. Eel. 3« 9iai. torn* 

monly. .■''■"■„' •.•■"^■' 

Intybi. Uumore omnia Bortenfiagamdenty ^'ftericorey pTacipiMutiu # 
. «M5t/z»nifci. Pjin.N.H.lx9.c..9. • . •vf' 

fnfpa ' ^^B tamaristntjbajibrify Vift^.Geor. I.^ •' '. 



Of Nwns which want the 'Plural. 141 

Erucm widest InmUs ego frimM amaru 
Mioiifiravi Inc9quere^ Hon 1. 2* Sat. 8« 
jMrncortmu nAttenmgenm Juncorum^ Pliiu N. H. 1. 21. C. 18. Here in- 
deed it fignifies the particulars of a general, which wiJI not in* 
ier that it is Plural ooierwife, huzColumeUn clears that too, cerx 
ftr.SirnwtentOyVel per juncos coUtur^ L. 9* c. i^. 
Jkistmc^ is very commonly Plural, and in all Cafes, €0 that there 
needs iu> Proof.. See ?/f». /• 19. r. 8. and all the Rullick Writers. 
Ijtff^* lAff^t fribuliq: Virg. Geor. i. p. 32. Nam lolium tribulo) 
JUtffrfqi inter fri^um morbos numerav^im^ Plin. N% H. 1. 18. C. 17. 
MjfffamM. Vni^tfes Laffans, Plin. N* H. 1. 9, c. 4. 
XtM. Decern $nodios Jpargf^nty & Lina confequntur exilia. Pall. Feb^ 
Tit* 22. So Gratius feveral times. Pliny alib has P^U^nis etUmnum 
Zink butorem hJi>et» K* H. 1. 19. c. i. 
Mdv4h Etgrtivi MJv* 

SMjores corporu Hot, £pod. 2. Qusditm yocamms ferulttcea^ut ane* 
ibrnm^ Mdvas^ Plin. N. H. 1. 1 9* C 4. Sii*i nkueime abundant floreu^ 
tibut Uahn$. PaU. Apr. Tit. 8. 
MelifkyUm Triui MdifhyUoy & cerintbs tgnchilegrMnum^ Virg. 4. 
Mimthut ■ <n tm quondam 

Vennneos ttrtw in olentes vertere Mentbai 
Perfepbone licuit .' Ov. Met. i o. p. 1 22. 
Kifeid^ it fiNind in Serenus^ but the Quotation is obliterated, and I 
naye noc the Book by me. 

Kt^MTcU, Sfarganitur cock Naf^cia dira colidrrky Colum. 1. 10. 
0Bfttra, OUfatra infafeiculum redaStaoUo 6* mr)o htn^ inferuntur, Apic. 

Ceptir. cii. 

CifjmM or Ocyma, 0\inui comfrimite^ Colum* 1. lo« Vere etiam bis die* 
htn O^ma. fenmtur* Id. L ii.c. 3« But the better Spelling is 
Ocymum^ 

Pafo^trom 7/tfi qms violofy ripioq'^ Pupavera in bcrto 
iMUqi v^rvKgat^ Ov. Met. lo. p. 107. and very commonly. 
Aifiyrtpisiound in Sertims 
Himmdes. Dm Pblomidesy Plin. ^^ H. 1. 29. c. 10. But here it is ufed 

at particulars of a general. 
Ponosm P^rros rigandos^ Pail. Jul. Tit. 2. and often with others. 
lUi/imieems to be put for a kind of Herb or Plant, by PalUdius^aind 
only (^the Plural Number. Hoc menfe apium heneferitur^ vet cori-- 
m mitmm ^ 6t melones^ ^ cucmhita^ carduus ir Radices^ isr ruta panders 
tm^ Maj. !f it, 5. Hoc menfe idtim^ locis ficcioribus Radices feruntuTy 
eus byeme fui ufum miniftrent, iAmant terrampinguemyfolutamj & Aim 
JiJbaSam^ qualem rapa^ Aug. Tit. 5. Hoc menfe' nafiurcium feremus^ & 
anetbum tods temperatisy & calidisy 6* Radices locis ficcis Id. Scptk 
Tit.»3. 
JtfmtfM. S^gmina inquit te rex pofco^ Liv. Dec. I. 1. !• Plin» 

N. H. L 22. c. 2. 

' S^mpfacom N'itaq'jjam yeniat bilari Sampfuca CanopOy Col. 1. lo. 
SatmreiM^ ImprdU nee profunt jam Satweia tt6^ Mart. 1.3. Ep. 75. 
SerpyUu, . Et oUntia late 

SerpylU^ Virg. Geor. 4. p. 77* 
Sefama» Sefanu ab squino&io autumnali ferenia funt , Col. 1. 2. 

C 10. 
Stramemi*t and Stramina, Stramentis StramiwhuSy may come in here,^ 

wUch ire T^ ^9inm9A ^m^ng th? Rafti$l; Writers, Stup^is, 

i 



143 Of Nouns which want the Plurdl. 

Stupas, Et froduc'yt acu Stupas bum^rc carentes, Audi. Moret« 
ThjmL HumiUs Thymic QuinC. Dccl. 1 3. Thynuy Ac. Plur. Hor. 
1. I. od. 17. Grata, Thymai Id* 1. 4. od. 2. Ov. Faft. 5. p. 84. as 
in Cyt'tfos^ and Pdrs Thyma^ f4irs rorem^ ffrs melUoton amanfy Id. 
Fail. 4. p. ^8. Thymity Plin. N. H. 1. 21. C. lo. 
Trlbulu lApp^q^ Tribuliqi Virg. Geor.i. p. 32. iV<m lolium^Trihtdosy 

Lappafque titter frugum morhos numeravmm^ Plin. N«H.l,l8.C.l7. 
Verbena^ Sagmina in remediis publicis f»trtfy ^ in fucris itgationUmfj^ 
yerbetUy Plin. N.H. 1.22. C,2. Verbenafq\ adole fit^mes^ Vir* £cL 8. 

%Aira^caftis^ ■ 
VinEtaVerhenis, Hor. 1. 4. od. II. 
Viola^ for a Quantity, is ufed alfo in the Singular, as 

%Ad yiolam^ & Cytifos^ & cuna thyma Voco* Ov« Faft. 5* p^ 84* 
And in the Plural it is oommoHb 

VlficMt • £^ oUntia Uti 

2///'if»« Colum. 1. 10. 
Vrttcd^ Irritamentum Veneris languenfis, 6* acres . . 

Vivitis Vrtics. JuY. Sat. ii. Y. I^^. MorddcU fuAf quliufiUm 
Subaud. Folia ut Vrticis. Plin. N, H. 1. 16* c. 24. Sylvtfbrium 
Subaud. Urticarum radixj Plin. N. H. 1. 21* c, 15. %jid onmM 
b*c mitiores quidgnty tenersq^ Subaud Urticx ejficaces^ Plin* K*H« 
1.22. c. 13* 



It had been more natural to have reduced the Names of Herbs 
and Grain under the head of Aggregate Bodies, for therein lies 
the Irregularity, that whereas thefe things are Aggre^e Bodies, 
confifting of many parts, they are generally fpoken of m the Bulk^ 
and not in the Parts, and therefore many of them want the Plu- 
ral Number, or the capacity of Quaking of the Parts^ as diftiok 
guiih'd iBrom the wholes And upon skis Confideration otiier 
words alfo will come in. 

This is that uie of Authors which the Grammariaos lend the 
Keader to, which would coft him no little pains to be Mafter 
of: But whereas Meffieurs de Port Royal include the Fruits of thft 
£arth in general, ies bieris de U ttrre^ that is too general a great 
deal, for thofe that yield Roots for Food, have the Plural fre* 
quently, as Terrk eonduntur Kapbani^ Napiq^ & rafa. Plin. N. H. !• 
1 9. c, 4. And immediately follows, %jdtq\ aUo modo InuU^ Cictr^ ?«^ 
ftinaca. Thefe latter are moftly ufed in the Plural, when a 
Quantity is fignified, but the Herbs or Plants foregoing^ tho* 
they have the Plural, yet may fignifie a Qpaiiuty by tbt Skogn^ 



«/ 



^ 



Of Nouns which want the Flurtl, 14 j 



Of Other Aggregate Bodies, 

THcfc may be confidcrcd either as fevcral Aggregate Bodies, 
or as feveral Parts of the fame Body. Some of which have 
the Plural in neither ligniiication, fome in one, and others 
in both. The words are iCrKTgo, w^rcnu, cim/, Mi^o^ianu^ and 

^ru^o has no Plural in either iignification. 

^ena has the Plural in both fignifications. I cannot think of any 
Example of it, where mention is made of feveral Bodies, but £ 
fuppole it may be fb from the frequent ufe of the Plural, in 
jrcj^efenting the parts of the fame Bpdy, which ufe is to be met 
with everywhere; though c^/tr, as appears hy^^eUius^ would 
allow of nothing but the Singular. 

€imMt. Of its fignifying a Quantity by the Singular, there are the 
following Examples. 

^mre Mt mult A laiet obnaus (g»«f, Lucr. 1. 4. p. i2o. 
Cimtrem mmundum ja^arc fer agrosy Vir. Geor. i. p. 30. 

befide others. For the Plural there is that of Horace, 
hBrneerit m fatrios Cineres^ Hor. de Art. V. 472. Cintres opertoj. Id. 
Lr.iz. od. 8. Nee fotrit xAnchtf^i Cineres, Vir. ^En. 4. p. i/i, and 
others frequently. 

M^o has the Plural in neither figniiication. 

Jjuki taken for feveral Sorts, or Parcels, is ufed Plurally, as Latia- 
rmm njjgrs nullum colorem bibunty Plin. N. H.'l. 8. c. 48. And for 
the iame Body of Wool, it is alfo ufed Plurally, in refpecf); of 
its COnftituent Parts, as EU^emus arietem ultumy frocerumy ventre 
fromijfoy 6; Lanis candiAis teSfo^ Pal. Jul. Tit. 4. 

fuhns has the 'Plural in both Significations. When feveral Bodies 
'ar^ip6keii pfj there is that dt Pdll.' Ex fupra fcriptif PuhtrtbidS 
maierna. ^ocHenAa. completa modeftius in denas vini amphoras mittis^ 
0(^ Tit. 14. And for the conftituent Parts of the lame Quan^ 
tity, that of Horace^ 
X3rc infefulcbris pauperum prudtfns anus 

Kovendmes diffipare Pulveres, £pod. 17. Vel fi cineris Pulveres. mi* 
fceantur^ Pall. Feb. Tit. 25. And yet Prifciany and others of the 
Ancient Grammarians deny it the Singular. 
Mfi^o Is found in the Plural in P/mjp, as before in Grain, where 

the Reader may fee in what iignification. 
J4/isufedSiligularly for aQuantity,which is too well known to need 
Proof, and Plurally alfo,. i. e. Sal Mafculihe, which being not 
ib common,! ihallgive an Inilance of two of it.There is one that 
Fojjlus takes Koticeof out of ColumelU^Carnem S.^ihus afperfarA, And 
£>i^ furthbr Cdn£rmation, fays Paul, Jx, Imp. Hon. A re. and Vt^ 
^etiuf ufe it fo. But he needed not have gone fo far for more In- 
ftances. For ColumtlU h^Salibus in this Sence, twice more, %ApJer^ 
iitwr: trUis >S'c/ttiv« 1. 7/ C. u ^In Sdibus intt±rk udoptriunty 1*8. 



\ 



144 ^ Nouns which T»dnt the Plurals 

c. 6» Befide FaUaAius ovcr and over, Nov, Tit, 17, 20^2 1^ 22. Z«- 
can alio has Sales in this Sence, 
JE(jiUQreofi[^ SaUs lor^o mtefcere trttStu^ 1. 10. V, 257. 



Of things which are Liquid or 

Moift, 

UNder this Head muft be fuppofed to be com{>rehended by 
V<Uy all untftuous Subftances, as well as Liquids, both 
becaufe the Rule is fb underftood by moil: Grammarians, 
as that the Author by putting thts after the general Rule into the 
Exceptions, feems to underitand- it io, and has given no diftind 
Rule for this fort of Subftances. I ihall fpeak Srft of Liquids 
or Fluids. Now in thefe, the Name reprefenting the Matter, it is 
but reaibnable they ihould be confined to the Sin^ar, the Matter 
of each of them being but one,and in this generally other L^igua- 
ges,and our own in particular, agree. But words of this kind taken 
generally, as comprehending :under them ieveral Species, may be 
Plural in the enumeration of thole feveral Species, as Hmnoresy 
jLtticesy Succosy &c. And upon this Account it is, that we often 
find iAqua and yinum ufed Plurally, even by the Profe Writers as 
as well as the Poets, Alfo words iignifying the Form of theie 
things, and not the Matter, may be Plural, the Forms being ma- 
ny, though the Matter be but one. And upon this Account 
JEquor^ iAmnisj flumen^ Ffuviw, Fdm/, fretumy Gutta^ Iwher^ Lacus^ 
"Mare^ Pluvia^ Pruina^ Rtv»/, tUvulus^ Stagnum^ StilUy StUUcidun^Vrndoy 
and if there be any other of like Nature, have all the Plural 
l^umber, fave Pontus, which tho' capable by Nature, is yet exclu- 
ded by uie. There are alfo fome words, which thougn ufually 
iignifying the Matter, are ufed. by Authors in the Plural, as con- 
fidering feveral embodyings of the fame Matter, or the ieveral 
conftituent parts of the fame Body, Take them in the following 
Life, 

kA^uu is fo commonly Plural, either in refpe^ of feveral Bodies of 
Water, or the conilituent parts of the fame, that he muft be a 
meer Novice in thefe Writers, who has not obferved it. Howe- 
ver, for the fake of the Novice, I ihall give one of each, £t dt 

tAquarum natma complurd diEta, funt\ Plin, N, H, !• 2, C, ^7. . 
ottque iu fcmneces fartim ferventwus artus 

r Mollit o^uisy partim fisbjeffo tomtit »m, Ov. Met. <• P« 5; 

U»r« iienifies as much as uf^, and yet though this laittberarelj 
Plural, tAara, is commonly fo, as 
Perq^ fuos intus numeros compwitur infauSj 
^et nifi ftftfffirus cmmimes ^^ t» «^fi^j OVi JAst$ 7* p* 13$* 



Of Nouns that want the Plural. i^r. 

Biles if found in Pliny^Biles detrahert 6* non ferco$tam fuUnt^ N.H.I.20 
C.9. %^»nt<p, fuptriorem fwrtem ejus vomit wne Siies ixt^uhert^pl in.N.H. 
i. 26. But then in this laft in the Margin it is Bitem but the iirft 
is withoutCorredion. Poffibly in both thefe Places the word may 
be regarded as fignifying a Difeaie, but tiii: Authorh s not uk- 
cn\^oticc of the Plural under any diftinction in this Kule, Si9^ 
guUfptminei generis^ flurulia raro^ nor in the word that follows. 
0tolera is a nioift thing, yet it has the Plural in ?/;«jr, jpfu tritu chc» 
leras in aceto quidem pou iubaud.<rmrniu/. anteceding in the former 
Sentence. And in this poffibly may be regarded 3ie difeafe, but 
likewife, this Author has taken no Notice. 
Cntvfes is found in Virixi^ 

njtSff atros ficcabat vcfte Cruores, Kn. 4. p. 1 7 9. Upon which Servim 
fays, Cruores ufurfatum contra artem : Nam nee fanguines dicimm^ nee 
crmcref. But this is a Arrange overfight in this Writer, for it is 
found very commonly in the beft Authors, I mean among the 
Poets, as Firgil was. And yet Chartfiw fays it is only Singular. 
Wojfus alledges againfl: him^ beiide this of yirgil^ chat of Valerim 
• 'fttccus %Argonautic9ny, 

TergM^ mibi diroj fervent infeEta Crnores, But amid A filch Plenty, 
'tis Arrange he iTiouId have thought only of this. 
Omms & bunuinis luftrata Cruoribus arhoSy Lnc. 1. 3. p, 20. 

CunSos barere Cruores, 
Komamusy cdmpiftfi vetat con/iftcre torrent^ Id. 1. 7. p. 1 95. 
ytoti jdm Bttrharicos fitientia *nU Cruores 
Sfonte volant, Claud, in Ruf. 1. 2. p. 72. 
Bmtruos vix egerit unda Cruores. Id de Tertio Cons. Kon. 
Again, De Stxto Conf.Hon. p.249. Caros CruoreSy Scn.Med.ac4. {c,2* 

Et infandos hellipotura Cruores* 
^axinus, Stat. Theb, 6, v. 102. 
Et noudstm deforme Critorihus aurum^ Id. Theb. 8. V. 405; 
^puiMity nmUofq, vomet fia terra Cruores^ Sil. I. 5. p. 77, 

Diis vota frecef(ff 

¥erte modoy isr tepidis oris libate' CrJores^ Id. 1. 12. p. 187. 
fermifeetque' iHer9 jdEtatoi ore Cruoris^ Id. 1. 15. p. 240. And 
* tkat I may at laft make an end, Horace has 

Kf or ma 

Nondum exfiatisun^a Crucribw, L. 2. Od. i. 
Tectsi cum mtiftum dtfe^huerit^ & Veces exfuigata fnt^ Colum. I. 12. 

!• 13; ^ Terun^i Vecihus fra Hor. de Art. 

Huories, . Nee fa/tiditos Salmonaufuri Fluores^ Auf.lIdyU 9. and again^ 

^. 1 5^« of ^e fame. 
JLftiees* ' Laticefque tnftrre recentes 

tAdmoueo, Ov. Met. L. 3. p. ^7. 

jUe eavk velox apfUufo corf ore palmii 

Defilis in Latices. Id. Met. 4. which is enough in a thing fo 
common* 
ijquoreu ^Acceja^ fofitoq\ genu Titania terram. 

freffity ut baurtret gelidos fotura ijquores, Ov. Met. ^. p. 121. 
J4»ci or Muecu In ^phus medulUy Muci^ Salivaq-j 6r Uchrjfma, Sen* 
' 29. Q. L. 3. c, 15. Him Muccifluunt f Plaut. Moft. Ac. 5. Sc. i« 



U Mitftum. 



1 46 Of Nouns thxt tPdnt the Plural. 

^luftMm^ IS faid to have no Plural by Dr. Buehy^ but 'tis ftrange fucla 
a Man cuuld be fo miftaken *, for Ovid has 

froxima, de lucubtu pr^tmU Mtfiit tui*^ Faft. 4* 
YtrvUit Muflu^ Tr. 1. 3. el. 10. Nova Mufl*^ dt Art, 2. ^Aufiern 
Mujlty Quint. 1. 2. c. 4.. Caniida Muftt^ Tibul. 1. I. cl. 5. and 
PrejfA MufUi Id. lb. and others. 
Oejypa, Oefypu quid redoUnty quamvis tnittantur otthenis, Ov. Art. 
1. 3. p. 175. 
Et fiuere in tcpidos Oefypa Upfafinus, Id. Rem. Am. I.l.p.2p5. 
HtuitM, Pituitas corrupt as p^rgxt in mulfo^ 6- aquJi, Plin, N. H. 1.2o. 
C. 14.. TboYAck Pituitas purgat tofiumy Id. lb. C. 16. PaU»l. I« C. 28* 
And yet Dr. Bmby^ and others, make it Singular only. 
Tura, Contra, aurium Ptaa^ vtrmiculofque^ Plin. N. H. 1. 28.. C. 6* 
But for Pura in the Margin is Pituitam \ whether is the right, let 
the Reader judge. 
Kosy is found to have the Plural commonly, as VaJfiM has iiifHci- 

ently proved. 
Saliva. See before in Mt*ci, \Angues innumeri aftate coffvoluti Salivif 
faucium^ corporumque ffumis^ trc, Plin. N. H. 1, 29. C 3. 

Vrontemque atque uda lahelU 
Jnfami digito t!r lufhalihw antt Sulivia 
Ex fiat, Perf. Sat, 2. v. 33. 
Contra falivas afpidum^ quas Ptyadat vocant, Plin. N. H. 1. 28. C. 6. 
Subnexuf parvulis largiujculos hauflvi Salivarum facit, Solin« C. 12. 
CuJM Sahvif mdle commiftis fauces fovebat, Suet. in Vitel. 
Sfumas, has the Plural commonly ; as, 

tAdnixi torquent Spuma$^ & carulaverrunt, \iTg,Mn. 

Spumifque tumentibm albet, Ov. Met. 1 7, p. 1 39. 
And both they, and Other selfe where. 
Sudoret, Contra Sudores immodtcos^ ve/ in ftfhnbui proficit, Plin. N. H. 
1. 20. c. 23. Sudcres cobibety Id. lb. 1. 23. c. 4. And in the fame 
Chapter, Vtuntur eo iff contra ninUos Sudores, But here may be 
meant feveral Sweats : It is alfo us'd Plurally for one and the 
' iame Sweat, with reiped to the feveral Drops : As, 

Fejfajacet cervix, fumant Sudor tbm armi, Luc. 1. 5. p. Iio. 
Fapfa, Satis ne cum iflo 

Vafpa, frigoraque ir famem tuleritis, Catul. Car, 2$. 
Ktuay is fo commonly Plural, that thert needs no Proof of it. 
Iflvag, In altera ejm latere apud Zor^ardam emicaty Vivas iy furgamenta 

.flurima fecum trahenf, Solin. C. 50. 
^rinas, Vrinas magu excalfacit quam crocum ipfum, Plin. N. H. 1. 2 1 . 
c. 20. Ciet Vrinas c vinQ pcta* Id, lb. C*2$* Vacit vinumZ/rinit ciendis. 
Id. lb. c. 19. 



Of 



. ...I . .- fc 



Of Nouns that wMt the PIuraL . 147 



>m " m 



Of UinSuous Subftances. 



AS for Un^uous Subdances, they are not all deftitutc of the 
Plural Number, belide AfW, and_ J'htis excepted by^tllP 
Author. For, 
%Adifrs^ is found in 2j*int'xliun^ Itafihi quoqut tenuunAas lAdifes^ dr. 1, 2. 
C. lo. ^in ^ L. %A. rond Conj'uUri4 virt filio dttra^os xAdifes^ ^c, Plin. 
N. H. U l^. C. 37. Jjj** yes Ad cyeanJaa xAdipcs multum confairunt, Co- 
lum. 1. 8. C«''l4..' Vh funt %Jdipes medicuminibw apti, Plin. N. H. 
1. 8. c. J5. So tAficiiu Surcoft, Not to mention Lucret, Nay, Co* 
lumtjLt niS tAdifibus, Mnfculi^ rohufla^ non oldifibw ohtfu^ 1. 6* C 2. 
Sidfimd in the Plural is omitted by l^ojfius and his Followers, but 
yet there is unqueftionabic Authority for it *, as^ 

Bafftnu me ctipiunty bdc fuut unguenta. vtrorum. Mart. 1. 14. cp.54» 
Mfama cum cjfik nc^ens^ Colum. 1. lo. So O^obulfumuy JUY. 

Sat. 2. Y. 41, 
Cera W4X, is found in the Plural ; as, 

Idmufqite fUeSy ttr f indues unguine Ccras. Virg. 3. p. 72. 
■ ■ iVtfm cum fro me fortuna rogatur^ 

«4f^tr CeVAi ilU ^e nave petitofy 

apM Siculos cantiu effugit remigefuvdo. JUY. Sat* 9. at the Cnd. 
MoUit odorutas fennurum vincuU Cerofy 
Tabuetant Cere. Ov. Met. 1. 8. p. l62» 
Whereas by the Atcount that V^Jfi s giYes of it, one would be. 
apt CO think there were no other Authority for its being Plural 
in this fenfe^ but that of Vigil, And for Honey-combs, and Wv- 
einj^-Tables it is commonly Plural ; as^ O^^era qu^td^m nobis iniint' 
tJifUUy qihdU funt Ccrar»m^ 6* mellis^ ejficere. Quint. 1. 2. C. x^ . 

Hinc urte recentes 
Mxcudunt Cera/i. Virg, Georg. 4. p. 78^ 

Vifum efl delere forortm-y 
VerlMquecorrept'ts incidereulUdrPi^ Oy. Met. l.p« 1^5. 

Soother things made of it -, as, 

Totu Itcet veteres exorutnt undique C^r^t 
fAtri4 ■ ■ » I ■ ■ JuY. Sat;8". Y. 19. 
Gummium. Qumnnxum genera, diximu*. Plin, N. H. K24.C.II. So 

again, Gummium modo cundidum. Id. lb. 1. 12. c. 8. 
IdediUa^ has the Plural frequently in the Poets, and is found .alfo 
in the Profe Writfir&i as, %Mn Medullar c/Mmm quxrunt. Plin. N« 
H.l. 28.C.X8. 
ficesm Cereti^ 

fingue put SubftantiYcly for Fat, is found once in the Plural in 

Ktny \ as, Mult'i pnViitim fie taurorum^ leonumque^ nc patithe/arMm, & 
C<tn^lojnm fii^ui4,cMr€re juhent. N. H. 1. 28. c. 29. And as Ibr the 
SubftantiYe ufe of the Word, it is no Singularity in this Author; 
for ylr^il has, 

U 2 rui 



148 Of Nouns that want the Plt^kL 

Hi6 aMtmndvcrfis inftant fub tempm^ ^ omnes "^ 

JntenduntcuraidenfodiftenilerePingm^ 

2uem Ugere dutem^ &f<cori dixcre maritum, Georg. 3. p,6^* 
Kefinis is found in Plifiyy %Ac fuorum eviratio inftituta, Kejinis tommy 
N. H. 1. 29. c. I. 

Of th^ Etdfanu MeitUlM^ VinguU^ JLeJinb, are omitted by Fojfius 
and his Followers, neither has any other GrammarUn taken notice 
of them as I remember. 



Of the Names of Metals. 

THE next thing of courfe is the Names of Metals. And thefe 
come in upon the general account, becaule the Matter is 
here regarded rather than the Form, or particular Body* 
And therjiorc I ihall joyn with them, fuch other Materials as are 
generally confin'd to the Singular Number, and then in what par- 
ticuiar, ufe breaks in upon tnis General Kule,in applying ibme of 
thefc Words to Particulars, whence they come to be uie4 in the 
Plural. Theie laft are Mrvgo^ ^Aiumen^ Bitumen, Creta, JEbur, £/r- 
&rumy Vuligo, Pumuj, Glarett^ Humus, MarmWy Mitdumy Nitrumy Ku^ 
bricoy Rubi^o, Sahula, Succinumy Sulfur y TeUusy and if tbere be any 
Others of like Nature. 

J^Of is fb common for things made of that Metul, that it is to be 
admir'd our Author took no notice of ityoffius alfo proves AErib^i 
from Lucret, 1. 2. and feveral others. He quotes JErum' too out of 
CatOy which I fuppofe makes Mr. Leeds fay, it is entire in the 
Plural. But then this Work of cato is lofb, and the Quotation 
only to be found infomeof the Grammarians, which* ihould 
have been obferved to the Reader, leaft he iliould think it fband$ 
upon equal Authority with the other. 

MleSroy either for a Metal, or for Amber, is found in the Plural ; 
as, 

ITera. minus flavo radiunt EUB^rametaUo, Mar. 8. £p. 51. 

In celfat [urgunt Electa, colummu, Claud, de Rapt. Prof. 
JPii^tfUt rorticibus fluent EleStta. Myric*, Virg. Ecl. 8« 

Stillutaqu^ fole rigtfcunt 
'■ 'D^ ramis BleSfra novis, Ov. Met. 2# p. 3^. 
'Tfs ftrange therefore, that Dr. Busbj ihou'd make it Singular 
oiily. 
0rich4lctty is only to be found in Vitruviusy as Fojfius thinks. But iV«-> 
' Wuyhasit alfo *, as, 

^^i ■ I ■ J ffainfanhre'videtury 

Sfbynx ^ales ci^osy & JfdrftOrickUcA rtnidenU Thsb. lo* 
p. 3^3. 



Of Nouns that wMt the PIotaL 149 

Suumoj indeed is only to be found in Vitruvius\ and therefore 
Mr* Ltfds^ who puts it in among the Plurals of this kind, had 
done well, if he nad told his Reader fo. Becaufe he that writei 
after Vitruinus^ may well happen to fall into the hands of man/ 
that have not read him, and fo be ceniured. And even of thoie 
that have, there are many that will not allow of his Authority* 
And thus far of Metals. As for the other Words. 
Bituminum^ is found in Pliny^ according to fome Readings, and i>«* 
Uclhimf has left it in the Text, though he has put Buuminis in the 
Margin, as the Emendation of Chiffanius^ 1. 7. c. 1 5, 
CamcutUy is found in the Plural in Horacty 

CAmenta. dcrmttit reJeniptor^ 1. 3. Od. I. So Cic. pro Mil. p«339« 

Mbm-j has EborA in the Plural, though overlook'd by all the Gran^ 

marians ; zs^Enimvero non alio modo in frivatos ufus UU venere^ BborOf 

mnrum^ ^emm^ Plin. N. H. 1. 3^. c. 2. And yet %Alv4rc\y Verefaus^ 

the Annotators, and Dr. Bushy^ make it Singular only. 

BXtSttiu See in Metals. 

IBumoSt yienAert nfc vanos circum falatia Vumos. Mart. 1. 4. ep. '5. 
Me focuY 6* nigros non indiignantia Fumos 
TeHtujuv^tt Id. 1.4. ep. 5. So 1. 14. cp. 1 1 9. 
Slus tenutm exhaUt MbuUm^ fumofque volucres» Vir^ 
Georg.2. p.49. 
CUreify is found in Pallathus ; as, 

StJmlnvertutiltafi* tftratafuxo^autGlareit, Mart. Tit. ii. 
Uigmnmy is found in the Plural commonly, one Inftance out of 
Horace may ferve for all. 

' Ligna fufer foco^ 
Zarge reponens, L. I. Od. 9. 
Harmor. has the Plural commonly ; as, 

Tufecanda Murjnora 
Zocof fub iffum frnusm Hon 1. 2. Od. 1 8. 
Vrontoms pUtani convulfuque Marmoru cUmant, Juv. Sat. I, 
V. 12. 

And fo the Poets frequently; nay the Profc Writers admit of it 

alio y as, ^'td loqu^r Marmora^ quihuf ttmpLi^ quibus domus fulgent ? 
Sen. 90. Defit Janevarietus Murmorum^ Id. Ep. 100. tJgapbotim 
berbMH^ in Marmoribus %ArabU njfcfnttm, Plin. N» H. 1. 24. c. 17. 
M>\gOj for Ruft of Corn, has been prov'd to have the Plural ; It 
may he iiippofed in reafon to be allowable alfu for Ruft of Iron, 
but I know of no Example. 
Succinumy is found to have the Plural feveral times ; as^ 
Sc*K>d jAyrtus^ quod mejfor %ArJfS^ quod Succina t$tta,^ 
PMlidus Eoo ihurt quod ignis olet. Mart. 1. 3. ep d4. 
■ ' 'Succinorum raptAde ntunu.gleba. Id. 1. 5. ep. 38. 

Eti^m ut gemma cum Succinis^ atque Cryftalli cum Mwrhims fileantur* 
Plin. N. H. 1, ^6. c, I. and elfewherc. 
Sufur^ is alfo found m the Plural feveral times ; as, Si'aqtid topim tft 
Suffura balnearum debent priftina renprtre. Pall. R. R. 1.- 1 . Tit. 41 . . 
L»te»ive exigms arefcttnt Sulfurafumts,Oy* Mct.l. l5.p.32J* 
So Met, 3 . alio Jiiv. Sat. 2. and Sat. 5, 
7Mu$^ it alfo found to fignifie'a pirt 'cfnly of the Earth, and in that 
• Senfe Plural; as, Vno TeUures diMif aMtk duos. Corn. Gal. But 
9ther Auchori ty I know none. 



1 Jo Of Nouns that wMnt thePlurdk 

I think all thefe Obfervations are natural upon thefe jFieids, and 
as ufiful as any that have been made by others, and yet moft of 
th* \nnotators upon this Grammar have overlooked moft of 
them. 



H 



Grammar J Lat. p. 30. 

Ordea^ Farra^ Forum, Mcly Mulfum, defruta, "Hhuf^uen 
Tres tantum fimiles cafus fluralia fervanu 



Animadversion LXXIII; 

IHave (poken to this Matter ali^eady, fave only in ^he Wor^ 
Forum^ which contrary to this Author's Rule, has not only the 
three like Cafes, but the Dative and Ablative. Mr. Leeds ia-^ 
itances in the Dative, 

Hie tihi ttrmpU Fori/ }Hn&a iuthus hahes. 
ltttM4>-fi'a/has, 

Liste his decimd numeraniem tempora. brumd 

Ctinteru una tribus Oar^Une forts, L. 7. ep. ^ . 



I m i 



Grammar f Lat. /.go* 

HEfperuSj & vcffer^ fontttfy limufifuei fimitf^ue^ • 
Sicpenus, i3 fanguis^ Jlc either, nemo j fid ift4 
Mafcula funt numtrum 'lix excedentta frimum% , 

Animadversion LXXI V. 

• 

OF thefe Nouns fome are Singular by the Nature of their 
Si^iification ; as Hefperm^ ^^Jf'^^ ^^'^ i ^on^c are Materi* 
als, as JEtber^ Fimnsy Limusy and fo come under the Gene« 
jrai Rule, or that which Xhould have beenr the General, namely. 
Materials. Sai^uU belongs to Vd4, It remains therefore» that ?«- 
««•/ and P^ntur^t the only two that have any thing contrary to the 
^neral Analogy of Nouns in poipt of Number. B^t this is not 



Of Nouns that xvMt the PlurdL 151 

all ; for the Difpofition of Scd ift*^ here in the Rule, is Very Uni 

frammacical, and a very ill Example for Children to Write after. 
or it ili9uld have preceded the Particulars, ard not have come 
after, as this Author has put it. His meaning is, as 1 fuppofe, 
that whereas the words in the former Rule have lome certain Cafes 
in the Plural, thefe have none at all. But then beiide the Obfcuri- 
tvof the ExprelHon by this unprecedented Dilpofition oiS<difi^ 
the Rule is faulty alfo m fevcral other Rei'pecfts. 

Ai Firft, If it be Relative to the foregoing Rule, nothing ihould 
have been compriz'd here, but what falls under the General Rule 
before that, vi^. ProfrU cunlfa^ dec. But here are Mefperiu, VcfftVy 
PtiwSy ilTrmo, that iignifie neither VrunKntumy Fenfum^ Mtrham^Vdum ^ 
or MetaUum, If it be not relative to that Rule, there is no room 
forSfdy which being a Difcretive Conjuniftion, requires fome £» 
nunciation aforegoing *, from which thefe, as agreeing with the 
former Rule in general, (hould in fome particular have been di- 
Ainguiih'd. 

S^ondly, However it be taken, it is very Unedifying to treat ok 
thefe Nouns according to their Gender, which i:> no caufe of their 
wanting the Plural Number, and to omit their SigniHcation, 
which K>r the moft part is the only one. And if this Method were 
allowable (which it is not becaufc of the Multiplication of Rules 
and Exceptions, which it muft needs produce, to treat of them un- 
der fuch Notions, as no way aifecfl their Gender) here is yet a 
third Fault, that it is very fliort in the Account it gives of thofe 
Mafculihes^that want the Plural Number. But before I proceed 
to reckon up thelc Omiffions, it may be requifite to fay fom^thing 
further by way of General Rule of the Nature of thole Nouns, 
which, beiide thofe already fpoken of, want the Plural Number. 
Thftttince it isGrammaticallyimpradicablctoput downallWords 
of this Nature, the Reader may know how to uie them, that arc 
not here particularly treated of, by reducing them under that Ge* 
neraJ Head. The Nouns therefore which want the Plural Num- 
ber, over and above thofe already mentioned, are Abilracfted Qua- 
lities, which being one and the fame thing, in whatever Subjc^s 
they redded, and oiffering only in degree, and Subjedt of R ciidencc, 
were confidered by the Latinf moftly as one thin^, and therefore 
feena'd not to need any Plural Number. Thofe of this kind of the 
Mafculinc Gender (which this Author treats of apart, and in the 
Examination of him I mnfb do fo too) are tAcor^ oilhor^ oimaror^ 
\M^ory xArdor^y xAftS^ry Culdor^ Color y Canor^ CUror^ Cundor^ Decw^ Fiver, 
Tervor^ V^or^ Fr^^or^ fu/gor^ Vuror^ Horor, L^Vur^ Languor^ Lentor^ 
Ijvor^ LuioYy MadoTy Murcor^ Macror^ Afrr»f, Moeror^ Mucor^ Nidor^ 
Nigroty Nitor^ Odor^ ?«//or, Pavor^ Pedor^ Futcr^ PtttYor^ Kancor. Rigor y 
RuboTy Splendor y Sopory Squalor^ StfidoYy StnngoYy Tenor ^ T^^t^^^ Timor^ 
Torpor y Tremor y Tumor y Valor y Vigor y Viror, Of thefe Clarory Ijutor^ 
PmroYy are all omitted by Kch, Stephens in his Thefaurus ; and o£ Viror 
he fays, rfror, viroris pen. prod, M. G. Idem fi^nificat tjuoA l'i,iditus : 
'SeJ de q»o nullum exemplum reperimm. However they are all authert- 
tick Words. Claror is ufed by PUutus Moft. ac 3. fc. l Steculo claras 
CUrorem mcrinn. • Lutor is ufcd by Claud, Lutor ptrrmnvfM in hetUs. de 
-Rapt POrf.l. 3. p. 281. Putrwr is found in Lucret, Putrorim cum 
fihi nu^aefty 1, 2. p. 55. yiror is ufed by PJUdluSy Celerius coquitur 
rircref<rV4t9, Feb. Tit. 23. Cut alitfuid fuper efl Muc deViroie, But 
" ' . ' then 



I 



} 5 2 Of Noum thdt wA^t the PIotaL 

^en all tkefc Words, though all alike Abftraded Qualitief, are 
not all alike confin'd to the Singular Number. For ftrft, fuch as 
fi^iEe Humane Pafilons as %Amor^ ^f^g,or^ Dolor^ Motror^ Metus^ 
Timor, &C. or things between which there js a difcetnible difference 
to feiife ; as Fr.^jor, Odtrr^ StriAor^ Scc, are commonly Plural. And 
for Particulars, and fuch of thefc Generals as may be doubted of^ 
as being lefs common, 

(ud(^orer, is found in Pliny fOr a Difeafe, Contra tAl^ores Hcrrerefquen 

N. H. 1. 31. c. 10. 
^ArJcr^ is found in the Plural ^ as, Z/r Ulinc aqu^tr fluvU cofftrente^ 
hottusfey 4t(livos rigetur %Mores^ Pall, R. R. 1. i. Tit 53. SoiVo^er 
* mipuosfoiis tArdores. Id. Jul. Tit. i. Et nimiosfolu defendit %Airdores, 

Cic. de Sen. p. 201. and elfcwhere. 
•At^or^ is found to have the Plural in Cic, Pojfunt enim cuuptam ejfe 
utiles iAngorts, 6rc^ 0£f. ^. p. 130. Et fepuratlm fuis tAt^oribus & 
•molvftiis implicatos. Id. T. Q. L. 5. p. 4.5 1. So Off. 2. Phil. 2* 
r«f/or alfois found commonly in the Plural ; as, 

Vtqueferant nquos^ calufHy 6* terKa Calorts, Ov. Met* 2* 

Si uequefervidif^ 
Pars inclufu Culoribw 
Mundi» Hon 1. 3. od. 2d. 
Ita froveniet ut per bytmem fole illujhetut y tsr per itfUtem Calorei ejus 
nonfentiAU Pall. R. R. 1. I. Tit. 8. Id. Nov. Tit. 13. S^uantam 
firiits farrita corrumpitur^ in feqNentibus gfiivis Jiccitatibus & cMonbus, 
Colum. 1.2. c. 12. And in this fenfe 'tis Plural commonly, as 
with us Heats in Et^lifh, Trunsftrrre CaloreSy i e. tAmores, Propd«I. 
el. 12. So Hor. 1. 4« Od. 9. 
Camdor^ is foundonce in the Plural, namely, in Plautus ; as, 

StJitim ut occ4tcatus f r« bujus ctirporis C*ndoribus» Men. ac. X* 
Ic. I. 
Contemptusy is Plural in -i^uintiliany Divitiis opus eft, ne fimus iu tom&re 
miferi^ & impottrntij/imi nuli dijjicultates illi. fortajfc nou fentiMMty ^wo/ 
contra. fa/tidiAy caterofque Contemptus explicat rn^na felicitas fereundi* 
jDecl. X 5. But here pofllbly the Ad may be defign'd^ and not 
. meerly the Quality. So %Asque e Contemptibus exit^ Lucr. L 5. p«i33. 
and 1^5. 
Falius^ has the Plural, though an Ab(!:ra<fled Qtiality ; as. 
Si tamen k precibus tumidos accedere tajlus 
Semferis.' Ov. de Art. 1. i. towards the end. 
Exue VuftuT^ Id. lb. 1. i. Ponere htftus^ Id. de Rem. Anu Claod. 
Bell. Get. 
Rrvor^ is alfo found in the Plural ; as, 

Cepitque novas ^tvoribus iras, Ov. Met. 2. p. 3X« So SiLU 14* 

p. 299. 
And yir^ili for the Heat of the Weather, 

Mediis fervoribus^ Georg. X3. p. 6^^ 
Turn primumficcis aer Veihmrihus^ftus, Ov. Met. !• 
Fovror, is found to have the Plural in Suetonius, yitatis inconMtt^um 

vtrborum ^oetoribuSy Vit. Aug. C. 8^. 
J^a^or^ is Plural in Stn, £p. 95. Fragores beltorum civilium, 
J^or^ has the Plural in T<r« . Jamout aigminof 6 iBrmomm "Bu^ves* 
Vit. Ag. X38. ' 



Of Nouns which want the Plural. 1 5 j 

M^ores nunc ttrrificoSj feniumqut metumque 
Mtfccbant operu Virg. ^n. 8. p. 2<58. 
Cum omnet P/J^ores dtfcutiantur. Sen. K. Q. 1. i . c. 5, 
Furor has the Plural in Cic, Multorum infiummutus furoribus^ Leg. 3« 
p. 3<7. Hefperios uuxit tantum Clccpatru Furores, Luc 1, 10. p. 274.. 
Aiid others. 
Horror has the Plural in Plin. Horrores Vehrium, N. H. 1. 22. c. 10. 
Jjtn^uor has the Plural in Catullw» Multis L<tnguorihm pcrefiu, 

Carm. 52. 
Livor^ has no Plural for Envy, but in the other fignification, rliny 
has, LeVat & alios livores, N. PL 1. 20. c p. And feveral times 
more. ?utie iivtrihw cadaver. Quint. Decl. 5, 
A^w»/ being a Paflion of the Mind, would be undcrftood to have 
the Plural by the General Rule above j but becaufe fome have 
doubted of it, I fhall give an Example out o^ Virgil, 

'• Solve Mitui. An. i. p. 10^. 

And not only the Poets have it often, but S^ititilian alfo feveral 
times. SacYofanUi fint parentum mttus. Decl. 8. and Decl. 18. and 
elfewhere. But Metuum or Metibm^ I have never feen. 
Motror has the Plural in ?Uut, M-jerorcs antcvortunt gaudiU, Capt. 

ac. 4. fc. 2. ConJoUndus Maeroribus, Cic. Part. Or. p. 209. 
Niftnr is found to have the Plural in t^gdlius \ as, S^oniam Nitori^ 

bu4y fpltnioribufque aun illuvies fa contruna^ 1. 2. C. 6, 
taUmr has the Plural in Litcretiu*, Pullonbus Omnia />i«^tt«r.L.4:p.io4. 
And in Tucitus, Tothominum Fallonbut, Vit. Agr. p. 747. And yet 
'Dt, Mushy ranks it among the Singulars only. 
?<V«r has the Plural in Tacitus \ as. Hut Puvonbus nutantem 6* alii le* 
^ati^ amiciquefirmabant. Hif. 2.p. 541. So CUud, Bell. Get. p.2 10. 
Stat. Thcb. 3. v. 3(^9. 
ftdar has the Plural in Cictro j as, Ex hac opinione funt ilLi vurluy & 
detefitabtlioy FtfdortSy muiubres Uctrationes genarMm^ Sec. T. Q. 1. 3, 
p. 403. 
fudor has the Plural in Virgirs Dirs ; as, 

• tAufus egon primus cajlos violare Pudores, 
^i^or has the Plural in ?//». ^0 utuntur ad nervorum Rigores, N. H. 

1. 20. C 22. 
RuboTy is found to have the Plural in Virgil. 

T yrios incoS-a Rubores. Georg. 3. p. 6S. 
Refiftita hibet land RuboreS Sen.Herc.Oet. Chor.2. Dt^micjue rubentes 
Cufpidibus parvis multit acuere Rubores, Claud. Ep. 13. j^«« vel fa- 
cile cuivis Rubores elicere poffet. Aucfl. ad Her. 1. 3. p. 25. 
Splendor for the Plural of this Word, fee ^^itor before. 
Soforj which Kq/^wj and Mr, Leeds fay, has no Plural, is yet found 
in that Number in oiufofiius, whofc Authority I do not find they 
reje<ft, nay they alledge it Culpas, 

Endymioneos folita affcStare Sopores, Idyl. 7. 

Vana ignavorum fimulachra locajfe Sopor um. Id. Eph. p. 43, 

And again, lb. 
Squulor Kasthe Plural in Sl!*intijian \ as, xAt iprdes^ & Squalorts^ ^ 

propinquorum quoque fimilem babitum fcio profmjfe, Inft. 1. 6, 262, 
Ttnor^ for a Tone or Accent, has the Plural in ^*int, 1. i. c. 5. tAJ- 

hue difficilior obfervatio eft per Tenores, qttos quidem ab atitiquis dilfos 

Tonores comptri. And no wonder^ there bsing many ; but in the 

Other Senfe 'tis only Singular. 

^ Tcpor 



154 0/ Nouns which want the Plural. 

Tepor has the Plural frequently ; as, 

Mediique Tf pores. 

Inter utr/tmque j^cent txfUntes ordine fummum, L. 2. p. 4^. Sumtt it-m 
in.{e Te^orcs ittrum i.e. Fons^ Mela, 1. i. p. 14. I^erts Tepores, Colum. 
1. 2. c. 9. and elfcwhere, as well as Pitlladius, 
Terror according to Churijtus^ has no Plural. But Cicero has Batonius 
m'lros Terrores ad me attulit C/tfurianos, Ad At. 1. 6* cp, 8. So alio, 
Sen. Oed. Hor. I. 2. cp. i, 2. and others. 
Tumor for a Swelling, has the Plural regularly, and for Pride, 
againfb the General Rule ; as, 

^uuntofne Tumores 
Menti' ^erit famulus Mugni cervice revulfu, Luc. 1. ID. p. 275. 
Vi^^r has the Plural in ^Agelhus \ as, Dicehat enimjenfus ijiosy motufque 
unlml Inmxosy implicatojque elj'e l^igorihut quihufdam mcntium^ 

6* ulucritatibus, L. 1 9. c. 12. And in this he is preceded by 
Siliust 

ylncis ait notiros mirando ardore Vi^ores, L. 5. p. 239. 
The reft of this kind want the Plural Number, and they arc two 
and twenty in all, which are not accounted for by any of thefe 
Grammarians. 

Befidc there arc other Mafculincs, which this Author, as treat- 
ing of Number under the Head of Gender, ihould have h^re con- 
iider'd, Ibme of which want the Plural Number, others may by 
the Rule of Analogy, be fuppos'd to do fo, and have been fo fup- 
Pbs'd by fome, which fince they do not, the Reader ihouid have 
had fome account given him of them : They are uAr, Cefius^ Jubaty 
Mcridiesy Modus, MunduSy MufcuSy Soly VifcuSy Vncus, 

%Aer may well be fuppofed to want the Plural, becauic JEther of like 
iignincation doesfo. and fome have fo fuppofed. However there 
are two Examples of it in the Plural \ one in Ijucretiusy the other 
in yitruvius, 

xAerihus hinis qucniam res confit utrotjue, Lucr. 1. 4. p. 103. 
And, Novijfe oportet %Aeres locorumy qui funt falt^reSy aut pjjiilefites, 
Vitruv. 1. 1, c. I. And if filence give confent, 'tis likely the Ge- 
nerality of Grammarians admit of thefe as good Authorities ;. 
for there are few of them reckon c/f<r among the Singulars only. 
Ceftusy reckon 'd as Singular only by l^offiusy Meflieurs Je Port Royaly 
Mr. Leeds^ and Mr, H^4%r, and others, is indeed never found in 
the Plural Number, but that fure is rather want of occailon in 
the Authors, than of Capacity in the Word. And fiftcc there 
were feveral of thefe, the Language muft have been impcrfecft, 
if it wanted a Plural Number to exprefs them by. Neither can 
I believe, that if they had occaiion to exprefs ieveral of them to- 
gether, that they faid Vnusy ^Altery Tertiusy Ceflusy and fo on, which 
IS contrary to the Genius of this, and all other Languages, which 
have a Plural Number to exprefs Plurality of Bodily Subftan- 
ces thus enumerable. And for us who are to confider it as a Uni- 
verfal Language, and toufe it as.iiich, this Liberty is abfblutely 
requifite, and the Authority or\ll the Grammarians in the 
World} is too lictk (q infrinjge it, \ 



Of Nouns which want the Plural. • i c ^ 

Juhdfy which Voffius and Mr, Leeds put down here, does indeed want 
tht Plural, but then it is never Mafculine but once in En- 

MeridUsy has no Plural, and is therefore another Omiilion in this 

Author. 
Modus^ a Mean, has no Plural, though no Grammarian has yet 

obfcrved it. 
lAundus^ Womens Finery, is another OmifTion, for it has no 

Pluril. 
Mufcuf^ ikould have been here among the refb, for it is Mafculine, 

and Singular only. 
Sit»sy in the fignification ofSqudor^ is faid by many, and among ft 

them by Dr. Busby^ to be Singular only ; but Ovid has it iii the 

Plural. 

Dumque refcrt inter merltorum muximu^ dcmptos 
JEfonis ejfe Situs, Met. 7. p. 140. 
And whereas ybjfius in his Index lays, Situs Kominativi termimttione 
in utroqite numero \ leaft the Reader ihould rhink that this extends 
to the other fignification alfo, I fliall inAiancc, in Sitihus in Solinusy 
Everfis Sitihus locorum^ c. 40. 

J0/5 ihould have been conlidered here ; for though there be but one 
in Nature, yet there iometimes appears more, and then accord- 
ing tp the common Rule of Analogy it has the Plural ; as, 
Et geminos Soles mirari deftnut orhis, Claud, in Eutrop. 
And befide thi#, when it is put for Heat or Days ; as, 
SoUlms dthereis ultoque recandt^it aflu, Ov. Met. l» 
And, Tcfus & alia durioru uU gelu reUxantur & Solibus, Pall. Jan* 
Tit. ij. \ 

yifcujy ihould have been brought in here, and for what reafbn 
Mr. Leeds has difcarded it, efpecially when his Author has it, 
I know not. Certainly in Contradioiis, whatever is done 
with the Words, the lince of the Author is to be truly reprc- 
iented, from which there is no departing without notice. 

VMcmj^ put down for a Singular only by Dtff. is Plural in florus. 
Hift. 1. 3. 

Vnci C4rmficum, And if this had not been, the Word demands it. 

I^uigus Mafculine, is oinitted, yet Singular only, though Fopulus be 
commonly Plural. 



P^mf^^tmmim^t^ 



X2 



Of 



156 Of Nouns n^hich tvant the Plural. 



s 



Of Feminities that want the 

Plural. 

Grofitmarj Lat. p. 30. 
Ingula famlnei generis^ fluralia rarh^ £^c. 



Animadversion LXXV. 



T 



His Rule has feveral Faliities in it, befide OmilUons, which 
becaufe it is long, I fhall examine by parts, with proper 
Cautions. 



Eili^i here reckoned as a Singular only, has the Plural alfo, as has 
been faid before under Vda. in this Animadverfion. 

Caro may be taken for a Singular only, as being a Material, but 
befide that it is Plural in ievcral places, for the Fleih of feveral 
Creatures \ Pliny ufes it fo alfo for the Fleih of one and the fame 9 

as, Carries lupi comedijfe furituria prodeft, N. H. 1. 28. C. J 9, 

tAddidit exctftas luna ferno^tf pruinoi^ , 

Et ftri^ii infantes iffis cum Carnlbw alas, Ov. Met. 7, V. 269* 

cholera, I have proved to have the Plural befbre in the laft oininuid^ 

verfion under Vda, 
Culpa is Singular only according to djorifitu and Diomedes \ but Vofr 
fius has obferved,/ /» hoc uno omnes inejfe Culpas, out ofCtc» in Ver. 
And, 

Talmas y non Culpas ejfc putabo meas, Aufbn. 
And again, 

Inque tuis Culpis tu mibi da ven'tam. Id, 
Befide which, there is of the fame Author, 

Transfer at ut f^frias aliena in crimina Culpas, Idyl. 7. 

£/ condonatus puero dimiture Culpas, Id. lb. 
And of a better than he, 

Et va^anti frdna licentid 

Jnjecitf amovitque Culpas, Hor. 1. 4.. Od. 1 5. 

flua manct 6* Culpas etiamfuh orco. Id. 1. 3. Od* 1 1. 
And yet Defpauterius and Mr. J(jrl^m>od hijS Abridger, both deli-r 
ver the contrary. And iAlvare\ falls into the fame Error. 
Cuti^j for the Plural, of which Foffim^ Uejfteurs de Tort Tioya.\ and 
Mr. Wall{er^ quote no other Authority, than that of Cvlim xAw 
relioMtUy and tArnoUus^ i$ uftd in the Plural alfo, by fliny more 
thiin Once^ ^ Cutibuff^ cun^ cafiUQ fro muntUifm ante fe(fora uti, N« 



Of Nouns which want the Plural. 1 57 

H. L. 7. C. 4. Cdterorum ojfbus adherent^ cevwum untum Cutiims 

tnafcuntur^ Id. lb. L. II. C 37. So L. ^. C^l. Dudrum Gwf/^ 

fmum Cuies, Nay, Fropertitu has ic in the Plural for a iingle Skio, 

. Itig auimos nojlrd dum Verfat tAcanthis antics^ 
Ter tenuts ojfafunt numerata Cutes, L. A. El. 5. It may feem 
iuperAuous after thi«, to alledgc Sdinu^ who has it in the Plu- 
ral too, c, 70. And yet this itands in Dr. Busby as a Singular 
only. 
VumA might much better have been plac'd among thefe Nouns^ 
than Cfti^4 which follows, and fome others. For it is found to 
have the Plural but once in all thefe Authors, namely in SuUufi^ 
JEqut boni Vumas petit, Fragm. 1. 6. xArruntius ufed it after him, and 
that commonly, for which Senec* condemns him of Afifecftation 
in thefe Terms, Hu* ^p^d SuUuflium rarti futrunt, afud hunc crcbra. 
funt, ist pene continua, nee fine caufa : ille enim in b^c tncidehxt .* At hie 
ilU ^d/ebat^ £p. 114. It feems therefore^ in Seneea's Judgment, 
the word was tolerable, though not an affccfted ufc of it. But 
forfcar of Offence, it were better to forbear the Plural Num* 
ber, and that the rather, becaufe there can be no neceility for it, 
but to help a Poet at a dead lift. 
fu^4 difcovers the grofs ignorance of this Author ; for whereas he 
puts it down as wantinc the Plural Number, 'tis certain there is 
no greater Authority for the Plural of any word, than of this, 
Foffius quotes ¥u^4S & exiliu out of Taeitus, and impedi nt texuntqi 
fugas out of Virgil, and Mr. Leeds, and the xAnnotators after him, 
together with lAeffitursde Port Royul, But all of them pitching 
upon thefe, two inftances, it may feem as if there were no more, 
and the more rigid Criticks may perhaps not think tlicm fufRci* 
ent to Eftabliih a free ufe of the word. Wherefore I fhall add 
fuch other, as iliall fatisfie the niceft Judges. And firft Tttcittts, 
befide that alledg*d by Fojfius has ^mties Vugas, 6* cades y^jfit frtn* 
ceps, Atui^ ^»'i79» oiuji pug4S Ctvium. Id. H if. 5. p i58o. AV- 
m»e 4kud Civilit amicitia peraifum, quam vulnera, Fugod lul^us^ &c. Id. 
lb. p. ^89. Secondly, CUudian has 

jJfM/ moUes finuare Fvgat, quit tendere conSum, 
oicrior ? 3. Conf. Hon. p. eJ9. 
^md turper jam mente Fugas, quid Gallica rura 
Refpicitii. Bell. Get, p. 21 •. Textas lege Fttg^f^ Id. de 6, COO. 

Hon. p. 24.$. 
Vurta, Vi4git, mortes fcrvorum^ incendia, IuHms* 
tAffligunt bominem. Mart. L. 6» £p. 33* 
Fdrtbuscinfimulet fugas, Sen. Thyeft. Chor. 2» 

Repete S'lhcflres Vugas, Id. lb. Ac. 3. Sc. I. 
Tditri feroci^ ftnguk oflentat Fugat, id. Theb. Ac. I. Sc. I. 
S^d timidd lixjueris furta, 6^ exilium^ 6^ Fitftf/, Id. Ag. Ac« 
2. Sc. I. 
%oMed, %Ac. 5. Figas agrefiium. Sen. L. I. Controv. 

fiinc cUmQTy gemitus itltnc, mortefq', fi*g4H\ Sll. L 14. p. 22S* 
Ncn ctleres Vugs 
CUrius indicant Itiudes 
2ikgm, Sec Hor. 1. 4. od. 8. 

Detrimentdy Fmgds fervorum^ incendia ridet. Id. l.,d* £p* T* 

y^Mfems ^H^ imferayinmt, Qiiint. DecL IS. And fioiumup 



158 Of Nouns which want the Plural. 

all, Cicero has itlevcral times. ^*unU inpericulif Vi^ti prostimomm. 





ibtf# F»J<i*j & formidines. Id. At. L. 8. Ep» _., ..^ „^^ -..iv* 

to cucfs at this Author's reading, who had not met with any of 
thde Parages. 

That which is very ftrange, is, That Defpauterivs {hould fall in- 
to this Error, and Mr. l^rr^wooJ not Corrcd him for it. 
tAlvaarex too, fays 'tis only Singular. 
C4JU is fuppos'd to have no Plural by Voffius^ and all that havp 
wrote after him» v»\. Meflieurs Je Fort Rojal^ Mr. Leeds, the An^ 
notators, Mr. Wall^er, But it is Plural twice in ColumtlU : as, 
Kemedio funt tjmndecim cupreffrnti com^ tot'tdemque G<(//«, 1. 6. €,7. 
And again, c. 13. of the fame Book, Vlctribus Galls nits rrmedio 
funt. And what elfe can be underllood in that of ?/i»7,-N. H. 
L. 24. c. 4. But GalU in the Plural, where, fpeaking of the feve- 
ral Cures they dd, he fays, Trofunt gingivii^ dcz. And foon after 
tyenutts tf in vino extinifa Culiuci*, Again, In Vino deco&s aurihus ilLi" 
nuntur, Immaturs tx big ex act to pots liemm confumunt, Esdem cre^ 
mats, 6r aceto falfo ext'.nlfs menfey ftftunt, Omn*;f cupdlos denier ant. 
And yet Defpuuterius too is in this niiilake. 
tamesj feems to have the Plural in that o£ Catullus ad Pore, tr Socrat. 
Torci^ 6' Socration dusfiniflrs 
Pifonii Scabies^ Vameftj»e 7vfrwimn*, p. 27. 
Kara is faid by theAnnotators to be rarely Plural ; but it is fo in CatOj 
R. R. Haras decern^ C. 14. in Ki/ro, Hut fuc'tunt Harof fuper tirram^ aut 
fubtmj R, R. 1. J. c. 10. in Columella^ four times in one Chapter, 
vi\. L. 7, c. 9. And that I believe is oftner than is found in the 
Singular. But if thefe had not been, I cannot fee to what end 
they ihould fay it was but rarely Plural, (ince the Nature of the 
word requires it, and that is enough in thefe Cafes. 
Indoles^ which %Mvare\^ Def>>auterius^ and Mr. Kjr\veood after him, 
and Dr. Eushy put down for a Singular only, I ihall ihcw to be 
Plurally, when I come to 

ifiis multafolent mtdiebria ne^ere^ €rc, in this Rule. 
Nex^ which is fuppofed to be a Singular only, by Mr. ^rjjp^oo^ and 
Vertpsm^ has the Plural in Tacitm^ Parentum Seces^ Hift. 5. p. 68o» 
So Patres procorum Neces juvenum properant ultum ire^ Auf. Perioch, 
Odyfr. 24. Nay dcero ufcs it in Cat. Muhorum civium Neces* Or. I . 
So T. Q. L. 3. p. 404. Plin. N. H. 1. 16, c. i. 
Pise, I have (hewn to have the Plural, %Animsdverfion 12. 
Plehs^ ihould have been here with much more reafon ; for it is ne- 
ver found in the Plural in thefe Writers, only ITolfim quotes it out 
L. 3. Cod. de Frviif. 
Proles taken by many for a Singular only, and particularly by Def- 
'pauterimy Verepsm, and Dr. B^Aj^^ has the Plural alfo, not fo much 
for the Authority oiMajrtisnus CapelU,vi\i\Q][i is the only one Fojfms 
quotes for it, as that of Columella^ 1. TO. 

Privigmiftf^ rogat Proles, But then for Human Offspring it is not 
found io, which was poifibly all they had in their Mind. 
Pfopago^ might fortheiame reaibn have been included in this Rule, 
becaufe of Human Ifluc it is not found in the Plural, though 
for Offsprings of Vines, and the like, it have that Number 
twice in Columella^ Kee minus VscatnOms palif Propagints applicands, 

]. 4* 



Of Nouns which want the Vlurd. 159 

1« 4* C. 17. Cum bene coierinty Vtlut Profagines^ r amnios olivd « matre 
refecubk^ Id. dc Arb. c. 27. So Cic. de Sen. 
Sts^ies has not only the Plural in Lucrct'm, where it feems to be put 
for the Harbours of wild Beafts. 

Namq\ Canes ut montlvaga perfape feraiy 

Naribus inveniunt inte3^a6 fronde ^ietes, 1. I. p. 12. but in O- 
cero zlfOy SLS Ludo & joco uti illif quidem licet^ fed ficuh-fomnoy & 
S^uietibus caterisy Off. L. 1. So that it has not only the Plural, 
p^Q latibulo ferarumy which is all Fojfim takes Notice of, but alfo 
for reft, which neither he nor Mr. Leeds obferve. This alfo 
Dr. Btidy has plac'd among the Singulars only. 
Soholes has not only the three like Cafes in the Plural, but Sobolibm 
alio, though Defpauterius fays he has never read it, as a caution to 
his Reader not to ufe it. Ita(j\ nemo jam ferit exfamera^ fed ex So- 
holihusy Colum. 1. 5. c. <^. I know not for what reafon J>r. Busbj 
makes it Singular only. 
Snufs is put down as a Singular only, by %Mvare\y Verepaus^ Defpau" 
teriuty and Mr. Kir\i»oody but befide that, by the Signification of 
the word it claims the Plural, we have it adually m that Num- 
ber in P/injf, Valerius UlaximuSy and Solinm, Concurrit non nemo ad 
yijendat wuarum in its vineii Strues, Plin. N. H. 1. 14* C. 4« Inter 
fromifcuas CadaVerum Strues, Val. M. 1. I. C 6* tArdentibus /(g»o- 
rtim Struibus, Solin. c. 8. 
Supeliex Feminine, ihould have been here, for it has no Plural. 
Tmo^ which is faid here to be Singular only, has Ta/ioiffjand Tulio^ 
num^ in ^^elliufy \, 20, C, I, TaTionumreciprocutio. Taliones ill^ tua^ 
And yet among others Dr. Busby ranks it with thofe that are Siii« 
gtilars only. 
Tfffis has the Plural in ieveral Places of Pliny ; as, Contra deploratas 
Tuffes, Plin*N. H. I.22. c. 25. Veteres TujfeSy Id. lb. 1,24. Ct. 
Semen lini Tujjes conquo<pty & duritiasy L. 28. C. 4. Supini cubitus ocu^ 
lisconJucunt^ pronifuJfibus^'L.aS.c. ^, and elfewhere. And yee 
Dr» Busby ranks this too among the Singulars only, as well as De^ 
fpauteriusy Mr. l{ir^i»oody and others. 
Vema is overlooji^d by all the Grammarians, and ihould have bfen 

placed here as a Singular only. 
Vita is adxled by many, but the Plural is found often } a$» 
Infpicere in omnium yitas, Ter. Adel. Sc. 3* 
Ttnues fine Corpore Vitas, Virg. Kn, 5. 
And again, 

yitAfcpue^ ^ criming difcit. Id* lb. and others. 



la 



H. 



,» 



* ■• -.v 



» ■• 



1 6o Of Nouns which want the PUaraL 



In the fame Rule. 



'Omnia quint, i: 



^ Trcs fimilcs caftts Plurali fjcfc tenebunt. 

Excife res, fpecies, faciesj aciepjue, dicfque^ 
Quas voces numcro tot as licet ejfc fccundo. 

Animadversion LXXVL 

THisfrpf tenehunt^ is but a Clamfie Exprcfflon, and it is hard 
to fay, what the Autk'Sr means by it. If he means that they 
are frequently found fo in Authors, f^pe unent had been the 
way to expref& that. If it be taken as a Dircdion to hi$ Reader, 
how he muH ufe thefc Words, /4;/'e is as improper here, as tenAtmt 
before. For words that have fuch or fuch a Cafe, may be ufed in 
fuch Cafes as often as there is occafion for them, and no oftener ; 
and where there is fuch occafion, will be luiown by the Senfe, with- 
out this Rule. I. fuppofe he meant they were often fo found hi 
Authors, and becaufe ttnent had a Syllable to little, he took ttnt- 
hunt rather than trouble himf«:lf to alter his Vcrfe,which was made 
now all to one word, but the Rule is utterly falfc. For whereas 
he iays, all words of the Fifth DeclenEon have all thefe Caf^s, 'tis 
certain the greateft part of them have no Cafe at all in that Knm- 
ber, witne{$ runi/ff/. Caries^ Colluvies^ CraffltuSy Duritiei^ Tidts^GUcieSf 
Jlluvies^ In^luvics^ Luxuries^ Mucies^ MtfrtdieSy MoUidesj fermcitSy fr^ 
luviesy RJtieSy SanieSy Scabrititr^ SfmcititSy Subluvuf, Scabus has the 
Plural in Cdtul. ad Pore. ^ Socrat. 

Porci^ & SocratioHy dud finifir* 

Pifonis ScahieSy fitmicfqtie Memmii, And, 

Eluvtef is us'd fo alfo by Curtius^ %Ab altera forte vora^ineSy £hnnefqKt 
prxruptdc erant^ L. 8. p. 312. 

Species, which he allows the whole Plural Number wants the Qem« 
tive, Dativejand Ablative,according to OVfrojwho made choice of 
the word Forwa,on purpofe to avoid laying Specierum^ and Speciebmt, 
Nolim fwj'm, fays he, ne fiUtini did Pojfity fpecierum, &Jpectebuf dictre, 
ad Treb. Top. 1 97. Fojiut would Patronize the ufe of Specierum 
from Csiiut oturelianufy who lived before TtUly, and Julius ScMiger 
being, as he fays. Fir cum omnlt antiquitute comparandus. But f ure 
not comparable to Cicero for underftanding the Propriety of the 
latin Tongue, in which he was no great Matter of Stile himiel£ 
though a great Critick. But whatever he were, 'tis certain his 

Authority 



Of Feminines^ &c. 1 6 1 

Authority is of no account in this caie^ as not being himfelf a 
Xjitin Author. Vojfius therefore might much better have aJlcdg'd 
that of PulUJi»s, if he had thought of it, to ihew that aner 
Ages, at leaft fome in after Ages, did not fband by the Judg- 
ment of Cic'ey6 in this Point. Vt Specterum vis cmne mufti corpus in^ 
ficiaU 0<ft. Tit. 14. 



Of Feminines fignifying Ab 
ftfaded Qualities. 



Grammnvy Lat. f* ^O. 

IJli inuUa folcnt muliehrsa ncFlere^ up hxc fun^j 
Stuhitin^ invUia fapientiay defidla^ atque 
Id genus innumerx voces, quoi UHio pi\cbet : 
Quam fi hi prefix am ecu ccrtum collide filum. 
J{4rius his numerum, quandcque Jed adde fccundum. 

Animadversion XC. 

WHat Light can either Child, or Man, get from this Rule, 
which is thus clouded over with Obfcurity ? Here is an 
innumerable Number ot Words, that are faid to want 
the Plural Number, or at leaft rarely to have it, and yet no other 
Account given of them, but that they are fuch as Stultitia, invidia^ 
JaMenrtrf, DefidcM^ Now thcfe Words being capable of being con- 
fider'd under feveral Kefpeds, as Declcnfion, Gender, Terminati- 
on, Formation^ Signification, here is nothing faid in which of thefe 
Kdho£it the Words not mentioned, arc like tbofe that are. ^nd 
with what Heart can any one, efpecially a Child, undertake fo te- 
dious a Journey with fo blind a Guide f This is a great Fault in 
this Grammar, and yet a very common one, even in many plac;;& 
where it is not intimated, to leave the main Matter to Children 
to do for themielves^ which yet no Man has done to this Day ; as 
will appear by examining what the Grammarians have faid upon 
this Rule. Whereas, if the £nd of Grammar be not to Cave that 
Trouble, and Ezpence of Time, I knov; not what it is good for. 
After all, be concludes with 

KAritu hi^., nnmtrum^ quandoque fed adde fccurijum, 

Y No-^- 



1 6 2 Of Feminine s 

Now what Vt'ay is there to know, what this Dire^frion, fuch ai it 
is, refers to f Whether to the Words here mentioned, SttUtitia^ in» 
vUia^ Sec, or thoie that the Children are to find out by their own 
reading f I confefs, the firfb is the iftoft probabla, becauie what 
they are to iind of themfelves, they will nnd the ufc of by Read* 
ing, if they read fuiHcicntly ; that is, if they read over all the Au- 
thors. But how is this to be expetfted from Children ? If the Au- 
thor hinifclf had done as much, he might have faved them that 
trouble, which very few of them are ever like to take. 'Tis plain 
here is a Task put upon Children, that neither this Author, nor 
any other have yet undergone themfelves ; otherwife they had not 
committed fo many Errors upon this Rule, as well in omitting 
many of this fort, that have the Plural, as in putting down fome 
ex )refly for Singulars only, which are found alio in tnc Plural in 
the beit Authors. Thus l^ojjfiuj in his Lifl has omitted the greateft 
part of this fort of Nouns that are found in the Plural, and put 
down feveral for Singulars only, which are Plural alfo in the belt 
Authors ; and Melfieurs de Port Royul^ the oinnotators^'hAr, Leeds and 
Mr. Wu/^y, have followed him in both, or however with very little 
Alteration. They all put down 

Galla^ for a Noun that wants the Plural ; but befide, that it docs 
not belong to this part of the Rule, and therefore fliould not 
have been plac'd here in an examination of this Grammar; 
'tis againft the Gcttiw of the Latin Tongue, That a Noun rcpre- 
fenting a Thing, of which there are feveral viftble Particulars 
of this Magnitude, iliould not have the Plural Numben And 
this were rcafon enough to allow it the Plural, if there were no 
exprefs Authority for it, and fo for other Words of like kind. 
But after all, there is no better Authority for the Plural of any 
AVord than of this, which almofl: all the Grammarians have ex- 
preily defpoiled of that Number, as I have ihewn %Ammudver' 

Jion 75. 

Inertia^ Perfidu^ and Vdoc'ttus are put down by Mr. Lttds and Mr. 
WullyCY •, Intrtia^ Pttnita^ VelodtM^ by the Annotators. Inertidj 
Sapi ntiuy Vdocit^is by MeflTieurs de Tort Royal^ as Singulis only, 
which yet are all ufed in the Plural by the beft Authors^ as will 
appear uudcr their feveral Letters. 

But to come to fomcthing more certain, I (hall not think much 
of the Pains, though by a Lift of above two hundred Quotations, 
to fet this matter right, and hope the Reader will not think much 
of his. I have aire j^dy faid, that Abftratfted Qualities, (which I 
there explain, and fome of which I have taiten notice of already 
under the Head of Mafculines) being one and the fame thing in al^ 
a»'d therefore look'd upon as one, are generally confin'd to the Sin- 
gular Number *, thouy^h with refpcA to their feveral A<ft$ or Exer- 
cifes, or the feveral Siibjecis they relide in, they are fojnetimes 
found in the Plural. The Nouns here meant are of that fort (or 
it Hiould at Icaft be meant lo) and agree v.' ith StuhitU^ Invidut^ «c, 
in the Rule, in that refpe<ft, of which I iliall only put down what I 
find in the Plural, leaving the Reader to conclude, that the reft 
arc SiuCjUl.irs only. 

And 



^nifywg Ahjlr acted Qualities^ i6j 

Lad becaufe they are fbmcching Numerous, for tlie eafc of thole 
vft Eyes cannot bear Poring io long on fo fmall a Chara^ftcr, I 
Q put them in a bigger Letter. 

lie School-Boy may for his Eale, confider them as formed gone- 
V from Adje^ives. and ending molbly in cdo^ iAo^ tudo^ tat 



\Cerbicatibus. Sanquinivs M/iximiis e confulnrihtf^ 
oravif fenatuwj ne curai Jmperntoris covquifitj's in^ 

fufer Aecrbitatilus augcrait, Tac. An. 6. p. 214. 

So l^ovw Acerbitatibiis^ Ann. 15. p. JJ/^ 
ritnonias. Difcutiunt omnes Acrhjionias, Plin. N. H, 

1. 21. C. ly. 
gritudines. Accifiivus cnim dcorum cufiditatcs^ j^gritw 

Jinesj Cic. N. D. 1. x. p. 78. 
quitates. ^^laturum me futntjs ilU optiovum vcrhn folcn- 

nia% non capcre mn^orum prccU mcritcruin foLrs /£- 

quiPites, Quint. Decl 4. 
rumna. Has commonly the Plural. 
Cates. /Etates autem & temper a ignorarent. Cic. T. Q. 

L 4- P* 4^4- 

QUlbus. Ea cupiditas itgcndi /idolefctt mia cmn .^tntibus. 
CiC. Fin. 5'. p. 17 5". Progredicntjbui rutav /Erntibui 
fcYifrm tardive potius qunfi nojmet ipfos cogmjcimus, 

CSc. Fin. y. p. 268. 

.vkates. Ccvforcsj popull /Evltntesy fobolcs coi- 

' fento. Cic. Leg. 3. p. ^^i. 
Rnicatibus. Serpit fenjim for as Cogvntionlbm primum^ 

turn Affnitntibus, CiC. Fin. j. p. 2c8. 
acritacibus. DIcebnt cnhn iftos rnotus nninii inncxos hii- 

flicntofque cjje vigorlbus quibvfdnm mcyitiurr,^ (^ Aln^ 

critatibus, Agcl. 1. 19, c. ix. 
tSciuiines. KavovIM /tutem longitudincsj C^ Altitudincs 

vocK cmctitur. Age). 1. 1 6. c. 18 
naritudincs. Amaritudincs hebetant. Pliii. N. H. 1. 14. 

C II. 
nbiguitatcs. Exquijitas And Igui rates. Qiiint. 1. i. 

C. 10. 

y X Ambitionibus. 



1^4 OfFfminines 

Ambil'ionibus. Quid de mfiris Ambit ionihus h^uar ? CiC 

^ T.CL 1. 2. p. 373- 
Amicitias. Omnes gratas Amicitiai vincam. FUdc Cic. 

and Cicero often. 
Amoenitates. Amosnitatcs vcnupatum. Plaut. Stich. A61. t. 

Sc. X. Agel. 1. 7. c. 7. , 

Antiquitates. Ncc idco contemnas Ugum iftarum Antiquitfi-' ' 

tss. Agel. 1. ao. c. i . 
Anguftia. Is more rare than Angufii^^ but yet is found 

in good Authors. Cic. Plin. as will appear here- 
after. 
Argutiarum. Argutiarum fuligini. AgeL 1 i. c. 2« So * 

Plaut, BajccL Act. i. Sc. x. Nay the Sbgular is 

iiardly to be found, as I fhall (hew under Feminities 

that want the Singular. 
Afperitates. Poflq^u^-tsintai Afperitates videty i. e. Loco- •• 

rum Afperitali|.'!^H Sal. Hift. a. p. 144. Afperitofibiis , 

reruntj Cic. dc Or. mi^ circa mitium. 
Aftutiarum. Dum in regionem mmrum Afiutidrum te /«•* 

ducoi Tlaur. Mil. Act. i. Sc. 2. Nofiri^ {ycofhantHj . 

dolis^ Ajlutiifque. Plaut. Act. g. Sc. 2. Sol. CoojUT. 

Cat. # 

Avaritias. Ncc enim omnes Avaritiasji dqui ejfe Avaritias 
diximus^, fequitur ut aquas ejfe dicamm* ^Cip. Fin, 
1. 4. p. 245'. 

Auctoritacibus. Dolebamque non confiliis, nee AuStoritdti- 
bus noftris de jure publico difceftari, Cic. ad Fam. 1. 6. 
Epift. I. and elle where frequently. 

Audacias. Vultx autem iftorum Audacias refccare ? Cic. in 
Ver. Or. 8. p. 328. Pro SyL p. 490. and die- 
where. 

Avidicates. Feminarum Aviditates augere aJ infinitum Xr- 
nocratcs tradit. Plin* N. H. 1. 20, c. XI. So contra 
aliarum befiiolarum Aviditates, Plin. N. H. !• II. 
c. 6. 

Aufteritatibus. Vel aquam lufinorum ffilothri Atifteritatibm 
junBam. Pal. 1. I . Tit. 35'. 

Benignitates. 



Bcnignitates. Bcnignitates fersere^ (^ proth^mU. ^hwt 

Slich. Act. 4. Sc. X. 
Blanditix. Quot illic BUnditUj quot iUic iracvindtd^ ? 
Plaut.Truc. Act i. Sc. i. So Cic. Offi, 5, and c^p- 
where, as well as others. 
Bonitates. Bmitates diflinguere. Plln. N. H. 1. 57. 9. 8. 
Bomti^tibus^ Id. L 1 5. c. 3. 
. Calamitates. Nothing is more common than this Vyord 
in the Plural. 
Caligines* Repenting Caligines tevat ^raffica. Plin. N.H« 
1. ao. c. 9* and often. Quarum, L e, Vitium, inter 
Cdligines uva deflorefcunt. Colum* L 3. c. i. Bvjt 
. 'here it fignifies (hady Places hid from the Sun. 
* Calliditates. Pervenere in mentem Sjfri CdHidi^ates. T*^* 

Heaut. Aa. 5*. Sc. !• 
. Garicates. Vbffius gi^es no.other Au^iority for this Word 
in the Plural, but that of C/^<fi/<* Mamertinusw who 
: ,. li^ed in the Age of ?« K4|>thi?Apoftate. . And'Me<i 
*1 fieurs de Part Hf^U andlMr. TValk^er lay the fame. 
This laft forbids the ufe of it till a better Authority 
be fctoid. I (hall therefore do Juftice to the VVorii 
in |flerting its right to both Numbers upon ber^t 
AutiK>rity. QuintiUan has it feveral times, Kulla$ 
ego faciliiis ferire crediderim^ quam corf or um Carit/i" 
tates* Decl. i. So again, Dec). 17. he has Carita- 
tibus. And even Cicero himfelf made no (cruple to 
life it. Cart funt farentcs^ cari liberie fropinqui^ fn-- 
miliaresy fed omnes omnium Caritates U7ia patria com^ 
flexa eft. Off I. p. ay. 

Caftimoniarum. AUudvero^ /.f.garum, ad Cajlitnonia'^ 
rum fanEtitatem ctiam fncrisjud^is dicatum. Plin. N. 
H. 1. 31. c. 8. 

Celeritates. Si in feftindtionibus- fufcifiamus rUmias Cel^i" 
totes, Cic. Off. 1. I, p. 53. 

Claritates. In ceteris Claritates animAlium fiqusmur. Pliiv 
N.H.1.18. C. 8. 

Clauditates: 



t66 OfFeminines 

Ctaudltatcs. Is found in PUn. N, H. !• x8. c 4. Ijut the 

Sentence in my Book is imperfect. 
Cognationibus. In Affinitatibus before. 
Cbmmodltas. Has the Plural very commonly. 
Conclnnitates. Scripta muhas Concinnit4tes redolentUj 
Agel. 1. ao. CIO. 

Conitanttx. Sic quatuor ferturbationes funtj tres Conftdtf 

tU, Cic. T. CL 1. 4. p. 41 9. 
Contagionibus. J{eliquam Grxciam evertit Contagionibus 

malorum Cic. Off. 1. i. p. 96. and yet Dcfpauterius 

will have it to be Singular only. 
Cruditates. Folia contra Cruditates manduntur. Plin. N. 

H. 1. ao. c. 5". 
Cupidines, 7 Are both Generals, containing fevcral Par- 
Cupiditates, S ticulars under them, and are commonly 
Plural, as other (uch Nouns, as (hall be (hewed in 
the Obfervations after this Lift. 
Debilitates. Et damna corporuntj Debilitatefq\ menibrorum 
notabilius miferatione complrBimur, Quin. Dec. jT. Sen. 
de vit.beat. c. 14. 
Dementias. Sed ejus Dementias cave contemn^Sj Cic. ad At. 

L. 9. Ep. 9. 

Dcfidias. Dcjidtas tnoSesj Claud. Conf Hon. p. 44. 
Defidiis. Nee Dcfidiis dapibufq'^ par at is, 

Indulgere juvatj Claud. Conl. Probin. 
Defperationes. Inde eft quod inter luSlus G? defpera* 

tiones foeda vivacitate duramuSj Quint. Dec. 4. and a* 

gain Dec 8. 
Dimcultates. Is (b commonly Plural, it needs no Proof. 
Dignitatibus. Ponderibus enim Poteftatibufq^ Pncfentibus^ noji 
verborum appellationibuSj neq'j Dignitatibus generum 
dijudicafida funt. Agel. 1. I. c. 3. 

Difcordia. Has the Plural very commonly, Cic. Amic 

Diverfitas. has alfc commonly the Plural. 
Doitrina. AUb has commonly the Plural, and Difci-- 
plina* 

Ebrietatcs. 



fignifjing Jtflfdlted QuAlitits. 16 j 

Ebrietates, Ebrietdtes continue efferant animos^ SeHi Ep. 

Hific fumffit Androcydcs medicinam contra Elrietates^ 
Plin. N. H. L. 17. c. 24. So alfo Columella^ L. i, 
Praefat. Quint. Dec. 14, and Sen. de Provi 

Egeftates. Cic. Phil. 14. p. 69 5*. ¥id exfiandas Egejiatei 

latracinit* Etfi quid te honum fugit ? Legibus^ judt^ 

ctKj fenatu fubUto^ libidinesy nudaciasj fumftusj Egc 

fiates tot egentifJimoYum hominum^nec frivatas fojferes^ 

nee remfub. fuftinere, Cic. ad. At. L. 9. Ep. 7* 

Elegantiarum. VoJJius yields to Charifm and Diomedeij that 
this Noun has no Plural. However Agellius hw, 
jintonius Julianus ■ veterum Elegantiarum curd 

(3 memorik multa fuit^ I. i. c. 4. I do not find him 
rejeil his Authority, (b that it is to be (iippoled he 
overlooked it. 

Excellentiae. Sxfe enim ExceBentia quadam funt. Cic.de. 
Amic 

Facundiarum. Pulcrum^ dii honi^ facinus^ Grtcarum Fa^ 
' cundiarum magniloquentii condignumy Agell. L. j. 

Fallada. has commonly the Plural, for the feveral Afts^ 
Famas. /Equ't boni F^mas Petit Sallufi* Fragm* 
Familiaritates. Summit Familiaritatesj Cic. Fin. i. p. 164 
and fo commonly. 

Felicitates. Cui magi bona Felicitates omnes Advcrf^ fient 

Ter. Eun. ac. x. Sec. 3. Cic. pro Mit. 
Fcftivitatibus. Gorgias his Fejiivitatibus infolentihs abutir 

tur^ C\c. ad Brut, or p. 189. 
Formidines, Vt ceteris Formidines Jimilium incmmodorum 

frofonerentj Cic. in Ver. Hor. 7. 
Formidinum. Qua nos a libidinum imperioj ^ Formidi' 

num terrofe vindicet. Cic. Fin. 1. 1 . p. 1 1 j* 
Fortitudincs. Sunt ergo domeflica Fortitudines mn irferiores 

militaribu^j Cic. off. 1. I. p. JJ, 



w 



Gloriarum. 



(jiothrum. Qrii fir^ulos dButfuoi fortnna Frodacendos <&- 
retj qualiu atque comfendio Gloriarum^ Agel. 1. %. c 
aj. So SoiiHus 175. 

G^onzs. Mas iUe indnis cum flwrei Glorias^ 'AgcL I i. c 2. 
andTac. An. 3. p. igj. 

Glorix. lu fufit Glorije Meretriciuniy Plaut. True. Ac 4. 

Sc. 4. adHtr.L. ^. p. 17. 
t^JJius would j>rove that C/c. us'd it al(b in the Plural 
frbm that Paflage in his Oration, ^r(? Cw. P/ii«c- £r 
rwiw homruin ^ridus funtmis hominibus^ C? infimK 
funt Pares : ^orii diffarcs.. And Mejjicurs dt Port 
Royal J and Mr. iVallier follow him in it But there 
is no rieceifity to fuppofe GlorU there to be the Plu- 
ral Nutabei;, becaiile if Gloria be fuppofed to be the 
(pen. Sirig. and difpares to agree with Gradm under- 
ftood, the Sence will be as much to Ciccroh purpo(e. 
And yet Alvare:^ has Gloria in his Lift of Singulars 
only. 
Gntcilicates. Qui mn tarn habitus corporis ofimos quam gra- 
ciUtdiss confeBanturj Cic. Brut, feu de Clan. or. p. 

Gravedines. Crapulam^ (3 Gravedinej capitis impojiiis coronisj 

olfaBuve dijfcutiuntj Plin^/N.H. 1. 21. c 19. 
Graviditatcs. Aieoq'^ tuna illuminaU Graviditates f3 Partus 

afferatj Cic. N. D. 1. 2. p. 97. 
Grttiss. Favour or Intereft. Cum reconciliationes Grar 

tiartim fahguine m^o fancirenturj Cic. Or. ad Quir. 

Poft. Red. p^. 49S. 

Quia f lures ineuntur Gratia^ Cic. Brut. p. 1 61. 
HaUlitates. Omitto opportunitates Habilitatefqi reliqui cor^ 

parisf Cic. Leg. 1. I p' 305. 
Hilaritates. dctera Hitaritates non implent jfeRuSj Sen. 

Ep. ij. 
Honeftatibus. Id (3 retiquis eft Hdneftatibus in civili ratio* 
wtf, (3>commodis antcponcndUm^ Cic. Parr. Or. p.ixo. 
So again, ProMurjena% 

Ignaviss. 



OfNwns that rvant the Vlurd. i ^p 

jl^[qayia^. CritoUus Perifatetkus (^ malum ejje voluftatem 

aitj & multa mala . jar ere ex fefey injuriasy defidias^ 

oblivioines Jgnaviasj Agel. 1. 9. c. ^*, 
Ignominias. Addantur etiam contumelije (3 IgnominUj CIc. 

Part. or. p. an. 
Ignoj^entias. Et Ignofcentias utiles ejfe rehus humanis Jocetp 

Agel 1. 7. c 3. 
ImmUnitate^. Tabula figuntur^ Immunitates datitur^ Cic. ad 

Fam. L la. Ep. i. Phil. i. 
Impuridas. Tuas Imfuritias naloqui nemo fotejl^ Plaut. PeriT 

Ac. 3. Sc. 3. 
Impurlcates. Qjdam omnes Imfuritates fufciferes^ Cic. Phil. a. 
inaniis* Ita Inaniis funt off let a at^ue araneisj Plaut. AuU 

Ac I. Sc. 2. 
Inanitates. Per qua/Jam Inantt4tes verborumy Agel. L 13. 

c8. - 

Indoles. Though Alvare:{y Deffauteriusy and other allow it 

not to be Plural, yet I find Ue boms ^uoque ^ utiles 

animi Indoles amittamusj Agel. 1. 19, Cap. I2. and 

upon his Authority they Eftabllfli the ufe of other 

words, 
Inertiis. Animi autem quemadmodumy affleEii funtj virtuti* 

buSy vitiisy artibusj Inertiis j Cic. Part. Or. p. xo6. 
Indullriis. Jupiter Suprcmus fummis opibus atque Induftriis 

meperijjey £^ Philolachetem cupit herilem filium^ Plaut. 

Moft. Ac. I. Sc. ). 
04iftis^ hominum ncvorum Induftrias Cic. inVcr. Or. 8# 

Sec ad Her. p. 17. 
^nfamias* Namji ad pauper tat em migrant Infami^ 

Gravior pauper tas fitj fides fublejiior. Plaut. 
PerC Ac» 3* Sc 
Infinnitates* FeJJimeque addita peShoribus humanis Infirmt" 

tates* Quint* Dec 4* Piin* 1- 23. c- i. 
lofideUtate^. Quanta Irrpdelitates in amicis ? Cic* pro 

Mil* p. 336* 
Iniquitates* Ipfo Vefpafiano^ inter initia imperii^ ad obti* 
, nendas Iniquitatesy baud perinde obflinato^ /• f • unjuft 

pr unfair things* Tac- Hift. 1* x» p* 5*46. Plin» N. 



l^G Of Nount ikdt mnt the Ptardf. 

H* !• x8* c. 8* Qt- in Vcf Of 8« p* jotJ. or 7; 

p» gy J, Ad At. I. i- Ep* i !• 
Injuria» has the Plural commdnly 
inapisf Dhititts tnulu res faeiunty Hon mulu tmpU. Sen* 

Ep« 84* 
Inianias* InciJtrdm in hominum ftignandi cufidoruin Infani* 

as. Cio ad At* 1 9* Ep» j* tofularefjne Tnpmias" 

Id* Or- pro Mil* p* gii* Larva hunc atqw intent 

feria Infaniaejue agitdHt* Plaut, Alii* Ac- 4. Sc«4 

which laft Voffius minks to be the only Inftance* 
Iniatietatibus- Quorum animis avidis atque thfatieufihus 

fieque lex^ nee tutor j eaferc eft qui fojjit 
modutn* Plaut* Atil- Ac* g* So* 5J. 
Infblentias* Uam cum Infolentias vcrborum flcrumqiii reffw 

eref. AgcU- 1* 13- c. 19* 
Intelligentix* Qnaque in animis imfrimuntur Imhonta In* 

nUigentia, Cic. Leg*)* !• p- goy. 
IntcUigentias* Et rerum flurimarum ohfcuras^ t3 necbjfari-- 

as InteUigehtids enudavit'Cio Leg* !• !• p* gog* 
Intemperix* Nefcio fol qua illune hcminem Intefnferi^ /f 

nent* Plaut* Aul* Ac* i* Sc* !• See Infanis and 

Agell* !• zo» c» io« 
Invidias. Maleifolorum ohtreBationes dtque Invidias. CIc*^ 

Fam* I* 5:* Ep 9* 
Ira, has fo cdirmnohly Plural, and that among the Profe 

Writers too, that it necd^ no proof. 
Iracundix. Q^ot iilic blanditia^ quot iBie Iraeuhdid. Pkur« 

True* Ac. i.Sc.i« 
Iracundias. iMCttwA'iW harum rerum recentes habebant% PhiiC* 

Cic* and Cic. N* D- 1- !• 
Jucunditatibus* N/Jbi7 mihi unquam ex flurimn tuis Juctm- 

ditdtibus gratius accidijfe* ClC* ad At# !• lO. Ep« 8* 
LxcItioC* Molefiiiy Latiti^f cUfiditHtes^ timores^ Mmium 
^ mentes Jtmiliter firvagdhittf* Cic^Leg* !• !• p-joy* 
Laetitiis* 2«* omnibus Latitiis l^tum ejfe fi ndrrA> Oc* dc 

Fin. !• X* p. 1 3 a. 
Lxtitias. Artibm tribusy ter diUmiim dm L^tias* 

Plaat* Pfifud. Ac» !• Sc» 4^ 



OfNtWS that VA99t the PIursL 171 

Lailligine& Et in ca^umine cajfitula furfurea^ ^u£ foh 
vunfur in Ldnugines* Plin* N« H« !• XJ* C» 8* & 1 !• 

c 39- & !• I2.C. II. 

Laffitudines- LaJJiiudines recrcat* Plin* N» H- !• Xl» 

Jjatstudiqes* f^ando non Lon^itudines modo £j Latitudines* 
fl^&Mf numeri Un^arum efficiuyjt* AgcU 1. 1 • c lO. 

Laus, is hardly of ^lis kind of Words^ fo no wonder it is 
commonly Plural* 

Lai||itjas? LsfMtitias vcftras imitemur* Quint- Ptcl* 30 1 • 

libcraiitates. LileraUiatcs 'Neronis En eouditione 

revecanddi euravit. Suet- Galb* p* 278? 
Libertates. DivitU^ Libertates^ (3 ea ^u^ funt iis oontra- 
ria. CicPart* Or. p. 206- & Suer. Vit- Claud- 225. 
Ubertatibus, Tribus non cpnduci fojjim Libert at ibus 

fluin ego iHis hodis comparem magnum Malum* 
Plaut- Caf. Ac* 2- Sc. 8- 
Lcvitatibus- jfrnatorin Levitatibus dcditi* Gc. Fin. 1. !• 

P' III. 
Libido, commonly has the Plural, and no wonder, fincQ 

'tis a General- 
Longitudes, in Latitudines. 
Loquadtates- Ita Loquacitates immodlcas fromifit intuberi 

Plin- N. H. 1. 28, 08. 

Magnitudines. Parvitates rerum ^ Magnitudines* hgA\* 

]. i.c- J- 
Magnicudinibu^* Deinde reliqua fidcra MAgnitudinibus 

immenjis* Cic. N, D» 1- 2- p- 86- 

Maligmtatum* 'Nihil eft tarn capax Malignitatum Sermo^ 
numque quam bellum. Qiiint* Dec 1 1. 

Malignitatibus. Vides quantum hinc Malignitatibm fotur* 
rim frsjlare m^teriam. Quint. Dec. 1 9. 

Malitias. IIU Malitia. Cic. Fin. 1. 4. p. 242. 

Maiitiaruqi* VbifaHn erit co(latio nofttarum MalitiarutOm 
Plaut Mil. Ac 3. Sc. 3. & Oc. N. D- 1. 3. p. 146. 

Malidas. Vitia mala qu^m Malitias nominarc^ Fin* 3. 

p» 1 9^* £c ad Brut* Or^ p. 1 88. 

% % . Materxi> 



172 Of Nouns thdt tPdnt the FlursL 

M^iterlisf But tUs is not an Abftra£led Quafity. Pro 
fdnosj qui deum immagines mortalibus Materiis in Spe* 
fiem hominum effingunt* Tac-Hift* 1. f .p, 678* jifud 
nos Materia finduntur aliqua ffonte* Plin* N«H» 
1. l6* O 41* Vidijje fe mottes Materias moUihs^ cre^ 
Iriufque tremere^ quam nafura dunu. Sen* N«CL L 6. 
C. 31. Struere hl(iterias* Ta(:. H}ft. 4. p. 61 $• Fi^m 
ad imitationem fori Materias* Quint. Inft« L X. C*4* 
for the Matter of Orators. Taken for the Branches 
of \^es, it is commonly Plural with the RufHpk 
Writers. 

^edietates* Vix enim audeo ^icere MedietateSj qu€i Grdci 
/a^oTulrtj affellant^ fed quafi ita dixerim ifUelti^aturf 
erit enim flanius* Cic* ae Univer. p. ^76^ 

Mediocritates* Mediocritates illi probanu Gx> A« Q^ %^ 
p» 70. Ibid- p. 14- & T- Q: !• g- p. 408* 

^turitates, in Grayiditates. 

Memoria, for Hiftoria has commonly the Plural in Aget^ 
lius* 

Miferia, has commonly the Plural. 

^obilitates. H^adix decoRa furfures capitis^ ^ dentium 
Mobilitates. §ubavid. Sanat. Plin. N.H. 1. %o. c.ii. 

Moleftia, has commonly the PluraK 

MoUitiis. Sardanapalutn^ eorum regency MoUitin fiorentem^ 
&c. Veil. Pat. 1. I. p. 6. 

l^QTS^ hascommonly the Plural, but becaui^ ibme Gram* 

marians have thought qtherwiie, 1 (hall iul^yn an 

Example or two out of Cipero. Pr^clard Mortesjunt 

Imperatorix. Fin. 1. %. p. 196. 

fiuibus videmus opfahiles fuijfe tnortes cum gloria. X. Q^ 

Li. p. 145:. ,j «_ 

Clara verb mortet pro patri4 ofpetita. Id. lb. p. 144* 
Nothing more common. 
Munditias. Per cultum ^ Mundipif. Taj. pift. 1. J. 
p. 119. 
Faciles odiffe Munditias. Sen; Ep. J. 
Katura, has often the Plural in Cicero s Philoibphical Dip 
coi|r(es, a Man can lordly look into them without 
imeeting with it. ^ec^tntflim* 



Of Noum that tvdnt the Plural. 171 

NeceflitatlbuS. l^eque tarn indomitis NeceJJltatibus circum^ 
fcripuejt. Agell.1.7. c. 3. and Quinl, Dec. lo. 

NecciCtates. Vbi funt qui acerb(u mortium necejfnates 
Quarebantur. Quint. Dec. io« 

Neceflitudlnibus. Flerique NcceJJttudinibuSf ^ frtpinqui^ 
tdiibus mixtu Tac. Hift. 1»2,. p- 544' Cic*fro Lcgm 

Nequicias* Neqm^Us tellus fcit dare nuVa mngis* Mart. 
L 4* Epigr. 41. 

Nlgoietates. At miiximi utile folutn eft^ quod inter vmnes^ 
ffJimietates temferamentum tenetit. Pallad. jun. 
Tit. 13. 

l^olqllitat^bus. Claudius j quanquam Nobiliffttibuf cxternm 
tniti. Tac. An. Ji. p. 278. 

Nofaifitates. I^obilitatesj honores^ divitid* T cwj)ori» 

bus gubemantur* Cic. dc Off. 1. i. p. 47. 

Notitix. Quo i genere nobis Notitid rcrurn imfrimuntur, Cic* 
A.Qil. a. p. 14. 

Nodcias. Notitias rerum. Cic. A. Q. 1. y. & p. 19. 

Novitates. Ciborum fomcntorumque novitates. Quint. Dec.8- 
J5^ foji tarn frodigio fas rerum fermonumque novitates. Id* 
Dec. 19. Cic. Off. 1. 3. p. 168. 

Obliviones. yojfms %s, this Word is to be found ia 
Hor^Cj an4 (bip isy L. ^ Ode 9. But theii this bc- 
^g the only place be names, and faying as he doe?, 
Sed multo ujftatior fro eo eji Oblivia^ he feeii|s to 
caution againfl: the life of the Woj-d; or at leaft to 
intimate it, is th^ only place. And in this Mr. Wr/- 
t^fr follows Jiim j and not only Q>j but Robert Ste- 
f bens J from whom probably Vojfius had it, fays |uft 
^ iame; wherefore that it may not loofe its Right, 
I have thought fit to (hew the Reader that it has 
two Patrons more. The firft is. Quint. Dec. 306. 
Qgid fi temfUrum incsndia fetasy legum OblivioneSm - 
T'hc other is Agellius^ 1. 9.C. y. Cltolaus ferifnte* 
tieus (S malum ejje Voluftatcm aitj ^ multa alia mala 
farere ex fefcy injuriasy dsjidias^ Obliviones^ ignA* 

Qbfcenitatcs* 



174 ^ Nouns thst wMn$ the Vhr^JL 

PUccsutates. In fcculi libidines calare fuvit^ ae fer d/ce* 
nitates bihere* Plin* N. H. 1. J}. Proem. 

Obfcuritates^ & Sniffnau fomniorum. Cic. 
Div. L X. And thii is common. Obfcuritates^ 
intuit Sex* C^eeilius non ajjlgnemuf culfa Scribentimfu 
AgelL L ao« c. i* 

Ofivitamus, fUm eo libro qunn de agricultur4 Sf^fptum 
rtliquit^ mutatum cteli ftstttm fie coBipt^ ^uod qu^t 
regiones antes frofter hiemi aJJUudm violentiam^ nut^ 
iMmftirpem vitn aut olea depofitam cuftodire fotuerint^ 
nunc mitigatojam (S intefefcente frijiino frigore^ Imtt 
gijjimi OlhitMtibuSf liberif^ue vindemiis^ exuberem. 

Colum. L i»c I. 
Opinutates. Opimitates gdudio effertiffma PlauL AT. Aca, 
Sc. z. So again, Capt. Ac4. Sc. i. thcParafife %s 
upon prolpeft of a Dinner. 
Jupiter Supreme^ fervm mcy mea/^ucf auges opes j 
Mdximm OppimitateSf opiparafque offers tnibi. 

Opportunicas, has commonly the Plural, and npecb qo 
ProoE 

Qrbitatcs. Similiter iommemorMnJis exemplis^ orbitntes 
quoque liberorum pradicanlur* CiC T. Q* I. 3. p. 40 1. 
Qumt- Dec. 1 8. 

C)rbicatibus. Orbitatibus datus. Solin. c^fz. 

Paces. Charifiusf Diemedesy and Phocas all iloake Pax 
to be Singular only, which is an overiight much to 
be admir^ at. For befide Pacibus quoted by VoJ^ 
fius out of Plant. Perf. Ac.^. Paees put of J^tri. Aci. 
Sc. ult. And out of Sallufl. BeB. Jug, Horace aUb 
has Hoc Paces habstere bona^ L X. Ep. I. And in ano- 
ther place. Bella qui (3 Faces^ Longum diffundet in 
dvumP Hor. L* I. Ep. 3. And yet with ^/v^rq*. 
Pax has no Plural 

J^grfimoni^. Jtque utinam veteres mqresj vetereffue Pof 

fimonid 
Potitts majjori honori hie ejfentj quam mores 
mali. riaut. Trin. ac. 4. Sc. }. 

Pan^tatesi 



k 



TvntBLtcs. Has tamen^ in^uit^ Pdrvitntes rerunt^ (i ntdg^ 
nhudines a lia nonnnnquam momenta extrim* 

fccus ' ■ moderantur (S rtgunt. Agell. L i« 

c. 3* 

Pcrfiduw, PeBore ita fMrxvi ?crfidia$. Plaut. Pfeud. 
ac* X. Ic. I. 

Perfidiil. TmIU utffojhm mcospcrJueSis mtm Pcrfidiiti 
UiVmA. 

Pcrfidttnim. PlemtMue effi PerfiJiarumf &frduJum ojlen^ 
Jkbatnr. Agell. l 14. c i« 

Penudk Petnkies is put down by Vojfms^ as a Wo«! 
that wants the Plural» and fo it does as far as I have 
bUelVd } but PUutus has Per dam ego te & filium Pev^ 
lecehrisf Perniciis^ ddolefcentum exitium* ACac«I« (c.l« 
Pemiciis from Pernicia^ as Laxuries and Luxuriom 
f4omius quotes, PeBe crebris Pemkiisy out of the 
(acie Play, bat this is not to be found as we have 
it now. 

Peftikntias. Animorum labes (3 PeJiiUmias. AgelL 1. u 

ex. 

Peftes* Pe^es vocdf qudfcunque ferventis ertdt 

Arena Libya. Sen. Med. ac A. Columella al& 

has» In morbis & Peftibus. And Cic.T. Q,Lx. 

Uachrymdfdtris Peftibus* 
PctuIantJas. Adverfmmm^ f3 Petulaniias if^uridrum^om^ 

ni loco (3 tempore frofficiens* AgelL 1. 13. C. x6« 
Phcklfiiflhiad. PhilefopbUt ^ inquit^ ego nondidici. AgdL 

Potcntts. Hinc opum nimiarum Poteintia nm ferendam 

Ck^OfT. 3. p. III. 
Pocentias. Contra ferieulofijjhnoi hominum Potentias* Cie» 

pro CoeL p. xii. 

Poteftatibus. Ponderibns hac enim Poteflatibufyue frafen^ 
tibusy turn vocabulorum dppelldtionibuSf neque dignitd^ 
iibus generum dijudicandd funt. Agell. !• f • c« 3; 

And fiveral Examples there are of it id others, Scirk 

^OPiftmi htrbdtmn^ Ovi 

Poteftatibui 



I 



TiT$ Of Nouns thAt want the PkrdL 

Foteftatibus for Magiftittibus. Dedif arma hie en 

Poteftatibus* Cic. Phil. 2 « p. 431. 
Pravitates. An corporis Pravifatesj Ji erunt femijignes hd^ 

behunt aliquid offenjionis ? ClC. Leg. !• !• p. Jig* 
Praefentw^. Ipjforum corforum Prdfentia decUram^ Oc. 

N. D. 1. 1. p. 1 1 6. 
Proceritates» Proceritates Arbor um^ Cic de Sen. ioj* 
Propinquitatcs. Hd amicitUy h^e Propin^uhatesm Quint. 

Dec. 3 06. And in Necejfuudinihus, 
Proles. Is hardly yet prov'd by the Grammarians in the 

Plural, but Columello has it (b, L. i o. Privigm ro- 

gat proles^ but then it is Figurative. 
P^prietates. This is commonly plural^ and needs no 

proofs 
Prothymiae, in Bcnignitates. 

Prothymias^ Proh Dit immortales ! Qjfot ego Voluptates 

ftro P 

SaltationeSf bUnditias^ Prothymias? Plaut; 
Stich- Ac y* Sc. 2* 
Purpuras. Siquis afpergat iavandis veftibusy Purfuvds mu* 

-tuf Piin. N. H. 1. 28. €• /• 
Proceritates* Improborum PxofperitiUesy Cic. N. D» 1. 3* 

p. 1 5*2. 
Raucitatibus* In tujfij vui. B^ucitatibus. Plin. N. 

H. 1. 22^ C. 25» 

Retioentise. Sed hujufmodi rfticentid^ jurcj Civili contprf 
hendi omnes non pojjunt. Cic. On. 1. 3. p. I %^ 

Reverentlas. Idem vos putatis efjicere noElium merita^ (3 
aJfeHus qfeulis blanditiifque qu<efitosy quod ndtalium 
fignorum B^erentias, Quint. Dec. 2. 

Salfitudines. Salfitudines Corposisji cum vim traJdmr mi'* 
nuit. Plin. N. H. L 20. c. 14. 

San6litates. Heligionum SanRitates. Cic.N..D. Lx.p^2. 
Though Nfr. fValker^ and others, allow it no Plu- 
ral 

Sabbritates* VoJJius quotes only Cenforinus fix: it, and io 

does Mr. PValker after him ^ but Agettius hasjt too, 

Xr pdrcendi moderandique rationibus dicitm^ & Mvif 

luftdiwn 



Of Nouns that want the P/uraL 1 77 

luptatem late cnvijje^ ^ SalubritAtcs coj-jKff-is retinuijfe 

]• 1. C. 1. 
Sccvitiis. Qtfilnts Sjc^itusy ^ tnnxhnc focnoris cncre opfrcffk 

/^/r/;^/, Salluft. Hift. I. I. 
Salfitudines. Saffifudincs Corf on}. PHn. N, H. 1 20. c. 1 4* 
Satietates. f^ec enim nmicitinrufn cjfc dehcfit Satietates* 

Cic. de Amic. 
Sapientias. Qui Jl virtutcs chulHre volunt ^ Sapientids. 

Cic. T. Q. 1. 3. p. 394. And yet Vojfm agrees 

with Charrjwfj that it Ts Singular only. 
Scabritias. Vnguium Scabritias cxfolit, Plin. N.H.I. 14. 

C. 4. 1. 1. 8. c. 7. 
Securitates* Quldji adSecurltatcs^ ^ indignationes accedat 

mctus P Quint. Dec. iji. 
Securitatibus. Somno veto ac Securltatibus jamdudum hoc 

fuit^ quod Homcric/t ilia Helena ayitc citum minifiravit, 

PHn. N. H. 1. a^.c. i. 
Sereritates. Inter Cenforias Scvcritates trin hdtc excmfUfunt 

caftigntijjim.t difciplin^, Ag^'- '• 4* C- ^c« 
Sercnitatibus. Vbi Ajlivis Ssreniratibus ager ant. Column 

L 2. c. 8- 
Siccitates. For dry Weather, is commonly Plural. 

Propter ficcitates paludum* C«C B. G. 1. 4* 
p. 84. 
Similitude, has the Plural commonly. 
Simultatibus. Et Simultatibm noftrts occajione orbitatis in^ 

dulgeo. Qiiint. Dec 7. 
Societatcs. Quam difficiles plcrlque videntur calamitatum 

Societates ! Cic. de Amic. p. 1 6.7. 
Sodalitates. Sodalitates autetny me quccfiore conjUtuta funf\ 

Cic de Sencc p. 198* 
Solitudines. Qifippc Tiber ium nonfortuna^ non Solitudines 

frotegebantj qurn tormenta peBoris^ fuafque ipfe jpeenM 

fateretur. Tac An. 6. p. x i y. and (b others often. 
SoUtfttilS* Fo^ deinde ufum affi Catonem dicit F/r- 

fri f SollertiK. Agel. 1. 7. eg. 

SoUicitudines, is common ^ as well as the other Plural 

Cafes. 

A a Spurdclx, 



178 Of Nouns tha^ wMt the Plural. 

Spurclcix. NuILc^uc inter opera fpurcitU jnccnt. Pliil^.H. 

1. 1 1, c. 10. 
Sterilltates. Ar^iore autcm annona oh ajjiduas Sterilitatety 

detentus^ Suet. Vic. Claud, c. 18. 
Stultitias. Voffms makes (bme doubt whether any Author 

have ufed this word, faying only that fince Plautus 

has Infantas ; 'tis probable he would not have fcru- 

pled Stultitias. But Cicero puts it out of doubt. Ho- 

minumiiieftias ac Stultitias non for chat ^ Bmt. p. 165'. 
Suavitates. An ut conquirat uridique Suavitates ? Cic. dc 

Off. 1. 3. p* 141^ 
Sublimitatum. Altera Sublimitatuyn caufa^ Plin. N- H. L 

a. c. 16. 
Sublimitatibus. Qua ratio Luna maxiwe Sublimit atibus ajf^ 

frobatur. 
Superbiae. Secundasfortunas decent Supcrbidj Plaut. SticL 

Ac. 2. Sc. 2. 
Sycophantiis. In AftutHs. 

Sycophantias. ?er Sycophantias^ Plaut, Bac. Ac 4. Sc. 7. 
Tarditatibus. Cavendum eft autem^ ns aut Tarditatibus «- 

tamur ingrejfu moUioribus^ Cic. Off. 1. I. p. Jg* 
Tarditates. Qua in iftis oElo curfibus celeritatesy Tardita'- 

tcfq'j declararct,, Cic. de Univer. p. 379. 
Tellus. Is Plural for feveral Countries, 

Vno Tcllures dividit amne duasj Corn. Gall, 
Temericates. Quid faciam, fi Temeritates quo^ue nofirai^ 

confcientia reorum nonfoteft fati ? Qyint. Dec. 7. 
Temeritatibus. Non offcrt fs ille iftis temeritatibusy Cic. 

pro Sext. p. yy?. 
Tempeftivitates. Quetn lingendo elaritatcm oculorum confc* 

quunttir^ S ftornachi totiufqi corporis TetvpeflivitateSf 

i.e. healthful Temper, Plin. N. H. /. 29. c. 6. 
Tiraiditates. QjiantA Tintiditates ? Cic. pro Mil p. 3 36. 
Tranquillitates. Ita habitat ut tibi etinm Tranquillitates c 
ligere fnflidiofe liceat. Quint. Dec. 388. ^nd others. 
Triftitias. Projice Triftitias ^ rencvere focisy Corn. Gal. 

. Ely, 

Turpi- 



Of Nouns thdt tpant the Plural. 179 

Xurpitudines. Qua flagina, quas Turfuudlnes ? Cic pro 
Syll. p. 490. 

Valetudinibus. Mr. Walker allcdges only the Authority 
o( CettforinWj for the ule of i his word in the Plural, 
■and that iho^ ybjjiusj whom he follows throughout, had 
raention'd two Places of Tacitm, tho' without quot- 
ing the words. The firft is An. 6. and the word^ 
which I fuppole he means, are Erat Medjcus arte in^ 
fignis^ nomine Chariclesj non quidcm reg^re Valltudi^ 
ncs Princtpis Solitus^ confilii tamen cop i am Pnebc" 
rtf, p. 242. The other, which I fuppofe he means, 
are Amamitdte urbis cmollitos^ nut Valetudinibus fejfos^ 

Hift. 1. 3. p. 5'5'9. So Quint. Dec. 8. and Dec. ly. 

V^tates. Aiulta circa hjec Magorum VanitatcJ^ Plin. 
N. H. 1. 21. c. 8. 

Varict^s. Is a general, and therefore commonly Plural. 

UberraCCS. Vbertates Vcrboruwj Age). 1. I2. c. !• 

Et a Prir,cipe Philofophorum Socratc dltlum eft de V- 
bcrtatibus^ virtutis (3 cofiisj Cic. N. D. 1. g. p. Il6." 

Velocitatibus. Non cnim viribus^ aut Velocitatibus^ aut 
celeritatc corporum^ res rnagn^ geruntur^ Cic. de Sen. 
p. 1 88. And yet Mr. Lccds^ with Voffius^ puts 
down this word for one of them that have no Plu- 
ral Numiber, and (b does Mr. Pf^all^ too. 

Venuftates. Jn hoc omnes Vcnuftatcs funt^ Plaut. Pftud. 
Ac. 5. Sc. I. 
Amoeni tares omnium Vcnerum^ atq\ Venuftatum affero^ 

Plaut. Sticb. Ac. 2. Sc. 2. 
^anta tibi copia Vcnvftntumaderat^ Plaut. Poen. Ac. y. 

oc. 4« 
Vcritates. Veritates fortiter dicercj Agel. 1. 12. c. 7. 
Vidnitates. AmicitiA^ confuetudinesy Vicinitates^ 6cc. Cic 

ad Quir. Poft. Red. 
Viciditatibus. In Affinitatibut. 
Vis. Is only Plurgil, when ^s taken for Strength or A- 

bUity, and needs no Proof: but for Violence, 'tis 

Singular only, which M. de P. l{. (hould have dl- 

ftmgiiift'd: 

Aa* Vita. 



k 



1 80 Of Nouns thjtt mnt the Flftr^L 

Vira. Which fome make Singular only, has often the 

Plural. 

Thefe are all^ or fo near alK the words that thefe Authors ufe 
in the Plural of this kind, that the Reader will be liable to very 
few Miftake^, in depending upon this Lift. But fuch as iignifie 
Acftion or PaAion, as JErumnu^ Cura^ MoUftiu *, alfo Generals, as Cupt^ 
ditaSy Libtdoy Profrietat^ Qual'itM, 

Emanuel %Mvare\ comprehends under this Head, the l^amesof 
J^ifeafes alfo, but that is a Miftakc, for the mqfl part of them arc 
plural alfo, as will appear by the following Quotations, oil^oresy 
Plin. N. H. h 31, c. 10. and often cHcwhere. CrupuLis^ 2X, 20. Cru. 
Jiutesy 21,/ 7. and clfe where. Fuftiditt^ ^2,^. Frfcrry, 24, 9. and fre« 
quently elfewhere. So Sen, de IraX i» c.12. Hydroptfef^ 21,1. 20, 5, Zip^ 
fitudinef^ 28,4. LaJfitudineSj 22, I J. Naufeaty 24,14. Optftifotonoty 
24, 7. Orth9fH<ra6y 21, 2o. Parulyjer^ 24, 7- Pod^risy 22* 17. and 
often elfc where, Prurigines, 2I, 4. Prurit'thuSy 32,7. ^eumatifmos^ 
22323. SulfttuiineSy 20,14. S^ntexis^ 22,25. Sfafmisy 22^8. Stran-- 
^Mrias^ 2^,8. 24, 13. TormimfciM, 20,5, and often elfe where. Tuffesy 
■23. 2. 20, 18. 24, 8. Veruginesy 20. 8, Then for fuch Difeafes as 
condfl in outward, vitible Marks, nothing is more common than 
to find them in the Plural in this Author, as %Mbugines oculorum. 
Suffufioues^ oculortsm, tAlofecm, Epiphoras, Lenttgines, Lepras, Purony^ 
^btid. Purotidas, Parrigines, Phthirutfes, Pforas, R^miVf/, as may be (een 
By looking into this Author, by the Numbers above Written, the 
£rft of which HgniHes the Book, and the next the Chapter. 



Of Neuters which want the 

Plural. 



N 



EC licet his: neutris numerum deferre fecundum 
Delictum, Jenium^ &c. 



Animadversion LXXVIIL 



'His Rule is both falfe and defedive, which laft faulty none 
of the oinHotatorsy nor even yoffius himfelf^ have fuffici:^ 
_^ cntly fupply*d. I iliall put down the feveral other words 
Alphabetically, as well which belong to this Rnle, as thofe that 
are thought fo to do, and ihew the ufe of them. 

Mv«$m is thought by fome to be Singular only, but Ovid Has 

m NuUi 




kVBlWl 



Of Nmns that rvMt the Plural. i gi 

KM d^tuj omnibus Avis, 



T*mfrocul d fAtnk eft, horridiorvc locus^ dc pQnt. L, X. EI. 4* Acain, 

Et JEvis ^ 

Omnibus ut maneut^ Id. Met. 2. p. 4.4. So /Evis durunt^ Plin. 
N. H« 1.35. c 14. and 1. 14. c. i. Tot avit incorruptum, 
tAllium thought by iomc to be Singular only, is Plural in Colum, as 
1 have ihewn under Herbs, and in Virgil alfo. 

%Mtia. ferpjiUumqf berbus contundtt olentes^ Ecl» 2. 
BaUuflium mentioned by Plinj^ is Singular only, 
Citllum may fecm to be Singular only, but Suetonius ufes the Plu-. 
ral of it, Sed tat Callis quibufdsim^ &c. Yit. Aug, c. 80. And yet 
Mr. Leeds will allow it no Plural j and Dr. Bushy ranks it with 
the Singulars only. 
Co^uUj Ov. Met. 291^. Faft. 4. 
Cont^ia^ Virg. Eel. Ov. Met, 147. 
Diluculum is Singular only. 

Exitium may be taken for a Singular only, but FUutus ha« Onmibut 
exitiis interii, Bac Ac. 5. Sc. i. and even Cicero ^ id enim querv' 
hatuir caput ejfe exitiorum omnium^ Leg. 1. X. p. 30^. aJid de Leg. 

fafcinum is put down among the Singulars only, by lAeJJieurs dc Port 
Rojal^ the tAnnotAtors^ Mr. Leeds Ctho' Voffius^ whofe Sence, by 
the Nature of his Work, he muft be thought to give us, fays 
nothing of it) and Mr. WoD^er, However, Pliny has it in the 
Plural, Kadice Vafcinif utili^ N. H. 1. 20. C. 10, 
Vel is Singular, only for the Matter of the GaJl, but why it may 

not be Plural for feveral Galls, I fee no reafon. 
Cuudium is put down by the xAnnottxtors among them that are rarely 
< Plural, and Voffius^ and MeJJii'urs de Port Koyal give no other In- 
Aance of its being Plural, than that of Virgil, M.n, 4. 
' . • ' Ldton^ taciturn pertentant Gaudij. Pe^us. But not to infi A: 
upon all the Poets uf^pg it fre<jucntly, 'tis found often 
in Cicero, i^uibus Caud,is cxultabis. Or in dr. i. 
HinyhisTotfpes^ tot Gai*dia dies unus in diveyja converttt^ Epift. 
i/tf. S^int, has xAviditus Guudi-yyum, Dccf. 8. Vidtor multnm 
perdidiffe de Gaudtii^ Dccl. 18. 
Clafium and Glutinum^ Gluten^ are Singulars only. 
hepuTy and Hilum arc only Singular^. 

Jngetiium is alfo put by the xAnnvtitVors ainong them that arc rarely 
Singular. This muft be to Caution againft the life of it in 
the Plural, or I know? not what life it is of. But there is fuf- 
£cient Authority for that life. For Cicero has Ingeniorum *cu^ 
men^pro Flac, ind Ingeniu m^ettfenda^ pro (Zorn» Ingtniorum acics^ 
and Ingeniorum celeritur^ pro %Arch, xAc mihi quidem in fummos ho^ 
mineSj ac fummis Ingcniii praditos intuenti, Cic. dc Or. I. I. about 
the beginning, Ingenia. nojlrorym hominhmy Jd. Ibid, and very 
commonly efi'ewhere. So Huint, Monumenf^ Ingeniprum^ I.3. c.7. 
Tra^are Ingenia, Id. 1. i. C. 2. Ingenia ^ojha, Pljil. Epiift. 1^7. 
Proecox genus Ingeniorum, Qiiint. 1. i.e. 3. and both thefe elfc- 
whcrc, anid others frequentl]^. Nay it is ufcd Pluraljy pf one 
thing*, as, uid CitU mores ^ folif*^ l^^enia. Plin. N. H* !• 14- 
fc. X.'-. ; . ' 

J^ardum^ 



1 



l82 Of Nouns that tvant the FlurdL 

Lard'^m and Lutum are Singulars only, fave that Luu was read in 
an Epiftle of rtV^roto Hirtiwy as Nonu*s {ays (but thofe Epiftles 
arc loft) and Caper quotes it out of c^far too, but that alfo is 
loft. 

JtAacellum is by many fuppos'd to be Singular only, but fpeaking of 
feveral fuch places, there may be liberty to ufe the Plural from 
the ncceflity of proportion between Speech and Things. 

JAane is never found m the Plural, but being a thing of which there 
are feveral, Keafon feems to require it. 

Nitrum is only Singular. 

Cdium^ ^hich may be fuppos'd to want the Plural, has it com- 
monly.. 

Omafum is a Singular only. 

Omentum is found to have the Plural, as, 

Omenta fingues vifcerum Obtenduntfinis. Oed. Ac. 2. Sc. 2. 

Opium^ is only Singular. 

:fedum is reckon'd by fomc for a Singular only, but being a thing 
of which there are feveral particuiars,it muft in reafon have the 
Plural, wliich Vojfius allows, though in other things of like 
Nature, he forgets the Argument he ufes in this place, and de- 
nies them the Plural, as will be feen. 

M<^«v is another which many Grammarians make to be Singular 
only, yet Lucretius makes ufe of the Greek Accufative twice. 
Propter tAtUnteum litufy Pelageq; fcveroy L. 5. p» 132* and 
nAt Pelage muita, & Utt fubtra£ta videmus^ L. ^. p. 1 88. 
which is no more than what I have iliewn pUnj to do 
' in Cacoethef J under Invariables. 

Piper ^ ProluUum^ and Pus are Singular only. 

Sal Neuter, and Sinapi are Singulars only. 

Scrupulum is added to thefe by Vtjfius^ as having only the Singular 
Number, but befide that by the Nature ofthe word, as ngni- 
f ying a thing of which there are feveral particulars, it is ca« 
pable of the Plural, which Argument he tiimfelf mkes upon 
Pedum^ it is actually found in the Plural in ColumelUy L. <, c. i. 
feveral times*, fo that it is to be admir'd how this Miftake has 
pafs'd fo long, and that Meifieurs De Port Rojfa/, and the An« 
mcrtators^ ihould have been led into it. Qui pedes efficiunt Scru^ 
fuU CCXXXVIII, and afterward ScrupuU duo^ ScrupuUfeXy 
ScrupuU LXXII. and feveral times befide. 'Tis alfo fbusd in 
Martial. 

Slier is another of thefe Singulars only in Voffm^s Judgment, but 
iignifying one of many Particulars, it muft be capable of a 
Plural for the Reafon aforegoing. Yet Meifieurs de Port Royaly 
Mr. Zceds the Annotators, and Mr. Wall^ry all follow hiitn in 
it. 

Stfer is put down by them all as a Singular only -, but being an 
Herb, it is included under that Rule, but hardly as a Singu- 
lar only, fince Plif^ has Tres Siferesy which I have Ihown in its 
Gender ; and even Fcffim himfelf, with fome of thefe Authors, 
howpvsr they came to forget it here. 

ScUum is made a Singular only by Dr. Bushy and fome others, but 
Cato has Soliu duo, R. R. c. lo. And Plinyy Soliis filfihbas accord' 
ing to (bme Readings- N. H. 1. 35. c. 19. tArgente^ folia, L. 33. 
ۥ 12. without Dilpute, 

S9lum 



Of N0uns that mnt the Piaral. i gj 

S0lum is faid to want the Plural by almoft all the Grammarians 
that went before Ko^, but he has fo abundantly prov'd the 
ufe of it in that Number, that 'tis ftrangc Dr. fiwfc/after that 
ihould alfo make it Singular only. ro#i«»s Examples are from 
Enmw 1. 3. * 

Tarquinio dedit tmperium^ ftmtd €r SoU re^ni. 
And ki another ptace, 

Sed foU tcrr,irum poftquam per menfa parumper. So Lucrct. 
1. 2. p. 48. 

Nam multis fuccenfa locif ardent Sola terr^^ 

olvia Pieridum peragro SoUy nullim ante 

Tritafolo. Id. 1. 4. v. I. 
So CatuUm de Bcrccynthia Sc Aty. 

Etupn recenti terrs Solt fanguine macuUns, 

Fos denique muta repones^ implorOy & Sola Urrarum nltima, 
Cic. pro Balb. 

Ne faturare fimo pingui pudvat Sola, Virg. Georg. i, 

Pi^orum Sola hafiate return. Mart. 1. 10. Ep. 22. 

Fix SolafNjficiunt^ infejfaque pondcre tanto 

Subter anhelat humus, Stat, de Equ. Domit. 
And then he goes to Nemefumis and Prudentius, But there are 
more Inftances out of the Clafficks, as Tctra con^erie Sola, Stat. 
Theb« xo. y. 472. 

NtPeoq»e rigat Solaputria nimbo. Id. Theb. 8. V. 3^1. 

Solupttiguia tabo. Id. Theb. 4. v. 444, 

Sed u\n horis aureij Jo/, radianttbus ocuIh 

JLuftravit JEtbera alburn^ Sola dura^ mare ferttm, Catul. de 

Berec. & Aty, 
Nunc Edomii pedt pulfavit 
SoU Patifai, Sen. Oed. Chor. 2, 
Cujuf nutH ae dttione SoU terrarum gubernantttr, Cic Or. Ant. irct 
in Exil. Sola marmorea. Id. Parad. 6, Sic emujixta Utera 6* Sola 
bcmreorum. Col. 1. 1. c. d. 
Now what a Rule is this, which makes a Noun Singular only, 
which h fo often Plural ? And what fort of a Note have the 
Annotators given us, who put this Noun among thofe that 
are only Plural ? The only ule of thefe Obfervations is to 
caution the Reader againft the ufe of thefe Words, for fear of 
puxling his Reader ; but if this be not Authority fuificient, 
I knew not what is. 
Vitemum is omitted, and yet Singular only. 
Vulgui Neuter is omitted, and yet Singular only. 
Zift^bef ii omitted, and yet Singular only. 

Mr. WaO^ in the dofe of his Notes upon this Rule £hewing, as 
his Cuftom is^ the manner of declining Nouns of this Rule, fays. 
Hoc yirm^ (and if it have any Genitive it is) yiri. But this Doubt 
of his might have been.refolved by that of Lucret, 1. 2. p. 45. 
^■. JLinquit eidmfuberautri primordia Viri, 

Who'alfo gives it the Ablative in the fame Book, p. 55. 
Sn^cQnta^Qf phdere Vm. 



Grr,tnmdrf 



1^4 Of Nouns that WMt the Vlund. 



M 



CrnmmAY^ Lat. /^. JO, 

Afcultt, [unt tnntum numero contentn fecund^ 
Mamsy majcresy canccHij liberty S^ antes^ 6cc, 



Animadversion LXXIX. 

THE Plurals which are properly of this, and the two follow- 
ing Rules, are of two forts : Either fuch as are always 
usd of fcveral particulars joyntly, or fuch which by a pe- 
culiar Idiom of the Latin Tongue under a Plural Termination, 
reprefent only a (ingle thing ; or laftly, Such as rcprefent one fin- 
gle thing by the Plural, or Sincular, indifferently. Of the iirfl: 
iort are Cancelli^Libtri^ntes \ of tne latter vdmoresj when put for the 
Perfon Belov'd j of the third are Cervica^ CqIIa^ y«*o«, Tcncbrx 
for Darknefs, Non^^ Idus, Sec, Now though the Plurals of the firfb 
fort, coniifting of feveral Singulars,, fhould in ceafon have a Sin- 
gular Number to exprefs thole Singulars, yet becauie it is gene* 
rally thought, that in Language, Ule is to carry it aKainft Keafon, 
I iliall Animadvert upon this Rule accordingly^ and iUew it to be 
partly falfe, and partly defecflive upoa that Suppoiition ; Cauti- 
oning as I go in fuch Words which Grammarians hare without 
rcafon plac'd under this Rule, 

xAmoresy as I have iai<l, when put by a Metoi¥>'my of the Oufe for 
. the Effefft, or for the Peribn beloved, is. rarely,, if ever to^e 
found otherwife than Plural v as^ Sed redeo adolmwef delicUfque 
nofth4f L» iAnUnwm^ Cic PhiL 6, pw i^^* S^d %Amorcs mt deltas 
tus Rofcim ? Num out iffe^ Am pna eo lAn4An»m to$um meniitlkgtur ? 
Cic. Div. 1. I. p. i88. 

SluiA fuciut ? CrudtU fuos adJicere ^AmcreK >» e. /o. Ov. Met, 

1. I. p. 32. 
Sed fojlquAvn rtmorata fuos ccjptovli *4mores, L C* fyamtmit 
Ov. Met. 1. 4. p. 7$. 
So Catullus Carm. 1 5. and deNupt, Pel. & Thet, No= woifder there*, 
fore that the Eifed^s or Delights themielres arc ia commonly' 
Plural, as in that of yirffi^ 

file meot^ fritnw ^ me fihi ]unxit^ xAfmres 
tAbftulit^ Ule haheait fvcnm^ fefvetque Scfe^ehro\- Jiji^ip, 16.U 
i. e. De/iAtrU 6r Volufutes^ favs Servim upon the place* For un- 
law ful Court ihips and AdarefTes it is all^ hrequcntly Plural; 

**, 

Medea jimores ohjuit ? Sen. Mcd. Ac. 3, Sc« 2. i. e« ^mores 
Crvuf4^ 

So 




of Nouns which wMt the ShguUf. 185 

So Ov'id^ Am. I. £1.12. Ki/ ego commifi noftror infanus iAmores^ i. C* 
Histabulif^ which he had wrote to his Miftrefs. 

tAnimi is fuppofed by fome to be never Singular, when put for Cou- 
rage, or Boldnefsn and it is indeed moft commonly {o *, how- 
ever Cicero has Cajft^) tAnimus uccejjtt^ & Part his tint or (Jl injccfus^ 
Cic. ad At. I. 5. Epift. 20. So ud Pam. 1. 1. Epift. 9. and OviJ. 
Faft. I. p. 12. Sumffi animum» See Virg^ K,n, i. p. 1 14. for t/f»z- 
mosy the Affccfllons. 

%Anndes^ which fome Authors give us for a Plural only, is found iii 
the Singular alio, as, 2j*ibus confulihus CarneaHts & ea legutio Re- 
nuimvenity fcriptum fjhin tuo xAnnalu Ad Att. 1. 12 Epiit. 24.. 
Efi igitur afud illum^ i. e. Ennium, nono^ ut opinor. ^Annali, Cic. 
Brut. 1 50. 'Tis to no purpofc to alledgc its being us'd by En- 
nius after this. 'Tis in reality but an Ad jecftive to lihtr, and fO 
no wonder that it has a Singular : Though thefe ibrt of Hi' 
ftories being digefted into Books according to Years, it is of* 
tcner met with In the Plural. 

\Artut is reckoned by fome Grammarians for a Plural only, but 
Xucan has, 

Tunc omms falpitat %Artiu, Luc. I. 6* p.' l<^8. 

iArtuoy indeed us'd by PUut, Men, Ac. 5. Sc. 2. has no Singular that 
I know of. 

Ctfifi is reckoned among thefe by fome Grammarians, but it is an 
Ad jecftive, and Capilli is to be undcrftood with it, when it fig- 
nifics Old Aec, andotherwife it is Singular. 

Mceref, for the Goal, from whence they ftarted in Races is Plural 
only, according to D'tomedes and Phocas^ but not only Ennius 
has, 

Omnes avidi expe^ant ad Curceris or as. An. i, 
Bnt VirgU alfo, 

Kuuntque effufi Carcere Currui, An. $. 

And Ovid^ 

Cum Cureert pronus uurque 

Emicat. Met. 10. And fo the Author to Her, 1. 4. p. 22. 
Cajfes is added to thefe Plurals only by Chur'tfius and Phocas^ but Se* 

Vt altis hifpidus fjlvis aper 
Cum Caffe Vin^us^ tentat egrejjus tameti, A gam. Ac. 5. Sc i* 

Sec Cic. Off. 
ro(^tri//i is put down by others, as a Plural only, and fo it muft 
needs be as it is commonly us*d for fcveral Tables together^ 
" But that thefe were cali'd CodiciUi, becaulc each of them was ro- 
dicillmf, is not to be doubted. And upon this Reafon I fuppoft 
Cdlepiney and Kohert Stephens after him, have put down CodicUlusi 
Catihes is added by Churifiur^ Vcrep^us^ tAlvare\ ) but Ovid has, 
S^uale tamen potni de Cvelite^ Brute^ recentl 

Vefira procul pofitas carmen in ora dedi,.De Pont, L4, El.^, 

And) 

Tervenient. iflUc & carm'inaforptan ilU^ 
2f*d de te mifi Ccelite fuS^Oj novo. Id. Ibid. El. 9. 
E^v/, omitted by this Author, is never found in the Sin<yulaf 
but when any'Magiftracy is fignificd by it, fave only that cha- 
ri/mfqyiOWQl\T^QgCiverQ^ fafceyn unum fi na^us effcs^ by which 

* ■ B b Ki/^,/^ 



1 86 Of Nouns which wMt the SinguUr. 

however it does not appear, that he meant it in this fenfe. 
Nay, as far as I can End, there was no Magiftrate that had but 
one Bundle of Rods carried before him. 
F>t/?i, put down by the Author for a Plural only, is no otherwife 
fo, than when it is apply'd to all, pr many together. For that 
one fuch fingle Day may be calld Fu/^^/, appears by that of 
Ovid, 

lU'u mfifluf tjit per quern rr'ta. Vi-rhu Jilentur : 

Valius trit per quern Uge Ucebit a^i. Fail. 1. 1 • p. 2. 
Vujlufy of the fourth, is more properly belonging to this Rule, as 
being a Subftantive, and never found in this Signification, but 
Plurally j as, 

iY(fC nttus Eudoxi vincetur Vaftihus annus, Luc. I. lO.p, 278. 
So Vurro in Epbemeride, Cdfar fafius correxit. So Col. 1. 9. c# 14. 
Tinesy for the Borders of a Countrey^ is omitted, and yet is only 
Plural^ Jave that Horace has 

Nam ycnufmus arat Finem fub utrumque Colonus, Xr«2. «fat« I. 
%Atlanteus finis, L. I« Od. 34.. 
And Mela, Circa Pontum aliquot fopuli alioy aioq\ Fine, L« I. p. 6, 
Dcfcript. Aita:. 
Vori is never us'd otherwife than in the Plural in thefe Senfes, Vr* 
bem^ agrum^ aras^ Foco/, feque uti dederent, Plaut. Amph. Ac. I. 
Sc. 2. Pro aris & Vocit fugtutre, Cic. de N. D. L. 3. And no 
wonder fince in a Country there are always many. 
Fm is reckoned as a Plural only by Charifius^ Diomtdes^ and Phocas ; 
but beiide that Ennius has, as Ifidons quotes it, 

Multa Voro ponens^ ageaque longa repletur, 
%Jgellius alfo has 

Stanf in fummo puppis Foro, L. 6, C. 1 9. de tArione, 
Vreni is fatd by chaiijim, Diomedes^ and Phocas to want the Singular, 
Frenus being no where to be found, but Frenum Neuter. How- 
ever I queition whether the Obliques Frenum and Freno can be 
proved to come from Frenum in the Nominative, which is no 
where found that I know of, nor any Adjedlives with the Ob- 
liques to determine the matter. 
Furfures for a Difeafe of the Head, called a Scurf, is Plural only, 
according to Diomedes and Pboc^t and fb I obferve Pliny always 
ufes it. 
Gemini is added to the Plurals only by Defpauterim^ and indeed 
when two are fpoken of, by the nature of the Signification, it 
muft be Plural. But then it may b« a Queftion, W hether, as 
we may fay in Englifh^ He is a Twin, we may alfo iay in X«ym, 
Ejl Geminw, And for this we have the Authority of PUutWy 
Men, Ac. 5. Sc utt^ Me : ilUc homo aut fyccpbanta^ out Geminm ejl 
fruttr tuus. And chat by Geminm frater is meant Twin-Brother, 
is plain from what Mejfenio fays in the fame Scene fbon after. 
M. fpes mibt eft vos inventuros fratres gtrmanos duosy 
Gemmos^ una matre natos^ & fatre uno^ uno die, 
Grt4rKi^ according to cbarifius, hsLs no Smgular, but befide that the 
nature of the thing requires it, Nonius quotes outof %Accius 

Qutmcumque injlituam Grutnum^ aut prmcifum jugum» 
And VLny has. Torretur & cum fali* Grumo pondere triplici mifto, 
N. H. 1. 33. c. 4. by which I fuppofe he means a Lump^ as 
CirMfni fignifies Qodf of Earth) or little HiKocks. 

Indigetft 



Of Nouns which want the Singular. igy 

Jndi^tus is thought W fome to be Plural only, and Vojfms thinks 
them conjRderablAjpnough to defcrve a Confutation, But then 
aH that he alledgcf to the contrary, is from the Authority of 
Jtdius Vrontinus^' none of the beft Authors, and Mr. HV/(rr after 
him goes no further. But there Hxc two far better Authori* 
tifs for the Singular ; one of t^ng, ftn. 12. p. 377. 
Qw^ jum finis erit conjux ? Q^^'^ denujue rejUt f 
Indigitem JEneam fcut ipfe^ ^lyjcirc futtris 
Deberi cctlo^ f.tufque ad fiAera toUt. 
And another of Livy concerning jEneas too, 

Situs efiy quemrunKjue cum diet ;»/, fujque efly fuper Numicium 
flu men, JoVem Indi^ettmaopelUnt^ L. I.p. X* 
And in the Nominative Silius h.is it Diva indigetify L. 8. p. 123. 
Zemur^s^ putdown by the Author for a Plaral only, requires in 
reafon a Singular, as having feveral Particulars, and fo ^pu^ 
leius ulcs it, De Deo Socratia, Hunc vet ere in Uk^^uA Latino, inveni JLe* 
murem dicatum. But he being a Liccntioas Author, I inlift 
more upon the realon of the thing, than his Authority. 
Lendes Vojfiuf will have to be Plural only, upon the Authority of 
Ch^rifitts and Diomedet^ buc reafon requires it Hiould have a Sin- 
gular. And that we find none, is bccaufe the A uthors had no 
occafion tofpeak of a fingle one. And this is i^ojjius'% OAvn Ar- 
ment upon Pedum^ though he forgets it here. 
Ziberi is made Plural only by almoft ail the Grammarians, and yet 
Quintiliuny Decl. 2. p. 17. fays, iSbm & parentis non alius mihi 
, y'td^tur 4^e8tus^ ^km <fuo rerum natura^ quo mundus iyfe conflriifus 
Wl. Bende which Voffius cites it in the Singular out of oiu^elius 
l^^or, and feveral of the Old Civilians. Nay, 'tis probable, 
Ovid med it fo too in the Complaint o£ Phaeton to his Mother, 
of the Reproaches of Epaphur^ where he fays, 

Quoquemagis doleM gcnitrix^ a\t^ en ego Liher^ 
Ille feroxy tacui, i. e. Ego qitanquam Phabi Liber^f^u Vilius ut 
ipft refers^ tacui tamen. Met, 1. I . p. 25, But that which is moit 
remarkable in this Word is, that it's ufed alfo in the Plural, 
though but one Child be figniHed, and that not on}y uppn 
the Authority oftAgellius^ which Mr. ir^/^r mentions, though 
with a caution againil Writing after it, but even of Terence 
«nd Cicero himfelf. The firft of thefc has 

tAn quidquam pro iflis facfpf dignum te did potejl 

Slus wr, 6* re*, 6" familium dedecoraSy fdio luclum parat ? 

Tum autem ex amicisy inimici ut fint nchi* ajfines^ facts ; 

i^*i ilium decrerant dignum^ fuos qm Liberot committtrent.Hcc, 

Ac. 2. Sc. X, jUum^ i. e. f ilium noflrum, Liberos^ i.e. Philume- 

nam\ for fhe was the only Perfon committed to him, that is, 

given in Marriage. Donate fays upon the place, Multum fonui- 

tei'y & accufatorio flre^itu nee Mafculinum, nec ¥emintnum pofmt ; 

Necunam^ fcdJLiber0<, And then goes on. Sic Cicero y En cui tu<is 

ZmhtHs committoii, S^umde uno ageret : Et^ Habemusenim Liberos 

cmnet, De Puella, And befide thefc brought by Dotfatw, there 

is yet another of like nature in Cicero^ pro tA. Clutptio, \vhe/e ist- 

mong other Crimes of p-anirw^ he /ays of his Poyibning his 

Brother's Wife when with Child, Nam cum ejf^t gravida xAuna^ 

fr^trk Vxvr^ & J4m appr* pin juare parens vidfTtfur^ MuUcrem veneno 

i b 2 interfecit^ 



J 88 Qf Nouns which want the SwguUr^ 

intnfecity ut uni, ilia, & quod erut ex fratre conceftum ntcaretur*^ 
Tojlt^a frutrem a^rejj'iu <r/J, quiferojam exhuufio illo foculo mortis^ cuni 
tar Hejuo^ & de uxoris intcritu cUmarnt^ ieftumentumqut muture cu^e^ 
tetj in if {a fynificationc bujw voluntatis eft mortutu, Ita muUeremy 
fie partu e'jm ah bareditare fraternk excluderetur^ necavit : Frutris au^ 
tern Ltheros frius vita, frivavit^ quam iUi banc a naturJi fropriam lu- 
cem ucdpirtr fotueruntj pro A. Cluent. p. 4,01. Now that he had 
no refped to Twins, appears by his laying before, Vt quod cjc 
frutre conceftum erat necaretur. It may bc faid that Cicero faid, 

Lihe/os ad augendam invidiam^ though there were but onft, but 
nothinc; of that appearing., and olgellim affirming, that he 
ifound It a common thing among the Writings of the Anci- 
ents to ufe Ltberos for one Child^and that either Son or Daugh- 
ter, 'tis moft likely Cicero followed them in it. 

Zoci, omitted by this Author, is only Plural, when it is taken for 
the Privy part of any Female, as may be fcenin Karro, inOri^t" 
nibiu^ Phn. N. H. 1. II. c. 37. p. 232. Colum.l. d. c. 27. And 
in this ienfe this laft Author uies Locu. 1. 8. c. ii. And this is 
more properly belonging to this Rule, becaufe though ipeak-^ 
ing but of one, it exprelies it Pluraily. 

J.ocuIiy for Money-Pockets, has been thought to be Plural only, 
and fo Defpuuttrius makes it. But befide that the nature of the 
thing requires a Singular, Varro K. R. 1. 3. c. 5. has Vemiad nos 
Pantulciiti Purra, 'N>trrat ad tabuUm citm decumberet^ qfuendam de- 
frehenfum tejjerula^ confident em in Loculum^ eum ad conjulem traS^um 
a fuutoribiu comfetitorum. Where though the ufe made of the 
Bag fpokenof were different, yet it may be fuppos'd to be the 
fame with the other. And charifiuj upon the word fays, Xocu^ 
las & Loeellos pluralifer did multifutant^ cum Jit bic hoculus^ eujus 
hjfocorifma eft hie Locellus^ and then quotes this of Vkrroy befide 
Zocellum out of C^tfar tO f f/o, Lbcellum tihi Jignatum rtmifi. See 
alfo yiart, 1. 4, Ep. 13. 

l^udi^ for Publick Shews, is only Plural, becaufe in each of thefe 

Spectacles, they were fevcral. 
X^mli alfo has been thought to want the Singular,* but A£irri<f(has 

Cerea qui patulo lucet ficeduU Lumbo, Lt, 1"^, B.^,^ ^» 
2A4Jores is hardly found but in the Plural, becaufe as i.t conutionly 

iignifies, it implies many, but yet oifuleius fays, M^jor puus 

Socrates, But I believe he is the only Writer that ules it Co. 
Manes is but an Adjedlive, and Dii underftood with it; %4fuleius 

has it in the Singular Deum manem vocant, De Deo Socratis* 

Nay) ^'ffo has ^uod^'y bene eveniat mando tibi Matti uti ilU folitau- 

riliay &c, c, 141, 
Menfes is found in the Singular in Pliny, oimhiri arborcs fin^uUs m, mu- 

Here incitati jAenfis, N. H. 1. 17. C,ult» 
Mores is by fome reckoned among thefe Plurals only, and though 

Charifius faysy Sed & Mos'Ugimus^ and Vojfius ^vt^s with him \ 

yet I have never feen it Singular in a Moral Ienfe, as in tern" 

fora ! Mores ! Qr fconJtf, or Mulis Moribus, 
Cftirriates has been thought to want the Singular, but CUtM hai Vide 
( ' Mf , dum fudet te farum Optimatem effe^ parum diligtntef^ fttod opti" 

inum fiteligat, Cic £p. Fam. L S. £p. i6. Ami Cicero himislf 

h«is Id manditvi Tbihtimo^ bomimforti^ »tc nimikmOptim^Hm * 

I ■ / ' ■ . ■. • • • 

' ' f€9^es 



%y^ 



Of Nouns which want the StnguUr. 1 89 

Ttnatesy faid by this Author to be only Plural, has Penatem in iivy, 
1. 28. as Ko^/ fay*, but I cannot find it ; and PrifcUn acknow- 
ledges it was in ufe among the Ancients, which is con- 
firm'dby Dionyfius Halic^arnaffeus, who fays he had fcen Ptntu up- 
on an Ancient Infcription. 

PUrique^ PUraque^ Pleruque^ are fuppofed by many to want the Sin- 

fular. But without the Adjcdion qite» Pacuvius in Prifcian 
as 

Phrapars feffundapa. eft. And fo, 
Vt fieri foltt pltrum, Sempronius oiftUio^ as publifli'd by %Aufonwt 
Fopmuj in his Fragments of the old Hiftorians. But even with 
the Adjedlive too Sulluft has it four times, as Mr.WWJI^fy has well 
obferv'd before me. Namque antea pUraque nohilitas imndiJi sjlua* 
bat. Bell. Catilin. Contru eos fumma Ope mtebatur fleraque nobilitas 
fenatus. Id. lb, £ua tempeftute Cartba^inienfes PltTitque njifrics im<* 
feritabant. Id. Bell. Jug. PUrJique oratione Majarvj Juos extoUunt^ 
Id. Ibid. 

flures has neither Mafculine, nor Feminine in the Singular to an- 
fwer it, but this defed is fupply'd by Plus put Subftantively, 
and a Genitive of the Subftantive, which according to the 
Idiom of our Language fliould agree with it, as more Money, 
PlmsPecutiitt\ more WSdom, Plus SupientU, 

P(fteri fignifying Pofterity, has no Singular, and no wonder (ince 
it implies many. But in other fcnfes it is frequently Plural, 
as Pofbro dity Pofhera dtof^ dec, 

Pfimores put down by fome for a Plural only, is but an Ad jedlive, 
and when it is Plural, 'tis becauie a Plural Subilantive is un- 
derftood. For in other occafions it is Singular frequently^ as 
■ I Nafi Primorif acumen, Lucr. 1. 6* 

Excifam Primori Marte Saguntum, Sil. L II. 
Si me nottfaUit quod quidem in Primore fueritia le^erim. A gel. I. lo, 
C. 1 9. Id. 1. id.c. 5. Tacitus has Primori in acie, Hift. 3. 

froceires has no Singular according to charifiusy Diomedes and Pbocofy 
%Alv4ore\ and Verefaus^ but I nave inftanced already in Procerem 
out of Juvenal^ Sat. 8. And yet ^nci^us and Helvicus make it 
plural only ih their Grammar. 

Pi^ii^tfrr/ is Plural only according to Diomedes zxiA. PhocoL^ as well as 
oUvarex^ Verepaus^ Defpauteriu.t^ and Others *, neitlier have I ever 
&en it in the Singular : though in ref pe^ of the Tables of 
which the whole was compofed, it feems to require it. And this 
probably was the reafbn that Robert Stephens in his Thefaurtu put 
It doyiW Pugillaris fen, prod* m. Jive Pugilldr^ vel Pu^iUare, But 
then in a Work of that Nature it was requifite to diftinguifli 
between his own Gueiles, and the ufe of Authors ; ,for want oP 
w)iich, in odier Words alfo, that Work is apt to millead' the 
Reader. Beiide, his third Word PugilUne^ is not. found- in a- 
ny Author, thou^ his iecond PugilUr be found in %Aufon, Bipu-^ 
tent Ffi^iUar expedu £p« 1 37. And Catulhus has it alfb in the 
Hural. 

i Mt negaS mibi veftra reddituram 

Ft^iUiim, Gacm. 3^. de Acme* 

^nnqnaitm 



190 Of Nouns which want the S$f$gutdr. 

£»intfi»dtrus is put down by IToffms under this Rule, as if it were 
Mafcuiine, but I ihall treat of it under Feminines, to which 
it belongs. 
2»mies is Plural only according to cbarifius^ ZnomedcSy and Fboc4§ 5 
but Horace has 

^is te redotuvit £um$em 

Dts fatriisj Italoque calo. L. 2. Od. 6. and Epift. ^. 1. 1. 

Ludicri <i^^^ fUufujy & amici dona S^u'trim .«?. 

■ Hcufierilcs veri quibus una Quiritem 

Vertigo facit, Perf. Sat. 5. 
But this the old Scholiaft; will have to be peculiar to the Poets, 
whofe Words are ^vr'ttem fngulariter abufive dixit^ iL'entia poetic a, 
nam ficut fater Confcriptus non dicitury ita nee ^vritem dicere poffi^ 
tnuSt 
Sales for^Witticifms is only Plural according to Charijius and Diome^ 
des ; but Cicero has, Ita Salem ifium^ quo caret Vejbra Natioy inSrri- 
dendii nobis nolitote confumtre, Dc N. D. 1. 2. p. 79, 

Salts fatis efiyfannionum forum, Cic. I. 9. £p. i^. 

Sale Vero conditus &facetiis Cafar, Cic. Of. 2. 5 v 
AnA ad Q. "Prat* \» I.£pift.2. Quibus quidem in rebus fi apud te 
plus au&oritst mea^ quam tua^ five nafura paulo acrxor^ five quadam 
dnicedo iraeundiay five dicendi Sal^ facetiaque valuijfenty nibUj'ane r/- 
fety quod not foeniteret. And De Or. 1. 2. NulUm art em ejfe Sality 
and elfewhere. HabentSalem^ ac leporem, CatulKCarm. i5. 
Sentes^ according to Cbarifius and Fhocaf^ is only Plural ; but Colum, 
has Nos jentem Canis appellamuSy L. 1 1 • C. 3. Deffauterius over* 
looking this denies it the Singular. 
Sinfully Singula^ Singula^ is much the more common, and charifius 
and frifcian allow it no Singular \ but Voffius quotes out of 
fiautujy 

%At at fingulum video vefiigtum, CiO:. Ac. 4. Sc. 2. 
'Tis not certain howeyer that Singulum here fhould not be Sin* 
^ulum for Singulorum ; nay,I think he that looks upon the place, 
will think it moft probable ; although Nonius takes it for a 
proof of the Singular. But he alledges two places out of ykrro 
for a farther proof of it, T»m vero doces biftoritm necejfariam 
fimul unumfingulum ejfe TIfe/4rXe», L. I* Hoc crat tncommodi qttod' 
nefiiehamus femel unum fingulum effe^ Id. Odlogeii c%c }i^i(ruipkl»f 
And immediately, sApud aHum auSforitatk incerta : Ntfi dixerat 
numimo fingulo multabatur. But becanfe the fenfe of the two firft 
places is not very plain, and the laft is of uncertain Authorityi 
as htmfelf owns, I think it were beft to refrain from ufing this 
Word in the Singular, till better Authority appears. 
Sfiritusy for Confidence or Haughtinefs of Mind, is moft comjnon- 
ly Plural, and fome have thought it always fo ; but Cicero has 
Qmd £• Cacilium^ nonne ratione placavi ? Quem bominem f Qhm bra ? 

Que Spiritu ? Ad Q.'^'* J« *• .^P^' ^' ^^^ ^^Mi "** ^™*s tatf 
tum fiducia ae Spiritus Pompeianu accejfity uty &c^ Bel* Civ, 1. 3« 

p.3i9iW. 
Supen addea by Defpauterius and others, is no otherwife Plural, than 
all Adjecf^ives are, when their Subftantivc is Plural. So Dn be- 
ine commonly underfbood with this Adjective, h the reafbn 
why it is commonly found in the Plurali when the Gods a- 

bOYC 




Of Nouns vfihich want the Singular. 191 

boVe Ate fignified by it, which among the Heathens being ma« 
tiy, were moAiIy fpoken of Plurally. And in this fenfe /n/m 
has like u(e. But all this does not hinder but we may fay Su^ 
ftrus and Inftrus of one fingle God, as Livii^s %Anironicus fays in 
Prifcian, 

Jrferur, an Superus^ till fert Deusfunera Vliffes ? 
Triflices for the Tablets bound together is only Plural, by the Na- 
ture of the thing, and therefore the Grammarians might have 
fpared themielves tbe trouble of mentioning it. 
Fefrej is only Plural, according to Cbarifiuj, DtomedeSy and fboc^i ; 
but Ovid has 

*Aut Itrfori qui Veprt Utens hoflilia cernit 

Oracanum, Met. 1. 5. p. Ilo. 
And Colum. Hunc Feprem mAn'ifefhtm eft intertmi ncnfojfe* L* XI* 
ۥ 3. Veprcm fine fdiis, Plin. N. H. L. 13. c. 21. 

1 have rather chofen to be thus particular, than to fay only with 
the Annotators, %Addunt Grammatict %Annalesy tare, and then conclude, 
Quortun fleraque nat rX fua funt oidje^iva^ tf alia. infnguUri^ licttra^ 
rimsy occurrunt. From whence the Inquifitive Reader cannot receive 
that nece£ary fatisfadion, which I have endeavoured to give him. 
Befide that one of the Words they mention to be found in the Sin- 
gular fometimes, to wit furfures for a Difeafc of the Head (as 
they muft be fuppofed to mean) is never found fo. 



H 



Cramfnavj Lat, ^. jqt 

j£c funt faminei generis^ numerique fecundi^ 
Exuvite^ fbalera^ gratefqucj manubU (^ idufj £?c. 



Animadversion LXXX. 



His Rule is defe<flive in many Words^ which are no left 
Plural only, than thofe here mentioned , befide that one 



T 

J^ of them is found in the Singular alfo, as being an Adje- 
<dive. I ihali examine it as the former^ determining oy the way 
^pon fuch Words as by the Authority of Grammarians of Note, 
the Reader may be lead to commit a Miilake in. 

^dety according to Servius^ is never Singular but for a Temple, and 
ibfay Cbtmfius and Diomedesy Vire^aus^ and Ki//tf after him. 
And i6 fi^itrt Strfbtns^ in bis Thefrurus^ after them ail, deter- 

minas 



;9* 0/ Nonns wbUb want tin Simgiflar^ 

mines the Matter, But for all thisj ?Uutus uies it in th^ Sin- 
gular ill three Places, for a ^ouie. The firft of th^? has 
&'cn obfervcd heretofore by Vo^us^ though hardly quo?[ed full 
enough to clearthe Matter. I ihall therefore give it a little 
larger. 

Lcnu, Non tu Jcis^ hie nofter qudftus aucufii fimilimu'lL 

*Auceps quMdo con^innjvit ure4,my offundit cibum .* 

oives AJfueJcunt, H^ceffe eft facete fumtum qui qusrit lucrum, 

Sdpe edunt ; femel fifunt cafHt rem folvunt aucupi^ 

Itificm hie afud nof : JEdis area eft^ aucepsfum tfo ; 

Efca ejl meretrix^ leStus ilUx efi^ amatores aveSy Af. Ac. I. Sc 3* 
Another is Moji, Jlc, 2. Sc, 2. where Tranio makes the old Man 
believe his Houfe was haunted, becaufe aMan was kill'd in it, 
and the firft thing he fay?, is Capiulis /Edi^faSfa eft. 
The third is, 

tAt fi ad prandium me in JEdtm vos dixijfem ducere^ Poen. 

Ac. 3. Sc. I. 
Curtius alfo has Excuhabant principum liberty fervatis noSti»m Vi- 
cihus^ proximi forihus ejus JEdis in qua rex acquiefcebaty 1. 8. 
But here Mdis fccms to be taken for one Room only. %JfeUius 
further relates a Story, by which it appears that the Ancients 
ufed it ill the Singular, alfo for a Houfc. See X.^. r. 14* S9 
Juvendi, 

S^eit facile eft Mdem conducere^ Sat. 3. Y. 31. and Hot. 
t Glycera decoram. 

Transfer Jn JEdem^ L. I, Od. 3c. 
\Alpes is faid to have no Singular by Char'ifius^ %Alvare\y and VerepAus\ 
but Lucan has 

■ Nunc defuper tAlpis^ 

Nuhlftnra colUs^ at que aeriam Pjrenen 

%Ahripimur^ I. i, p. 27. 

oigmine nubiferam rapto fuperevoUt v4lpem^ Id. 1. 3. V. 299* 
Oppofuit nafura %Alpemq\ mvrm^) Juv. Sat. 10. ¥• 1 52. 

Ruptaa'j emijfus ah %Alpe, 

Tcenuiy Claud. Bell. Gild. v. 82. Again, 

Dixit & extemplo frondofa fertur ab tMpey Id. Laud. Stll.3. 

v. 185^ 
And even in the Pureft Age Ovid iiiade no fcruple to uie it fo, 

as, 

Sed neq'y rumofa numerabif in ilicefrondefy 

Nee cgiot apes HjUa^ nee quot iH%Mfe ferity 6fi Art» AlJII. 1. 3i. 

p. 174. 
And beiides thefe Poets, Livy alfo fays, L. 25. as Vojfius quotes 

Ipft per TaurinoSy ftdtufq^ Julia %Alpif tranfcen4erenU 

tAndyagesy fuppofcd by fome to have no Singul^gr, I tuiYje.alreiidy 
prov*d to have one under Diptotes, 

•Afi^iflia is feldooi found in the Singular, infpniuch that Cbarifimi 
will not allow it eVer to have it ^ y.et Pliny hs^ H^.ttift^ptiHiercu' 
ditincuria colonic loc\q\ c/fn^»/H4, N* H. 1. 14. C. ^, not ZHVofiuS 
quotes it. c. i. So Cicero^ %Anguftia attttm cenclufa cr^ntvuf^ *^^^f^ 
ciU fe iifa tututur^ K. D. f. 1. p. 58. So nAn^uftio. ret fafn^Sarisy 
Id. Part. or. p. 212. a^ ^fhtrf ^epheni' ^o^ i^ ^H.^>^ ^y 



Of Nouns that want the Singular. 19 j 

Book It is %Afigufi'u, %Ali'iS rutmq'^ ibi ifthmot tAnguflia fimili tftm 
Plin. N.H.I. A. c. II. But then for ftraits ancl difficulues, 
I'have never obferv*d it but in the Plural. 

%Amts is fuppoied to have no Singular. ' Tis a \vord to be found 
but in Feflus ind Fitruvm^ and this lad has xAntafixa^ though 
Vojfius concludes only from the Nature of the thing, that fpcak- 
ing of one only, it is rcafotnible to fay KAnta, 

%Antentnt is fuppofed to have no Singular by Charifius and others, but 
without reafon. For the Singular is common. VtU Icarus^ 
nudum & xAntennAfn Dddulus fubaud. invenit. Plin. N. H. 1. 7* 

Effi'gtt hybernus demijja. tjntenna pr ocellus ^ Ov. Tris.L. 3.EI. ^» 

Et tAntenns ^emino confiftite cornu 
-OcbM fratres, Stat. Sylv. 3. Carm, 2. Sefe Sen, 

Ep. 77. ■ 
Providus tAntenna fuffixit lintea fumma^ Luc. 1. 9. V. 298. 

£cce et'um per xAntcmnam pelagic confedcrunt l^olucrgSy Pctron. 
p. 239. So Auf. Idyll. 12. p. 170. 
Upi»^ for Trifles, has no Singular. 

Ur^i is faid by Charifiu/ and Phocas to want the Singular, but then 
it is in a Senfe that implys as much without the Rule, name- 
ly, when we fay Pro %ArU ^ focii dtmicare to fight for the Religi- 
on and Liberty of ones Country, fignified by xA/is and Foci*, 
of which there are many. 
^ArgutUy according to Charifms and Phorasy has no Singular. How- 
ever, vAgeUius ufes it twice in the Singular. Nunquam^ inquit 
Favorinusy quod equidcm fcioy Sam impcrtuna^ tumq\ auduct %ArgutiX 
fuit Kofler Probuj, I. 3. c. i. Levi & quafi dicace %Jigutia^ Id. 1.12. 
c. 2. But I think he is the only of thcfe Authors, I fay of thef« 
Authors^ for xAppuleim has lArgutU I^ilotia calami.'M.et.i, 
Barba is not allow'd to be faid in the Singular of a Bcaft, by Caper 
and Se/vim^ but Charijius Corrects them, and juftly, fot Horace 
has 

Vtq;^ lufi Barbam varU cum dtnte colubra 

^Abdiderint furtim terrify L. i. Sat. 8. And Tl'iny^ xAfferuHf 
^ lAagi fua commenta, Primum omnium rabiem hircorum fi 
mulctutur Barba mittguri^ N. H. 1. 28. C 13. 
Bigdy £uddrigs^ Trigd are faid to be only Plural by CharifwSy Dxomf 
des and PhocM ; but StatiuA has 

OlortnJiq'y jubet confidere Btga, Syl. 3. Com. Ear. 
JVcf fi alma per auras, 
Te potius prenfa virberet Tritoniu Biga^ Id.Syl* I . Ep. Stel. & VioL 

Jjtlfa nokurna levat ora Big^^ Sen. Here. Oet. Chor. 3. 
And among the Proft Writers, Plihy has Eutychides pinxit Bi- 
gam regit cum vt«Fo>i4, N. H. 1. 35. C 11 . So for 2^driga ; be- 
fides that, tAgellius fays he had found it in a Satyr of K«irro, 
Entitled, Exdemetricus^ it is to be found twice in the fame 
Chapter in P/xW N. H. 1. 3^. c. 5. And in reafon the fame 
is to be fiippofed of Triga^ though at ptefent I can think of 
no Infbmce. 
iUnditui in the Singular is difallowed by chart fmsy Ihomedes^ and 
fhQcm\ and Dr. J3f»j6jf alfo has rank'd it with thofe that want 
the Singular ; but not only PUutus has Vifcus tntrus vefhu eft 
EUifditut, Bacch. Ac. i« Sc. i. and Property 

C C ^gutk 



1 94 Of Nouns that wdnt the Singular^ 

%ArgutA referens carmlfM Blaniitia, L» I. El. 1 6. but CVCn fi- 

• ctrro pro Plane . ¥ucilf6 eft ilia occurfAtioy & Blanditia poft*' 

Uri6» A iid again, de Rep. 1. 4. In cive excAfo^ attf^ homi- 

ne HchiUy BMnditUm^ oficntatii^nemy anAitionefn earn ejfe le- 

vitatis, 

Cduld Sheep Penns, or the like, has no Singular according to char 

rijius^ ' 

CertmonU has no Singular according to Cbarifiutj Diomedet and Pho- 
cm ; but Cicero^ pro Sex. Ros. Am. has Ferftdia Ugatiouif ipfius 
CertmfmUm foUuerit^ p. 238. again, KcHgio eft qua fuperioris cu- 
jufdam natura (quam divinum vacant) curam Ccremomamtfy affert, * 
Id. de Inv. 1. 2. p. 73. in Ma^na ceremonii^ Plin. K. H 1. ^. 
C, 27, So Caftr^ £j*od mgre eorum gravijftma Ceremoma. continetur^ 
Bell. Gall. 1.7* p- x^S I might give more Inftances, but I 
think there is no need of it after thefe Authorities. 

Ceremoma, for Refped, Care or £xa(flneis, is only Singular, Mux^ 
imk cum cura tr Ceremoma^ Cic. inVer. 1, 7. Or. 10. So de 
Harufp. Refp. 52^. I havc wrote this word Ceremonia after Fof- 
fiusy not Caremomuy as in Others, as fuppoiing his to be the bet- 
ter Authority. 

cUtella is never found in the Singular^ probably becaufe in all 
Places where it is found there is conilantly mention of two, 
but if there was a neceflfity of mentioning one only, I fee no 
reafon why ClitelU might not be ufed. 

Ccmpedes is allowed no Singular by Charifius^Dtomedes and PhocM ; but 
Horace has it thrice in the Singular, JL. 4. Od, 11. X. i. Od, 3^. 
£pod. 4. Juv. Sut, 1 1. V. 80. Mart. I, 3. Ep, 29. befideall which, 
ColumelU has Eaq', quaft Compede cohibentur feri Mores^ 1. 8. C. 2. 
VaJJins (ays extra tamen aufirendi cafum baud temere reperias. It 
is indeed not commonly to be found otherwiie, but he might 
have obferv'd the Genitive alfo in Claud. 

Et folitos tarda paffurus Compedis Orbes, in Eutrop. 1. 2. Prol. 

Copia for an Army or Forces, is faid to want the Singular, by Cha- 
riftus ; but beiide that, Plautut has 

Foftquam utrimq'y exitum eft maxima Copia^ Amph. Ac I. Sc.r. 
Cm. Pompeintj in his Epiftle to Domitiw^ extant among thofc of 
Cic, to Cdtticus 1. 8. has ^uamobrem magnopere te bortOTy »t quam^ 
primum cum omni Copia hue venias ; and in the fame, ut cum omni 
Copia quam primum ad me Venias, So Tacitus^ Is difpofitA clajfiario' 
rum Copi&^ cceptantem turn primum conjurationem difiecit^ An. 1.4. 
p. 174. Again, %Addita, prafenti Copia adhoftem pergit^ Id* Ibid. 
p. l8^. and Miff a navali Copia^ Id. lb. p. 1 92. CatUina ex omni 
Copia duat legiones inftituit, Sal. Conjur. Cat. p. 40. Poftrcmo tx 
omni Copia ntq\ in prdio heque in fuga quifqnam Ci'iis i^genuus captm 
efty Id. lb. p. 4^. yoffiuf fays that Cafar ufes it fo frequcntlj; ; 
but this is another plain Proof that he compiled his Work, in 
many Parts of it at leaft, out of other Grammarians and Cri- 
ticks ; for 'tis certain Cafar does not often ufe it fo. 
Crates is faid by fome to want the lingular ; but that is diiprov'd 
under Diptotes, 

Cjclades may be thought to have no Singular. But wc read C)cUf 
exoritur Kova^ Sen. Hyp. Ac. 4. Sc. i . Ag. Chor. a. 

CuttffdqtfC 



Of Nouns thdt want the Singular. 195 

CunStitque cancnti ferfunditur €(jt4ore Cydas, Sil, Ital. L. 4. 

Dafes fiippofcd by fomc to have no Singular, is prov'd to have it 
under Dtptotcs, 

Dccimu in the Singular, is found in Cic, in Ver^ Or, 8. Vt Untum <tfator 
Decumamdare co^eretur, Vt tumffn ab Invito orator e plus DecumJi 
non fojpt €uferrij Id. lb. Ne({ue Herculi t^u'ift^am Decumum vovit 
uwjuamy fi Japicns fa^»f ejfet. Id. N. D. L. 3. p. I 51. And yet 
this has been thought by fomc to be Plural only, poflTibly from 
that of Cic, in Vtr^ Hinc cum uns Dccums le^e ac confuetudinc tra* 
bautur^ altcrdy &c. 1. 5. or. 8. But this is no better proof than 
that Veflimenta has no Singular from the fame Author's laying, 
Vnis ytftlmentis pro VUc, which will not hold^ nothing being 
more common than Veflimentum, 

Dry^ts is fo rarely found in the Singular^ that it may be fuppofed 
to have none ; yet Martial has 

Sape fub buc latuit ruflica fronde Dry at. L, 10. Ep. 62, adva^ 
tern proptrat Dryas^ Sen. Here. Oct. chor. 3. 

EpuU is never found in the Singular in the Authors that I make 
ufe of for this Work, and therefore it would be bcft to for- 
bear it, fince there is no other Authority for it, but that of 
NoHtmy and Paulus Diuconw out of Lucilliusy for fear of ihodc- 
ing the Reader. 

Eumenides is common in the Plural, as being moftly (poke of fc- 
veral ; but Statius has it in the Singular of one of them. 
Nee ilium out truncX luftraverat obvia taxo 
Eumenig' Theb. 1. 8. v. 10. 

Mfqmlia or Exquilia is only Plural, though omitted by this Author. 

Facetid Plural is moft common, and Dr. Busby allows it no Singu- 
lar ; but yoffius brings two Proofs of the Singular, one out of 
xAgellius^tAdduS^us ftyh & Vacetia fermonisy 1. 3. c. 3. another OUC 
of %Appuleius in tApolog, and I know no other. 

Vols is not found in the Singular ; the reafon is, becaufe in all thofe 
Places where it is found, there is mention made of feveral , 
but fpeaking of one^ there is no reafon not to admit of VaUy 
as yb^m alfo owns. 

Vxuces is only Plural, according to Charifiw^ and Dr. Bushy follows 
him ; but I have proved under Monopotes^ that it has the Sin- 
> gular. 

tidkuU^ put down by Mr.Ietc// for a Plural only, has the Singular 
twice in 2l*mt\lian^ Cum membra FidicuU fiagella Uxuvtrint : And 
fbon after. Si me forte VidicuU flu^dU mutuverinty e^o tamen vidiy 
Decl. 7. and yet Rofe. Stephens alio has given it as a Plural only. 

Forw may dcfcrve a Place here, not as a Plural only, for it has the 
Singular alfo, but as lignifyinc the Singular too, under the 
Plural Termination. And leait it fliould be thought that by 
Fores is meant more Doors than one, or at leaft folding Doors, 
PUutus having made Sofia fay, Pulfabo Vores^ Ampb. ac. i. fc, i, 
makes Mercury fay of the fame Door in the next Scene, Crepuit 
Ms, Beiide that Terence ufes forts in the Plural, and Ofiium 
in the Singular, as equivalent Exprellions of the lame thing, 
%Adel, lAc, 4. Sc, 4, 5, 
^•nuHd. for a Man's Goods, PofTeffionsor Eftate, is always Plu- 
ral, according to l^offius, as he has obferved from Cbarifiits and 

C c 2 l)iomgd<s^ 



I g6 Of Nouns tbit mnt th Singuhr. 

Diomtdcs. But then he forgets to take Notice, that for a 
Man's Aflfairs Circumftances, or Condition, it is mpft 
commonly Plural, as, 
Vcrum cj^6 mcAsqutror Vortun4,s tjuum illo^qucm amo.frobibeor ^PlauU 

Au Ac. 3. Sc. I. and ■ . Kunc hinc meas Fortunat 

eo queftum ud vicinaSy Plaut. Cal. Ac.2. Sc.l. Turn omnef^Uaudare 
Fortunoi meas, 

iii*i filtum haherem tali in^enlo fr^ditum^ Tcr. And. Ac. i. 
Sc, I. But in this laft Scnfc it is fometimes Singular, as 
MUnimfi in j^UJUtoriU fugnU^ & infimi generis hominum cotp- 
ditioue atq'y Fvrtunu^ timidos & f**ppli^'cSj 6", u$ vivere liceaty 
Qyftcruntts\ etium cdijfe foUntus^ Cic pro Mil, p. 347. and 

de Or. 1«3« P« 7» and Su^erunda omnia fortun*fcrcndo 

efty \irjz, itn. 5, p. 200. 
Traces is omitted by the C rain marians, and yet Plural only. 
Fr/4g,fs is uciiied to have any Singular, by Tc^m/, from Cbaxifius and 
Diomc^KS^ i. e, in thp Ijgniiicatioii of Fruit, and in this Mr, 
lce<:// follows him. This latter accompanys his Note with adi- 
i|in(f^ion, faying iVaw cuni di-imus ?rugi vel Vrugcm in finguloifl 
eft ulius fignificatlunis, 1 fuppofe he means in the Senfe of 
ThriU or Honcfty. But bchJe that, V/ugi and Frtige in this 
Metaphorical Senfe, is but a Tranflatjon of the word from 
the Natural ; I*lwy has Num* injHtuit ieos Vruge colere^ 6' mo/4 
faija ft*pi.Uc4rey N. H, 1. 18, c. 2. and in the next Chapter; 
frugem quidem AiAtro quafitam fu/tim noStu puvijfe^ acftcuifi fu- 
beri XII. ubi*lis cajntah trat, Horace has 
Si thure placubii ^ borna 

Fruge LareU, avidaqtH forca, L. 3. Od. 23, 
Nay eycnCicero ufes it, ^*a nixufihri6 fiir\ ii4m fenfim adolcfcity cut- 
fnoqui trelftigeniculitOy V^giwi* jam q'*ifi puh. f'cm includitur ; e qui- 
bus'u>n emcrjcrit fundit Frugemfticd ordine ftruclam^ & contra avium 
morftm munitur vallo arifturum, de Scnetfl. p.2oo,That which ftill 
m.akes this Miftake the more ft range m Mr Leeds is, that even 
in Lillys Grammar Seneca is quoted to lay, %^ncoUm arbor ad 
"Brugem produ£fa dele^at^ as indeed he does. Ifyvffim had thought 
of this laft Paflfage, he would not have thought it the onlj 
Proof that the Fruits of Trees were alfo call'd Bruges^ becauie 
that Trees have the EpitHet frug:fera, 
Vuria fignifying the fame witn F«yo/, is omitted by all the Gram- 
marians, and particularly by all the Annotators upon thi$ 
Grammar, and yet is only Plural, as 

0mm aieo gtnus in terris bominumque^ ferarumquCy 
Et %enus aquoreum^ tecudes^ Maq\ volucres 
In FurtM^ t^nemq\ ruunt. Virg Geor. 3. p. 66* 
, ^r" m-JLJlo lUJfi'.a :aul:'m ' 

Inter mi Ja /o»o, cla'^fufq; & frtgidus enjis 
ExfuUrat belli FuriOi^ Luc. 1. 5. p. 12 X. 

Scelctum Furiis agxtatus Orefhes^ Virg. JEn. 3. p,l4S «*- 

■■ I^ftftoque injan:a luff-u 

Mt Furiis agitaiUs amor^ Id. JElU 12. p. 573. So Cic-^^ 
Excitatey excitate cum , fi poteftis^ ab inferts : frar^et «"-/ 
impetum v/vi, cujus vix fiftijutis furim ipfepitlti? Or. pr^ 
Mil. p. 345. *" 



Of Nouns that w^nt the Singular. 197 

:p4tUa,s ne exure cUjfem^ 

tAr^ivum titque tpfos potuit fuhmer^cre fonto 

Vnius ib noxuniy & Fur Us oijucis OUci «* Virg. /En. I. 

p. 9^' 
Et arJentes facer Vuriis Clodiunls penc ipfc conju! minijh^ 
basy Cic. Or. in Pifon, p. 2<52. 
Gcmonid^ forgot by all the Grammarians, is Plural only. 
Gens is Plural only, according to Charifitu and rhocas ; but Pliny has, 
Sed quAtirupedi in fups/iore tuntuni Gena^ i^olucribu6 in inf<nori.\ Su- 
baud. funt palpcbrx. N. H. 1. ii. c. 37. and lb thrice after in 
the fame Chapter. 
Girr* is omitted, and yet Singular only. 

(jingivit has no Singular according to churiftM and Diomtdcs \ but Cw 
tullm has 

^iod (juifque minxity hoc fibt foUt mane 
Ventctn^ atqut rufum defncure Gif^ivum, Carm. 37. 
And Jttvcnd among the Inconveniences of Old Age, reckons 
up this for one, Sat. 10. 

Vrungenius mifero Gingiva pank inermi. 
Grates is rightly placed among the Plcirals only by this Author, 
however Def;autcrius and Mr. I(^irl;rt>oo-i came to fay, that it has 
Gratis and Grate in the Singular ; as for Gratis it is found in- 
deed, but I fuppole by contracftion from Gratiif^ which I 
have fpoken of under Monottotts, But for Grate I am very con- 
fident there is no fuch word. 
Grojfi is feldom found in the Singular, but it is be;:aufe they arc 
moftly fpoken of together : For Fliny (peaking of one fays, 
Groffns ejus non mature fcit, L. 13. C. 7. 
KAenah (aid to have no Singular ; but befide what Vojfuts alledgcs 
from l^ariits out of Macrobius^ and that of /^ir^t/, 
• lUe alfuf Habcna 



Curvatis fertur fvntiU- 



Stilus alfo has EffufJi Urgus Hahena. L. 7. p. 121. 

In the Metaphorical fenle indeed it is-hardly, if at all found 

in the Singular; as, 

RerumFabio tradantur Habena, Sil. L. lo. p. 1 58. And o- 
thers conftantly. 
Hyades is common in the Plural, but Stutius has Vyaa in the Singu- 
lar ; as, 

Non tantis Hyas in ferena. nimbis 
TcrYM ohruit. Silv. I. Dccembr. Saturn. 
lllectihr^ is thought to have no Singular by Charijiusy and Dtomedes ; 
but FUutus has 

xAtque eccjim^ lllecebra exit tan.lcm, Afin. Ac. I. Sc 2. 
Mundicia lUecebra eft ammo amantum. Id, Men. Ac.2. Sc.3, 
Jmpunitatis fpem maximum ejfe' lllecebram peccandi^ Cic, pro Mil. 
p, 234. So Juvtntutis lllecebra. Or. in Cat. 2. 
Indt^i^us'd by Plautus^ Men. Ac. i. Sc. 3. is Plural only, as well as 
* Exm/idy as 

Er, i^uid hoc eft ? Me : Induvix tud^ atque uxoris exuyid^ refu. 
Meaning the Mantle he had ftole from his Wife, to prefent 
his Miftrefs with. And yet this is omitted as well by ail the 
Grammarians^ as thi« Author. 



''./■ 



ptepti^ 



i^S Of Nouns that vpMt the Sh^ular. 

IneftU is (ar more ufual in the Plural, infomuch^ that Charifiut 
thinks it has no Singular *, but PUutus has 

Sed amort acceiunt etUtn hsc qua iisd minus^ 

Infomnia^ srumna^ error ^ terror^ ^ fugOj 

ImptU^ hidtttiaquc AitOy & tcmeritas, Merc Ac. I. Sc. i» 

Vfque adco lUiusferre fojfum Ineptiam, Ter. £un. Ac.4.. Sc.^» 

So yojfius quotes it, but in my Book 'tis [nePt'iM, However 

what he quotes out of the fame Author, AdeL Ac. 4* Sc, 7, 

Vt video t$htm Ineptiam^ I find io too. 
InimicitU in the Singular, is nut allow 'd by Diomedes and Tbocat ; but 

it is fo common even in ciciroy it needs no proof. 
jjtpicidind is never otherwife than Plural, as far as I know, but fo it 

isus'd Pluut, Capt, Ac. 3. Sc. 5. Ac. •>. Sc. i. Though Stepha- 

nus in his Thefaurus puts down Lapicidin^^ Laptcidimt, but all ids 

Examples have the Plural only. 
ZjMtehnc has no Singular according to charifius and. Thocat ; but Virgil 

has 

Teliqtte Latehram 
Refcindant penitm, JEn. 12. p. "^66: 

And Cicero^ Videanty ne <^*£ratur Latehra perjurio. Off. 1. ^. p. 138. 
And fb he 4i Vam, L. 3. Epif^. 12. De Div, L. 2. p. 229. and 
cl&where. Sen, Ep.i 9.77. Sen. N.Q. Ij,4. c.i. OvMet, L.J. p.d2» 
L. 5. p. 105. 
I Jjttomm^ Latumid^ or Luutumid (for it is written all thefe ways) is 
omitted by all the Grammarians, and yet Plural only, except 
in one place of Suetonius, Vno ex bit Equefbris ordinia Viro in Lata-' 
tniam condemnato, Vit. Tib. c. 51. where in other Books is ^Jn- 
tiliamy in others %Anttcyram for Latomiam, But Cicero ufes it in 
the Plural, Zautumias Siriicufunas omnes audiftify pltrique noftis, 
in Ver. L. 7. Or. 10. and twice afterwards. So FUut. Inde itis 
in Latomias lapidariat, Capt. 3. Sc. 5. And fo Zivjp, Dec. 4. 1. 7. 
Ijtnies has no Singular according to Charifius and Diomedes ; but then 
the Latin Tongue is defective, as not having a Word to repre- 
fent one ftngie Creature of this kind, which is not to be 
fuppofed. 
Ijtera for an Epiftle is moil ufual, but not tlie only Word, st&Cbif 
ri/ius2Lnd Diomedes thought. For Ovid has 

^uam legis a rupta Brifcide Ijtera venit, Br'lf, Achil. 
Plura feres quam qua Lit era noftra refert. Id. Par. Hel. p. 6l» 

and elfewhere. 

But this is hardly found but in the Poets. Yet Cicero has, 
Vt Romam rediit^ nitllam Literam pupUlo^ nuUam matri ejus red- 
didit^ In Ver. 3. Or. L. ^. P- 271. But here it may be fup- 
pofed, that Cicero by way oFAg^ravation fays, nulUm literam^ 
1. e, that he was fo far from writing any Account to his Pupil, 
or his Mother or Guardians (as in honefty he was obliged to 
dOy and that fully) that he had not fb much as wrote one (in. 
gle Word, or even Letter of a Word. 
Lutina^ mentioned by Charifim to be Plural only, is not to be found 
that I know of in thefe Authors. 



Of Nouns that want the Swgfdsr. 199 

lidfiM^fii^. by this Author to be Plural only^s fb indeed as far ^b 
ever I could fee, when it figniiies a fort of Spoils cakca in 
War, but then it feems to be but an Adjedlive in this Acco- 
tation, and TritdA or Partes underftood with it, upon which this 
Plurality de|>ends. For PUutus has it in the Singular with a 
lingular Subilantive ; as, 

Nifi te mea Munubia lAucbcra^ ist hunc vis emoru Truc 
Ac. 5. 
I know there are fomc of Opinion, that it (ignifies not the 
Spoils themfelves, but the Money rais*d by the Sale of them; 
and of this mind particularly are oigellim,^ L. 13. c. 23. and 
Nonius upon the \/Vord, or rather Vavorinus in ^^gcllius^ unlef* 
it may pafs for his Opinion alfo, as not contradicting it. But 
I am of the mind it hgnifies the Spoils themfelves^ and b3-a 
common Metonymy,fometimes the Money raised of them, but 
not this lail only^ as they think. Nonius brings nothing tha£ 
looks like proof for his Opinion *, that which fuvurinus urges 
is a Sentence of Cicero in his Oration againfb Rullm^ CaL Jaun- 
ariis. Tr/tdum^ Manuhias^ feifionem^ cuflra dtnitjue Cn, Pomj>ei fedente 
imptratore decern viri vettdtnt ? Where he lays, Cicero would not 
have added MunuUas after Pr^idam^ if they had fignified one 
and the iame thing. To which I fay they do not iignific4>ne 
and the fame thing, but yet it wiil not follow that therefore 
Manubias muft fignifie Money rais'd by the Sale of the Spoil, 
as he concludes. For by Manuhias may be meant one particu- 
lar part of the Spoils, and by Pr^dam another ; namely, by the 
latter the more grofs and bulky, by ^c firft the more porta- 
ble and handy for Carriage, fuch as Jewels, Money, Gold and 
Silver, and whatever was of coniiderable Value, in a fmall 
Bulk. And this fignification of the Word is countenanced by 
the ulc of it in the Singular by Seneca^ in a fomething different 
Acceptation, N. 2^ 1. 2. c. 41. Where fpeaking of the Thun- 
derbolts of Juptter^ he calls them Manubias handfulls. In illo 
dijfentiunt quodfulmina dicunta Jove mittiy (^ tres illi Manubioi doMt^ 

Prinnty ut ntunty monet^ 6* placaU e(l — Secundum mittit quidem 

Jupiter^ fed ex confilii fententia, Tertiam Manubiam idem Jw 

fiter mittity fed, &c. But whatever be to be thought of this 
Conjecflure, 'tis certain that Munubia fignified the Spoil's 
themfelvcs, and that even by this place of Cicero, aJJedg'd by 
Fdvorinus to the contrary. For Manubias being equally the Ob- 
jc(ft of Pendent with the other Accul'atives, it cannot be fuppo- 
fed to fignifie Pecunias here, becaufe there neither would, nor 
can be any occafion to fell Money. And in the next Oration 
againfl RuUusy which is entire, (as this is not, this PaiTage 
^quoted by Vavorxnus not being in it) he fays again. In ejus fro- 
yincia vendet Manubioi imperatoriM ? p. 30. And fcveral times af- 
terward in the fame Oration, he calls thefe Things that Kullut 
would have fold, Manuhia, He that requires further fatisfa- 
<ftion in this matterjet him read Livy Dec, i. L. 10. toward the 
end. Dec. 3. L. 9. not far from the beginning, cic pro St^t^ 
Kofc, in Ver, L. 7. Or. id. where he will find the Word Uifcd aot 
only for the Spoils thcmfelve/ in all Places, but in fome plain- 
ly for that fort which I have aflign^d, though in fome it fig- 
mfies by AUufioo any Profits or Emoluments railed by Op« 

prefiioAf 



200 Of Nouns that want the SinguUr. 

predion, as in Sutt. V\t, ^n^, p. 78. /i>. Cali^. p. 191. Kr. CUud. 
p. 257. Kir.rc/f. p. 312. 
1^/ijw ie^puc down by Dr.SwSjf for a Word that wants the Singular,! 
havj proved to be butanAdjcctivc,,y<wim4^Vf/-y»o»X,undcr FiV«/, 
and whether it be us*d for a Fig, or the Difeafe, or Swelling 
fo caird, there can be no imaginable reafon why it fhould want 
the Singular. 
J^UnaAtx in the Plural is moft ufual, but Fropertius has it in the 
Singular of one. 

Seu Jeqtntur mediau Munas ut itffuy vias, L. 3. El. 7. Sen, 
Troad. Ac. 3. Sc. i. M«w4j fcrcu'Ja, 
jAinutU in the Plural is moft ufual, yet there is one Example of it 
in the Singular in Senfcu^ Donccin MinutUm frequenter tnta redi- 
S,'itur. Sen, Epift. 90. 
K^nid ha^ no Singular according to Churlfms and DiomedeSy and the 
Old Glolij.N c;><t*^apd T^ut'iHy in which is read 
K^ctiU hn^tUum noyt huhct : l^ut this is a Miftake difcovcrablc 
by the belt Authorities. 

Dt- ttur miTita nox qt^que A'rfni.r. Hor. L. 2. Od. 28. 

E''^o rngMum vincor ut credum mifcr^ 

S\il)ciU ftclus iu-rcfiirtr curn.iyni 

Ctjutqut Ma: fa diffilire Kama, Hor. Epod. 17, 

KofcU^ Jir fodes^ melior ltx\ an fucrorum 

KKitla, Id. L. I. Epift. I. So Qiiint.l. 8. c. 2. So ?l.tut, 
J'lfuit K^nUluh. Pfcud. Ac. 5. Sc. i. 
And Momu§ quotes it in the Singular out o£ ITurro de Vita, Pof, 
Row. 
Jt'^ides is fuppoled by forfle to have no Singular ; but Statiusy has 

yhiJtkU l^ais, Silv. 3, Arb. Ated. 

Hares has no Singular according to Chanfius and Diomedes , but Ho- 
Ya:e hai> Karis o'jtfd, Epod. 12. Emunifs Maris, L. I* Sat. 4« 
Claud, lias Tcnera. nare^ De Laud. Stil. 1. 2. and 

H< pedihus ceUreSy ha Xare fagaces, De Laud. Stil, L.3, 
Lf^an has Saris adunca^ L. 2. p. 35. Seneca hsLS Narefa^aci. Hyp. 
Ac. I. Sc. I. 
K-ifes being feldora found in the Singular, may be fuppofed to have 
none y but Horace has 

Tepedi 

D'lffijk Nateficus. L. I. Sat. 8. and others. 
K'*ndindy omitted by this Author, is never found otherwife than 
Plural in the Latin Writers, as ^dlitts obferves, with feveral 
ot the Ancient Grammarians *, only in the Ancient GlofTes 
there is found Nundina *, but that is fcarce a good Autho- 
rity. 
Cffucis is put down as Plural only by fevcral of the later Gram- 
marians : But rlautus has, Neqne ullam dtam offuciMm^ Moft. 
Ac. I. Sc. 3. 
f)pes for Wealth is omitted, and yet Plural only. 
?4/r« in the Plural, is by fome diftinguiih'd from Paleti in the Sin- 
gular thus ; that the firft fignifies the Chaff of Corn, the lat- 
ter the Gills of a Cock. Voffius overthrows this Diftincftion,^ 
ihewinc; Pale£ to be ufcd of Cocks Gills, and PaUa as well i 
Pales of" Chaff. His inftance for the iirft, is out of Columella 
Ir. 8. C. 2. for the laft out of Ciceroy Horace^ and ri/jt/,. Servi 

u 




Of Nouns r^hich want the Singular. 201 

upon the laft ccnfurcs Vir^ily arid fiys, that he ufes it contra ar-^ 

fern, 2^\A quA ex plurtbus conftant^ funt tantum numtri flurdis^ licet 
abutantur foeta. This is another proof of the Negligence of 
this great Man in fomc things, or that fome later Writer has, 
by interpofing his own Fancies, abus'd both the World and 
him ; for nothing is more common with the Ruftick Writers, 
than to life Fsle^e or PuUa for Chaff indifferently, as may be 
fcen in Pallidius^ Columella^ and P/iwjp, in abundance of Places. 

^alpebrd^ put down by Dr. Bt*sby^ as having only the Plural, may 
in all reafonhave the Singular toexprefs one linglc Hair of the 
Eyelids, and the reafon why it is found only in the Plural, is, 
they are always fpoken of together, as it happens, in thcfe Au- 
thors. 

*arietin€ is omitted by all the Grammarians, and yet Plural only, 

*4rtes is Plural only, when it iignifies Side or Party, as the Gram- 
marians fay, but Cicero has Nuper vero cum M. i4ntcnius fummam 
ffem fcdutis honis omnibus attulijf^t^ gruvijfimamque udolejccns nohi" 
liffimus reipub. Partem for tijjimej'ufepijfet. Pro Mil. p. 323. And 
iivjf, j^on enim folum qui Partis M-iceionum eranty ftd plerique in* 
gentibut Romanorum obli^ati beneficiis, quidum v/wj, fupcrbiamque ex^ 
ferti Utieam famam uccefere, Dec. 5. L. 2. p. 1 139. When it Iig- 
nifies courfe or turn, it is indeed Plural only, though they fay 
nothing of it, as, Vt in aStoribus Grxcit fieri videmuSj Jape ilium qui 
_ejl fecundarum aut tertiurum Partium.y cum pojfit aliquunto clarius di-* 
cere^ quam Ipfe primurum^ multum fummittere^ ut ille prince i^s qu am 
muximt excelUt, And again, £/ CaciUus turn dt. 'que fe aliquidfu- 
iurum futat^ fi %Ailienm miniu vehemens fuerit^ tSr j hi primas in di^ 
cendo Parteis concelferit, Cic. Or. in Q. Ca:cil. p. it And fo in 
thofe.Expreffions Primas or Secundas tenere fubaud.P^rfM. In like 
Inaaner, tAd TeriiOA^ as Item deco^o eorum ad Tertias poto cum vinOf 
fnteroceU frodeft, Plin. N. H. 1, 2o. C. 4.. Et per fe cortices decoct 
ad TerttM fifiunt ulvum. Id. Ibid. 1.22. c.2 5. oid Tertias and not *id 
Tertiamy and fo in other Numerals. 

I^S«> which all the Grammarians have let pafs for a PlUral only, 
is Singular in Cicero^ Sic tu cum ades proJcribaSy tabuUm tanquam 
fUg^mponas^ 0£E« 3* 124.. 

Ti^tigtA reckoned for a Plural only by charifius and Dicmedes, hal 
the Singular in Quintiliuny as Et hujw velut PruftigtA pUufum pe^ 
f*^, L. 4.. c. I. p. 1^7. 

fiwittM U but an Adje^ive, as appears by Primitium torreiny Ov* 
Met. 1 2, but in the fignification of firft Fruits, or the like, 
'tis always Plural, Parr^/ being underflood,neYer Singular with 
^ Par ft 

[rnHquatnu omitted in the Rule, is only PluraL 

(£f«u is only Plural, according to Charifius and Ph^cAs \ yet Plau* 
/iwhas, 

i4t fedites tibi-Keliquia eranty fi vivererit. Mil. Ac. I. Sc, r* 
So FoJ/ius fays it is read in the Old Copies. 

uibra in the Singular, is rar*ly found ; however Cicero has Uaret in 
Salebruy De Fin. 1. 5. p. 287. So Triftiti* Salebra, Val. MaX# 
h6> p. 3034 

«/ijM is only Plural according to chan/tusy and I have not found 
any thing to the contrary^ It is but an Ad jedivc, and fomd 
SttbftantiYe muft be underflood, but I cannot ;tgree with 

JO 4 iV^/y 



202 Of Nouns which want the Singular". 

yojfmsy that Tuhcm^ is it, for jt fignifies Pits where Salt was 
n^adc, not Shops where it was Ibid. 
S>i/cinu is often found in the Singular, notwithftanding Cbxrijms al- 
lows it only the Plural. 

£(fem MilitU Sarcinafidu tuu. Prop. L. 4.. £1. 3. 

Non egofum CUJp Surcina M^gna. tux, Ov. Bril. Achil. 
So Pltutus and others. Sm. 6. Ben.c.34. Ep. 1 5.75. Ov,hiet,6Ai^. 
Tr, 1. 5. p. 76. 
Secitnid. for the after Birth, is not mentioned by any of the Gram- 
marians, and yet among the many places where Tliny mentions 
it, he always ufcs it in the Plural, and fo does Cortuflius Celfui, 
ScoIa has no Singular in thcfe Authors, though Scala is found in 
fomc after Writers. But the Romans of thefe Ages ever ufe it 
in the Plural, and that though of what we call one Ladder ; 
for they rcfpecfted the multitude of the Degrees, and did not 
conlider it as one compac'tcd Body, as we do, witnefi that Paf- 
iage of Salujl^ Zfhi unx atque altera Scal^t cominutst funt. Bell, Jug. 
p. 92. So Quint, Inflr. 1. i.e. 5. fays, Scala tamen 6r Scopa, con- 
traejueHordQa,^ Mulla, licet liter a.rum Mutationem^ Jetra^ionem^ 
a.{jd6fionem non hahfant^ non alio vitiofu funty quam quid fluralujin^ 
^uUritcr^ fin^ulari* fluraliter cfferuntur, 
Scopa, Serviiu is of Opinion, that this Word ought to be ufed in 
the plural only. For in his Note upon that of Virgil^ Georg. i. . 

Ntfquicquam f indues palea teret area culmos, ' 

He fays, NotanAum palcam diet am numero fin^ulari contra artem : 
Nam ca qu^t ex pluriSw conjiunt^ numeri funt tantuin fluralif fecuu" 
dum artem : Vty Cancelliy Bi^^-, Scopa ; licet ahutanttsr focts. But 
Charifius fays, Dtcimus tamen & Scopx, And this latter appears 
likely from the Apellation of the Herb Scopa re^a^ mentioned 
by Plin, L. 21. c. ^. doubtlefs for its fimilitiide to a Broom. 
Columella, alfo has the Diminutive ScopuU in the Singular, 
L. 12. c. i8e 
SoYdes\i3LS no Singular, if we believe Charifim and Diomedes jhbwevcr 
the Singular is common in the bcft Authors. 

Immo etiam in medio oculo parum Sordii eft* Pl^Ut. Pocn# 
Ac. I. Sc. 2. So Pall. L. i. Tit. 10. 

oturiculas c^leffa Sorde dolentes, Hor. L. I. Hpift. 2» 
Kullam in re familiari Sordem foffe profeni. Cic. pro Flac. vApud 
Sordem urhit^ 6* fecem. Id. aa Att. L. I. Epift. 13. Yet it hiav 
thus far come under this Rule, that the Plural itiay be ufcJ 
' indifferently with the Singular upon the ianie 6ctlii6n, as may 
be feen by the place of Pluutus above quoted, where Jw. fay^^ 

Fiden tu ? Fleni oculi Sordiumqai eranty jam fplendetit mibi ? xAnr 

Jmmo etiam in medio oculo parum Sordid eft, Quanquam e^^fumford'^^ 
datw. Plant. Af. Ac»2. Sc. 4.. 
Sortes upon the fame account may come under this Rule, as bein Sg 
ufed Singularly pr Plurally on the fame occafioiu TK6s Ovi — =r 
having faid of Deucalion and lyrrba^ 

■ Placuit calefte precari 

Numen^ & auxilium per facras quarerc Sortcs* 
Sub joy ns prefently after. 

Mom den tft^ Sortcmquc dedit. 



Of Noms rvhicb want the Singular. 20 j 

And after that, 

Jnterea rtfetunt c^tc'is ohfcura Ittthns 
Vribu dutd, Sortisfecum, Met. i . 
So little reafon had Dwmedes to fay it was never fingular in this 
fenfe, Cicero alio ufes it in the Singular in this fenl'e, NAtn cum 
SorsilUeditAefi ofulenvjjimortgi %Afid, 

Crefus Haljm penetrans mu^nam ffcri'ertet opum ww, ^r. Div.2, 
Stativs put. down in the Oxford Notes, is not found that I know, but 

Suiiv.t Neuter, 
Sjmplegades^ is thought by fome to have no SincuLir ; but it may 
beufedofone in the Singular; witnefs that of Seneca, lUr. 
Fur» Ac. 5. lUa <jua fojitum Scythen, 

Symplegas ar£fat, So Luc. L. I. V. 718. V^tgk Sy/nfU^adc. 
Sen. Here. Oct. Ac. 4. Sc. i. 
7^jf4</« is commonly Plural, as Pleiades, Hyades, Dryales', but as I 
have fliewn of them already, fo I fliall fliew ot this now, that 
one of them may be mentioned in the Singular, as 

Pulfo Thyas concita tympano, Hor. L. 3. Od. 1 5. So Virg. 
^n. 4. 
Triiftr* which this Author has omitted, is only Plural. 
FergiJiit Omitted" by moft of the Grammarians, is Plural only. 
Vires for bodily ftrength or ability, figuratively, is here omitted, 
and yet never othcrwife than Plural. 

Some of the Names of Towns which are commonly Declined 
Plurally, as by this Rule, are alfo found in Authors declined Sin- 
gularly, as Cumd. or Cume, Fidenjt or Videna, Mycenx or Myeene, Tbcb^ 
or TIjebe, Vutorum confcia Cume, Si I. L. 8. p. 1 34, Fidenarn, Plin. N.H, 

L. i6* C, 4. 'KomOi Mtnuntt, Jmpur Vidcns Sil. L. I 5. p. 133, 

*4ifimi!no»i4m Mycenen. Sil. L. I. p. i. 

Qfftd referam tAfopon, quern cepit Murtiu Thebe, Ov# 

Amor 3. El. 6. 
Others terminated them in «, as, 

yive fuperfies ait, dir^ue ad moenia Tbehd 
Solus abl, Stat. Thebaid. 8. 
Now whoever compares what all the Annotators upon this 
Grammar have faid upon this Head, will find them all iliort, in 
one refpedl or other ; and particularly the Oxford Notes, who have 
rub;oyn*d a long Catalogue of Words, rarely Singular as they fay, 
without diftincition, between which however there is a conlidera- 
ble DiHercnce. 



Dd2 



Of 



204 Of Nouns which mnt the SittguUr, 



Of Neuters which want the 

Singular. 



R 



Grammnr^ Lat. Z'* JI* 

irius h^c frhno flurali ncutra Icguntur. 



Animadversioji LXXXI, 



T 



His Rule is defcdivc, and none of the Annotators havefufr 
ficiently fupply*d it, as will appear by the following Cata- 
logue. 

xMa for a Regifter or Rolls of any Cou|-t is Plural only, as, 

—^upicnt^intA^arefcrri, Juv. Sat. 2. V. X^^. So 

Sat. 7. V. J04.. And Cicero never otherwife. 
fMverfaria is indeed but an Adjedive, and fo confider'd at large 
has the Singular, but for as Books fo call'd with Serif ta under* 
itood, it is never ufed in the Singular. ' Sec Cic, fro Rofc, Com» 
about the beginning. ' 

Mjl'nuy withcufhu or Locu underf!:ood, is Plural only. 
tApl^ftru and ^Apluftria are faid to be Plural only ; but Zmc, has^ 
Gruiumque audax %Aflufire rttentat, L. 3* P» 7tf» ' 

Tortum validis Jlyluftre Uctrtis, Id. lb. p.'79» 
v^/tirrirf.for the Sentence of the JudgCjOr Arbitrator,is ufed Plurajly 
by Horace^ though of one Judge, and one Perfon Judged 5 as, 
Cum f^mel occideris^ if de te Sfiendida, Minos ' 

Vecerit tArbitria, L. 4. Od. 7. 
And 1 know not that it is otherwi(e ufed in this Senie. VoJUus 
indeed alledges a place o£ Cicero to prove that it is y biit I think 
it will not do it. Relitjuorum uutatn judiciorum hstc Vir\>a maximi 
excellunty in oirbitriorii uxorix'bAcVms^ Mquiits, InfiduciAj ut ln» 
urhonoshcne agifr. Now there is no concluding from «henc6, 
'^ that by xArhitrio here is meant, the Sentence of the Judge. The 

^ \ • « t • /^ rt 1 ^ 1 ^^ • • • 1 J 

Sentence 

with PiduciA^ which yet cannot be fuppofed tq be the Sentence 
of the Judge in that cafe, -but the cale it felf. And fo it ap- 
pears to me ofxArbitrio, ' HoWiCYcr that of Horace is certain, this 
of CVero, Ofif. 3. uncertain. 




Of Nouns which tvdnt the Singular. coif 

xAv'u is but an Adje(flive, and coniidered mcerly as fuch, has 
both Numbers ; but put without a Subftantivc exprefTed for 
By or Untrodden Ways ; it is not found in the Singular. And 
the fame holis of Devia, 

B€UmIU for the Exercife fo called, is only Plural. It is likewife ap 
Adje<ftivc with ExcercitU^ or Certamtna underftood. 

Bona for a Man's Goods or PoiTelTions, is only Plural according to 
Cbarifiusy and the Grammarians follow him in it, particularly 
pducfiiHy Mr. Leedf^ Mr. Wall^, But Plautus ufes it in this fenfe 
in the Singular, Tnn. Ac. 4. Sc. i. where charmides after a 
Proiperous Voyage is brought in faying, 

Salfipotenti multipotentt Jovisfratri^ & Nereo Nepti.no 
JLdtWj luhtns Uudesa^Oy & j^yateSy ^ratiafque baheo^ & fiuHi- 

bw fdfisy 
J^MO/ fenes met fottftas Bonu navifque foret^ 6* me* vitm, 

Brevia, though but an Ad jedive, for Flats and Shallows, is only 
Plural, as 

In Brevia 6- Sytes, Virg. ^n. I . 
ImpaSfum Brevitus Mare, Luc. 1. 9. p. 245. 

Cete has no Singular Analogous to it, though there is Cetus to fup- 
ply that want. 

Cibaruty put Subftantively, has no Singular, as J^offiw thinks after 
CtkorifiiUy and Diomedes ; but Pl'iny has Et Ciburii quod fecundariunk 
^ Vocanty fextar'tos quatuor, N. H. 1. 18. C. 9. 

(:otmttay fbr an AfTembly of the Roman People is Plural only. There 
is indeed Comitium^ but then it iignifies the place of that Af- 
fembly. 

Comfita is not now to be found in the Singular, as Vojput and 
Mr. Leeds think, though Compitum and Compitus were in ufc, 
as they fay. But Pliny has in Comfit kAcHio, N. H. 1. 29. c. i. 
So in Compito^ Cato c. 3. 

liiairiu is not found in the Singular, though VoJJius thinks that for 
th^ Provifiori of one Day it may be Singular. I think fo too, 
ahd this Reafon will hold in many places, where he does not 
think of it. 

Douaria is not found in the Singular ; but if the reafbning be 
good in the foregoing Word, a fingle gift may be fo called. 

Fi4^«fbrthe Blaftsof Wmds, isnot found but in the Plural, but 
*■ pofltbly the reafon is, becaufe there is no mention any where 
in thefe Authors of a fingle one. 

Fr^^a is not found but in the Plural, but fure the Reafon muft be, 
that wherever it is found a Multitude is mentioned. 

Ceft is found only in the Plural m thefe Authors, as Vojpus and o- 
• thers thmk. All the Authority he produces for Gefum^ is from 
R*^/, Papias^ and the Latin Verfion of the Hiftory of Judith, 
Chap. 9. But befide the unreafonable nicety, of tving Wri- 
ters up to ufe no' Words,* but what they a<^ually finds whrrt 
the nature of things, arid thfe occafion of writing requires th^ 
liberty of Analagous Formations, this Word in the Singular^ 
is found after all in Livy^ 

Sub Idvo humero fummum fe^us Gefo iSfum eft, Dec. 3. 1. ^« 

about the beginning. 

• • . ' • < 

Inteftina 



2o6 Of Nouns which wsnt the Singular. 

Mwtejlina has no Sinsular for a. Gut, if wc bcjicve Cbarijiufxnd Dio- 
medts \ but Celjus has Tenuions Intejlini^ L. 2. c, i. And P/inv, 
Sluibt4s a Ventre protinm reEto Inttftino tranfeunt cibi» N« H« 1. ii. 
c. 37. and before Ibid. 

ijtt^a is Plural only for the top of a Mountain, according to cburi- 
fius and Diomedfs j but yir^il has Hoc fuferate Ju^um, Jtn, 6, and 
fo feveral others. 

I/if, thought by iome to be Plural only, has the Singular iaP%, 
xAi> hoc ventriculo LxS-es in homine^ <&• ovc, pi^r <^i*m labiturcihus ' in 
csteris lit, N. H. L. 1 1, c. 37. not c. 32, as yojfius quotes it. 

Laments is found in thefe Authors only in the Plural, poffiWy bc- 
caufe there happens to be mention made of feveral Lamentati- 
ons, either ol the fame Pcrfoiip or of feveral, as often as we 
find the Word. But fome of the Didionaries, particularly 
thatof ?<t/>tdi, zndi Kohert Stefhens^ hzy t Lamtntunu 

Xjuttiu^ according to Cburijuis^ is only Plural, and I know, nothing 
to the contrary. 

Ziaa is thought by fome to have no Singular ; but befide that, wc 
find in o^eUius^ Furtay qudt per Uncem. Ijiciumque conctrpta cjfent, 
L. II5C. 18. Vir^ilhiS 

Tema tihi hac primum triplici diverfa colore 
XtVut circundo* £cl. 8. p. 21* And H terna^ then by confe- 
quence umtm, 

I^^aliuf omitted by this Author, is no more found in the Singular 
than UafdlUy which betakes notice of: Nay, this laft is found 
in the Smgular in Vol. Viae. z% Vofius has obferved. 

Ccit e fparfo concita jAtpMli, 

And polfibly the only ceafbn why they are not found in the 
Singular elfewhere ; is, becaufe as often as we find them, there 
are feveral mentioned. 
- Menjtruay when it is put Subftantively for Mtdierum Menfes^ is Plu- 
ral only as well as Menfes in that Senfe, according to Robert 
Stephens^ but the Singular is in Scrv, Ben. 1. 4.. c. 31 . Though I 
luiow no Grammarian that has taken notice of it. 
' MittticU or MtUtisia^ Subftantively is only Plural, and omitted. 
Nt*tficU^ ufed by Vh. is Plural only, but it is not to be found, 

I think, in theie Authors. 
Ob&tna is reckon'd by niany to have no Singular *, but Tacifn* has 

Oblivio tranfmifit, Hift. 4. p, ^20. 
O/^M is Plural only. 
PaUriit is always Plural, as charijm fays, and I know nothijpg to th« 

contrary. 
: PalearUy is thGOighc to have no Singular by fome ; but Scmec^ has, 

Mufco tenaci fc^tM, ac PaUar viret. Hyp. Ac, 4, 
pjrentalia^ here omitted, is Plural only. 
' Pardfbernay omitted likewife, is Plural only. 
' iPtixbtay omitted likiwife, is Plural only. 
Frincipiay a part of the Roman Army, is Plural only, though ail the 
Grammarians are filent of it. 
' t^ify**ilia is found alfo in the Plural only, as well as j^/^tti^'^ in the 
fame fenfe. yoffim niakes a doubt of it ; for. having quoted 
S^uifquilia from the Gloflfcs o£ Fhiloxenu*^ he fays immediate!}') 



OfNoms which ivant the Singular. 207 

Vtrum bic numero pn^uU^ an flurali ? And determines nothing. 
But Petronim has Corcillum eft qi*od hdmines fueit^ cdiera QuifyaUtx 
cmnioy p. 152. Indeed out of the tranllated ienfe we read 
Quifquilium in Pliny^ L. i5. c 8. or as fbme Books have, and 
mine in particular, Cufculium^ horn the Greeli MfjwiUfV) as 
Sdlnu^ut conjectures; 
KapacU or RapicUy i« nevet found but in the Plural. 
tepotU likcwife is Plural only. 

Serta^h common in the Plural, and is fuppofed by fome to hare no 
Singular : But Vbffiud alledges the authority of Servxus for it in 
this Number, who upon that of l^irgil^ 

Sfrt'fq\recentibus haUt, Says, 
Sertum & Sertu enm nihil adjicitur dicimus. 
And there is alio farther proof for it, namely, from the life 
of CUtM, and \AufQn^ ■ 

Zt Sertum v^i hUnia. Iamus eraU Claud. Prarf. de 

Laud Stil. L. 5. 
Die mihi CulUope^ tanto cur umfrt differs 
fierio meritafn Serto redimire Screnamt Claud. Lau, Seren. 
Sertum coro^^ frafcVens Olyrntis. Aufon. Prof. Carm,<J.. 
Scruta^ omitted here, and by moft of the Grammarians, ii Plural 

only. 
SpeBaciUuy fuppos'd by fome to have no Singular, has it in P/i«y, 
Pantomimorum Sfcltuculum, Plin.Pan. ad Trajan. But the Plurai 
much more ufual, though for one fliew. 
SfoUa is faid to be Plural only by Charifiuf^ thomedes^ and Phocar, 
However Diomedes adds that yir^il has Spolium, 

Validam vi corripit haftMh 
tMorU iAurunci Spolium . ^n .12. 
But this Word is ufed in the Singular by others befide Ftr^U ; 
as xJfricX vero totafuhdEtk^ Magniqut nomine Spolio inde Capto^ eQues 
B.oihanus (id quod ante* ntino) curru triumphiili revt&us eft* Plift. 
N. H. L. 7. c. 16. 60 Ovid^ 

Sp^lioque leonis 
Stfftinet incurfus* Met. 3. p. 53. And again, 

Viferei referens Spolium tnefnorabiU Monftri, Met. 4.. p. 87* 
Met. 7. Sil. L. 5. I . . 

Subfelliu^ fuppofed by fome to have no Singular, has it in PUutusy 

Imi fubfellii virum Capt. ^ Siich. as VoJ^s obferves, 
Tfiaria might as well have been here, as many others that Gram- 
marians haVe added ; for it is not found in the Singular. But 
the rcafbn, I fuppofe, is, becaufe one fingle one is never men- 
tionfcd* 
Tfmpora^ the Temples of the Head, is thought to be Plural only by 
Cbarifius, But then he owns that riVjtV has, 

Jt bafta, Togo per Temput utrumque. 
Neither is this at all irregular in yirgil^ there being no inflance 
of Tew/oru in the Plural^ bur when both are fpoken of. For 
Catullus has, 

Vfque dum tremulum movens 
Cana Tempus anilitas 
OmnU omnibus unnuit, Hpithal. Julias. 
^ iftc' ■■■ M ^ dubitanti Qr^ccho quid ejfet^ neque tamen hcum^ in qu% 

(^ conftiteraty 



2o8 Of Nouns which wMt the Singutd^. 

cot^iteraty relinqi^enti perculit Tempus, Aut. ad Hcr. L, 4. p. 37.' 
Neither will it appear, that Tempora may be laid of obc of the 
Temples, from that of ^r^i/. 

Super utraque quaffut 
Temporun TEJl. 5. 

For the fame Author ufes utrafyue in the Plural, with a Sub* 
ftantive, which was never thought to fignifie Singularly un« 
der the Plural Termination. Aji, 6, p. 225. 

Palmat utrafque tetendit, 

tiM is faid to be Plural only by Charifius and Diomedes, But the firft 
fays, that Sulluft has Vadum in the Singular, Vnum JMudfacilem 
pu^tMntibus yadum. The PafTage is Hift. 1. faving that Z/ii»m 
is not here, but there is nothing peculiar in it, but that Fa^ 
dum here is Mafculine, as it feems, from Vudus, But for Fudum 
Singular, it is common in other Authors. Rbodanus nouituUis 
in locii Fado tranfitur, Cxf. BeH. Gal. L. I. p. 6. yoffius after Ste-^ 
pbenfy and Stephens after Calepine^ quote out of itvy. Bell, Ma^ 
ced. L. 8. (Xil'nt Fado Nufyuam tranfttuj trat. But not thinking, 
whilft I was reading, that any oi the Grammarians had dif- 
puted iUdum in the Singular, I did not mark this Paflage in 
JUvy ; and Stephens quoting there, as in many other places, 
falfely, I cannot find it. Ovid has it in the Singular, De Jir^ 
*Am, L. 3. p. 1 8 1. SiL L. 8. p. 1 34. Jt*v, Sat, 2. V. 1 51. So T^- 
reHcCy Kesell in Fudo, Plaut. In Vadofalut'u. Liv. D. I. L. 8. D.3. 
L. I. Vadum facilem^ V. M. 1. 3. c. 2. 

VtvheTA^ faid to be Plural only by Cbarijmsy has the Singular fre- 
auently in the Genitive and Ablative, as this Grammar ob' 
ferves. 

rifcera has no Singular, if we believe Cbarifius and Diomedes \ and 
Fhocas will allow it but the Ablative only. But Lucretius has 
the Accufative. 

Vifceribus Vifcusgi^m^ fanguenque cre^jfi. L. I. p. ^4. 
Tliny the Dative, Quomam Vifceri intmori nexus SphruuJis Hon in- 
ejfet. N. H. L« II. c. 3. charijius alio afterward makes menti- 
on of yifceris^ and lays, Ludlius ufed the Nominative Fifcus j 
and fince the Accufative is in JLuctetiusy as well as Smet. in Pitell, 
I know not why the Nominative /hould not ftill be allowable 
yifcere in Ovid. Met. 6, p. 1 2e. 

Equihus und trabens b^rentia, Vifcera, teUm 
And in TibuU.adMelf, £1. 3. p. 93. 
tAffiduM atro fifcero pafcit avos, 

Belide that it is common in Celfus in the Singular, ib Sen. Hire. 
Crf. Ac.4. Sc. I. 

QuACuntp^ feJHt Fifcere in ncfiro Idtes, So Auf. 144. 

C^rnem MtoU yifceru indicMt^ AuC £pift. 7. & £pift. 9. 



Of 



Of Plurdls figmfyifig SmguUrly. 209 



Of Nouns V)hich under a Plural 
Termination, mean no more 
than under a Singular. 

Animadversion LXXXII. 

THis Obfervation is wholly omitted by this Grammar, and 
by all the Grammarians tbar I know of*, and yet has its 
ufe as well as many others, which they have made, to un- 
derftand the Authors, and the liberty a Man may take, efpecially 
inVerfe. Though the Profe Writers too (bmetimes follow the 
Poets, in the ufe of fome of thefe Words, which follow. 

%Mt4, is faid of one Sea, and iignifies no more than %Altum^ as, 

lB.icc auUm ^emini m Ttnedo trunquilla. ftr %Mtti 

{Horrtfco reftrtns) immenfis orhibus ungues 

Incumbunt ptU^ c Virg. JEn»2, p. 1 21. 

^Aura or nAurs is indifferent, as, 

Supirat ne <&• Vefcitur xAurl 

JEtbcrea -Virg. ^-n. 3, p. T48. 

2i*ih»if fs huud credo invifut cctUftibw %Aur4» 

VitaUs carpU JEn, i. p. 104.. 

So Stdt ferrea turri* ud ^AuraSy Id. j<^ff tantM pUf^vr 4d\A^^y Id* 
and others. 
CmuM is uied by Horace as Carina Singular, as, 

ntOfia referent in mare te novi 

"Bluitm : quid <^« ? Fortiter Occufa 

Fortum : Nonne iTides ut 

Nudum rem^io latus 

Et malm celeri faucius %Africo 

nAntemnaque gemant ? sAc finefuwbus 

Fix ducare Carina 

roffunt imferiofiu* 

j^quor ? Hon L. X. Od. 14.. But I think this is 

the only place. 
Ctrvices is faid commonly of one Neck, and means jaq more ^haa 
Cervixj 

£ui tamtn infeqmtury fennii adjutm ^m^is^ 

0cm tfty re^uiemquc n^aty tergoqut f^f^is 

B • Jmmtnet^ 



2 1 o Of Plurals figffifying SinguUrly. 

Jmmim f, 6* crlnem fparfum Ctrvicihus afflat, Ov. Met. ll 
p. 2c. So Met. 4. and clfe where, and others, even 
Pro(e Writers. 
CoUui$ ofte.i put to exprefs the Neck of one Creature, as, 

^'onji4^i4 ille judt complextu ColU Ucertif, Ov. Met. I. p. 25. 
ani io he elfewhere, and all the Poets frequently, 
0»w or Coma^ are us'd indifferently, 

. , Sifmpir habtbtmt 

Te CcniAy te Citbuyay te nojlra, laure Fharetrs, Ov. Met. i, 
p. 20. 

Otiidoq'y Comx te/rore rigebant. Id. Met. 3^ p.35« 
and elfewhere in both ufes, and others. 
C^nnuhU is ufed to fignifie no more than Connuhium^ as, 

Pyrrhtn Connitbu Servos ? Virg. ^n. 3. p. 148. 

Fharbm amat^ vil^tque cufit Connubia Daphnes, Ov. Met, I. 

p. 18. 
Connubia jungam ftabili^ propriamque dicubo, Virg, ^n. I. 
p. 9(5. 
Ccri«x. ^^<^ peffus anbelum 

Et ruble fera Corda tument, Virg. Hxi, 6, p. 207. /. e, CorU 
SibylU, or Cor. So Ovid ancfall the Poets. 
Corpora for one Body, as 

Hie Curius dura focius virtutia^ ist tile 

TUmminiM^ decoCta dedit qui Corpora flamma, Virg. Cut. and 
once before. So Ovidy 

N'udubunt Corpora venti, i. e. Corpora Ot Corpus 

Daphnes, Ov. Met. I. p. 19. and elfewhere. 
Crepufcula is ufed for Crepufculum, as, 

Truherent cumfera CrefufcuU noStem. Oy. Met. I. p. II. and 
elfewhere. 
Currus Plural, is ufed for one Chariot by Ovid, as, 
Vix bene dtfierat^ Currus petit iUe pater noSy 
Jnque diem ulipedum jusy & moderamen equorum, Met.2. p.28. 
Now Pbctbuf had but one, and 'tis plain Phaeton dedred but one. 
So P.25'.of the fame Book and elfewhere.So SenecaThy^Choi^, 
Exilia is ufed for Exilium in Virgil^ Rv\,l, p. 137. 

Longa tibi Exiliay & vajium Maris Mquor arahdum^ 
Vrigora is equal to Vrigus in that o£ Virgil^ 

Bacchus amut colleSy %Aquilcnem & Frigora T-txi, Georg. 2. 
p. ^6. 
A nd fo Caloresy Teporesy JEfiusy Siccitates are ufed, as has becra. 
faid before. 
Gaudiu is equal to Gaudium in that of l^irgiL 

Latona tucitum pertentant Gaudia pecfus, Mn, I. p. 1 07. 
And fo he elfewhere, and others, even Profe Writers, ^ibt^ -J 
GuudiU exultab'a ^ Cic. in Cat. Or. i. Unlefs here it be faid t ^ 
exprefs feveral Acfts, which neverthelefs Ji«o Gaudio would hai^ ' 
implyM, which is but a f^iall difference. 
Guttura is ufed for Guttur in that of Ovid, 

Donjc iJgenoridtJ Conjeitum in Guttura ferrum 
Vf(}f4e fquens preffit^ i.e. Guttura ferpentif* Mct. 3. p. 5 3 
and elfewhere. 
FjmcnAty in the Plural, fignifies but one Marriage j as. 



Of V birds pgntfying SwguUrly. 211 

fer connubia noftra^ per inceftos Hjmen^os, Virg, ^n. v 

p. 169- 
Tergama cumfeUnret^ inconceffofaue Hymen^tor, Id. iEn. 1. 
p. 1 12. and dfewhere he ana others. 
And the reafon of this is more obvious, as relating to the fre 
quent repetition of this Word in the Marriage Song, as appean 
by Catullmy Jul. & Mai. Epitbal. '^^ 

Jejuniti figniifies ho more than Jejunlum in that of Ovid. 

Neque enim Jejunia curat 
Cxde boumy diramque fametn finire. Met. 1 1 . p, 233. So, 
Njtc nifi perdideris alium^ pUcare voracity 

£t male morati potcria Jtjunia ventris. Id. Met. 15, p. 31 <• 
and others. 
Jgnes figniHes no more than Jgnem^ in that ofOvid, 

IlU quidem frimo nullos intelUgu Igne.f^ i. e. nullum amorem^ 
Met. 9. p. 193. for foon after he fays, 
Nullumque fub illo 
Jgnefacit votum^ vtrum^ tamen afluat intus^ 
^guina. is all one with Inguen, For whereas Horace fays, 

■ ■ Inguen ad obfccenum. L. I. Sat. 2. And 

Obf'ceno Inguine^^ L. I. Sat. 8. 

So Virgil fnysy 

Quid loquar aut Scyllam Niji^ quam fuma fecuta eft 
Candida fuccinStarh latrantibm Inguina Monftris 
Dulicbias vexajfe rates- £cl. 6, 

Lucan alfo has, 

Inguinaque infertii pedibw djflendity 6* omnem 
Explicuit per membra virum L. 4.. p. 105. 

^ubs or y»fc*, is all ©ne in ligiiiiication *, as Leoni pr sci^'Uj, gemrofitM 
tunc cum colla^ armofque vejhunt Juba. And, Leonum duo genr/a^ 
compiiStile & breve rrifpioribus Jubia. Plin, N. H. h.S.c. 16. 

Turpii equu6 nifi colla Juba flaVentia Velent. Ov. Met. 13. 

p. 285. 
Demq\ decent fufa la£fea colU Jubx. Mart. 1. i. Ep. 32. 

Denfa Juba^ & dextro jaSfata r^cumbit in armo, Virg. 

Gcorg. 3. p. (^Z. 
Talpf & ipfe Jubam cervice effundit equina. 
Con)ugk adventu pernix Saturnju. Id. lb, 
Umina is Cquat to Limen in that oiOyidy 

Peliaque ad Limina fupplcx 

Cenfugit'^ Met. 7. p. 14.0. 

Ptrge modoy at que bine te regina & Limina perfer, Virg. 
Sn. i.p. 104. 

Limen adit Semeles, Ov. Met,3. p. 58. and elfc- 
where he, and others. 
it.ittora is ali one with Littus in that o€Ovid, 

Nam dum per Lxttora Untps 
Fajfibuf, ut foleOy fumma fpatiarer arena. Met, J, ij.42. 
Vorte petens Dtlon Cbia telLum ad oroA 

^ApplicifTy & dextrin adducor lxttora remis. Id. Met,3. p. 67* 
Mtnf^ or Uenfay are ufed indifferently for a Service or Courfe of 
JDi^es. For as Cicero fays, 

Hac ad te fcripfi appofita, Mgnja fccunda. Ad At. L. 14« 

£pift. 6. 
^ E C 2 .., Ncs 



2 1 s Of Flurals fig^ifjif^g ^ingaldrfy. 

Nee ad hue hienfa. ftcunda Vtnit, Mart. L. 3. £p* 4.^. and L. 5* 

Ep. 79. So Horace has 
■ Turn fenjtits uva. fecundas 

Et nux ornabat Uenfas^ L. 2. Sat. 2. and Others commonlf, 
Numina fignifies no more than Numen^ in that of Vtr^il^ 

%Ad te confugiOj & fupplex tua Numim fojco^ JEn. I. p. 1 1 2* 
OdU or OJium are ufed indifferently for the hatred of one Perfon,as 
Nee tucui demtns & verbis OdU afpera wiovi, Virg. /En, 2. p. 1 1 8. 
Conveniunt quibut aut Odium crudele tyrannu 
oi:tt metus acer erat^ Id.^n. i. p. 104. and Others. 
Oru. or Or* are ufed indifferently for the Borders of a Place, as 
Htnc Depram m^ tortus^ 6* xlUtabilis Or a, 

iAccipit^ Virg. An. 3. p. 159. Oram lllyrici aqucrig. Id, Ed. 
8. and others. 
Teucrus RhateoA frimUm efl adve^us in Oras, Virg. iEn. 3. p. 142. 
and he elfe where, and others commonly. 
Ora for os is common, and that whether it fignifie the Mouth, or the 
whole Face, as, 

Tulibuf inde modis Ora indignantia folvity Ov. Met. I. p. lo, 
Ipfa fed in fomnis inhumati venit imago 

Conjugis ^ Ora modis attoUens fdlida miris^ Virg, .ffn. I. 
p. 103. 
0tia for otium^ is common, as 

O Mtlibae deus nobis hac Otia /fcif, 'Virg. EcI. 1. 
MoUia fecura ptragfhant Otia gentes^ Ov. Met. I. p. 8. and elfe- 
where. 
Tel} ora for Ftifus is common, as 

PtUoru percuffit^ Peff^us quoq\ roborafiunt^ Ov. Met. 1 1, p. 225« 
Kicfus is ufed in the Singular or Plural indifferently, for the Jaws 

of one Creature . Fi> luminis arff^ior orbis^ 

Contrahitur Ri^i*/, Ov. Mc^ I, p, 25. Ktff-u ad aures debifcentfy 
Plin, N. H. I.S.C.21. 

Sfumaque ; cfliferos circumfluit albida RiSfus^ Ov, Met, 3, p, 52. 
RiMus bis tauYos noH eripuere mugiflriy Mairt. 1* X. Ep, 49, and Or 
thers, 
TLobora is equal to Rob»r, in that of l^irgUy 

Centum arei claudunt ve^es^ sternaque ferri 

Robora^ /En. 7. p. 249. So Ovid 

Suhrmt hac nempe fenec^a avi demoliturque frior'u 

Robora^ Met. 1 5. p. 318. Sic tempore }ierti 

Cernimus^ at<\ue illas ajfumere Robora gentes 
Concidere bos Id. lb. p. 324. 
^lentia for Silentium ii common, as Turn regia Juno 
%ASt a furore gravis quid me alta Silentia cpgit 
Rum^cre ? Virg. /En. 10. p. 303. 

Tu:ita per amtcu. Silentia luna^ id. JEn. 2. p. I23* 

Naffufq\ SiUntiarurit^ Ov. Met. I. p, xi, 

Et deflttM age;,: alta Silentia terras^ Ov. Met. I. p, 14," 
Sinus for that part of the Romans Garment which hung full an4 
loofe before the Breaft, is ufed in the Singular, or Plural in- 
<lifferently, as Tum Romanm Sinu ex togafaSto^ bic inquit vobit bel^ 
lum^ pacema\ fortamns^ Liv. Bell. Pun. and fooa ifctty (lu»m 
Sinu effufo bellum fe dare dixiffef^ 6cc, Id* 




Of Plardh fignifying Singularly. 21} 

Kodoque Sinus collcSt<t fluenttSy Virg. Rxi» I. p. 102, 
, Lu^ubris & amens 

Et Unlata Sinus^ totum pactnjuit orhem^ Ov. Met. 2, p. 35. and 
elfe where as well as others. 
Tei<t and Ttd* are ufed indifferently for Marriage, as 

Si nonfertdfum thalami Tedd(i\ fuijfct^ Virg. ^n. 4. p. 1^0. 
Me tibi^ ttq\ mibi Tdda fudica dtfdity Ov. Hyp. Jas.. and elft* 

where. 
lUuVelut crimenTedoj exofu jugales^ Ov. Met. i, p. i8« 
Te<i\ adeo eximiM^Tedis fi'ltcibus uu^e^ Catul. Argon, 
Ter^^ for tne back of one Creature, is common, as 
Efl ttium tile mulus Calabris in faltihw anguts^ 
Squamea convolvttns fubltto fe^ore Terga^ Virg. Geor. 3. p« 71, 
So /Ed. 2. p. 129. and others commonly. 
Tent for a. is uled for Tempus^ as Erat ckm literis Latinisy turn etUm Gnt* 
cisy tit Temporibus i7/», fatis truditm^ de Clar. Or. fuit^ ut Temfo^ 
nhm illify juris valde feriiusy Id. lb. 

oifpicit hunc oculis Pentheus^ quos ira trernendor 
Vecerat^ & qusnquum f€n* vtx Tempora differ t, Ov. Met. 3. 
p. 66. 
fbaUmut or Tbaiumiy are ufed indifferently for one Marriage, or 
Marriage Bed ; as RrO: for Marriage, 

Nee fceptra movent Priumeia tantum 
2uantuin in connf*bfo nutd^ Thalamoque moratur ^ Virg, ^n. 7. 

P* 239. .. " 

Hue ope dthuerum ThuUmof petit ffeyfocerq; 

Nbn orandus erut mibi, fed faciendus EriStbeiu, Ov, Met. 6* nfcar 

the end. 
tAnteJuos Niobe Thalamos cognoverat illumy Id. lb. Y. I48« and la 

often. 
For the Bed, UiclhaUmum invafit natsy Virg. ^n. 6. p. 223, 
Turn me confe^um cu/is^ fomnotfi gravatum 
Jnfelix habutt ThuUmus, Virg. /En. 5. p. 220. 
Tle9ui patris Thalamis excedit^ & tntpia diro 
Semtnufert utero^ Ov. Met. 10. in the Fable of Myrrha, 

■ Pro Verbis murmur u redJunty 

pro ThaUmis celtbrnnt JUvaSy Ov. Met, 1. 10. V. 703. Fable of 
oitaUnta and Hippomenes, 
Jorm arid Tori are ufed indifferently for one Bed, as 

Jnde Toro pater JEneaafic orfus ab dto^ Virg. N.i\, 2. 
Extrultofque Toros obtentu frondit inttmbrant^ Virg. ^^n. II. 
p. 330. where but one is meant to lay the dead Body of 
PoIIm upon. 
Vtolare prima qua Torot aufa efl tuoSy Sen. 0<ft. Ac. I. Sc. 3. 
Vultus Plural is ufed as the Singular very commonly, 

■ \..—^fplce Vultm 

Ecce meosy utinamq; oculos in peG^ore poffes 

Jnfererey Ov. Met. 2. p. 29. and frequently elfe »v here, and all 

the Poets. 
And as in thc^c Cafes the Plural is ufed for the Singular, fo in 
others the Singular is ufed for the Plural, as when M/Zcr, ^- 
^esy Pedes are put for the whole Soldiery, Horfc or Foot of 
an Army ) and this isftili niore common with the Ad jedive 

Multm 



ill 4 Of AdjeStives Heteroelite. 

Mdultuty as well in thefe as other words, which is ftrange Robert 
Stephens ihould not take Notice of in Multus. Quis Mults 
gr^uilk te fuer in R0/4, Scc, Hor. 1. i. Od, 5. ^iuam multo m^ 
fetet GtmcU Milite, Id. 1. 1. Od. 15. 



Of Adjedivcs Heteroelite. 

Animadversion LXXXIII. 

HEre is no Notice taken in this Grammar of Adje<ftiv« that 
vary from the common form of Declining, in rcfped of 
redundancy, or deficiency, of which yet there are feveral 
bcfide thofe already mentioned under %Aptotesy which the Reader 
ought to be acquainted withalf to enable him readily to read the 
Authors, and to write himfelf according to the true Standard ; 
which are thefe that follow. Degener, Dejcs^ Dives^ HebeSy Immemor^ 
Inops, LocupUfy lAemor^ Paupery PerpeSy Prapcfy Puber^ Sofpesy Super" 
flesy Teresy V^leSy Vber^ which all want the Neuter Termination in 
the Nominative, and Accufative Plural. This defect in Divesy in- 
deed is fupply'd by its Contrad Dity which has Ditiuy though Di^ 
ves at length Has not Divitia. . 

Vorjiun & lucos Ulicy «»hef<j['y deorum 

CoHcipiaa animoy Aeltiraque Ditia doniSy Ov. Met. 2. p. 28. 

■ Tot Ditto, apna S^cratif 

Poftibufy ^ totUemy voti mefMiy ex'tge taurojy Stat. Theb. 10. 

V. 338. 

They which are redundant in the Obliques^ are oiliiuy tJltery iVr«- 
tety Totus^ Nulluty Solusy VUiUy Vnus. Of which %Alius is alfb redun- 
dant in the Neuter of the Nominative Singular, and in this tk 
Grammar Rule is ihort, which I come now (o examine. 



Grdmtmr 



Of MjeSlhes HeteroeUti, ai J 



^m^nt^mt^tmimmaitmmmmmtmmmmmmtmmmmim 



Grammar^ Eng. f, 7. 

THere are bcfides thefe, certain Nouns AJjeFtives of atf 
other manner of Declining^ which make the Genitive 
Cafe Singular in ius, and the Dative in J, which be thefe 
with their Compounds^ and then follows Alius, Alter, Neuter, 
Nullus, Solus, Totus, Ullus, Unus, liter. 

Animadversion LXXXI V. 

SOmc of thefe Nouns are found alfo in good Authors, to beDe- 
clined after the common manner in thefe Cafes, of which the 
Reader ihould have been advertifed, that he may not, when 
he meets with them, be puzzled, or miftake them for other Cafes, 
which will be to mifbake his Author. I fliall give fuch Examples 
of them as I have obferved ; and the rather, becaufe I don't find 
that any of the Notes upon this Grammar, either thofe of Mr, 
Leeds^ or of the Oxford Men have taken Notice of them. 

\Mio in the Dative, Kon modo non panituit^fed rurfus iAliofurori %Accef* 
fit, Latr. in Sal. p. 210^ %Alio nubere. Plaut. Stich. Ac. i . Sc, 2. 
iAlii ^ in tlhe Genitive. Ita^y proptereu inftitutum^ diverfa de cau- 
oilis ^ fay ut ex caprino genere ad Jilii del arum hoflia ddducertitur^ ad 
lAlisJ oUii non facrificaretur, Var. R. R. I. i, c. 2. Sedfi emdemhorA 
tAli^ fecudii jecur nitidum at que plenum efiy lAlU horrldum^ 6* ex* 
He \ quid eft qt*od decUrare pojpt habitu extorum ? Cic. Div. 1.2. 
p. 223. Nay this word is alfo redundant in the Nomina- 
tive, for inftead of tAliusy we read ^Mis in Cutut, 
tAnne bonum oblisa esfacinut^ quod regium adept a es 
Conjugium^ quod nonfortior aut fit %Mis» De Coma Ber. So Vof- 
fins reads it, and fo I fuppofe it to be read ; for thofe Books 
that have infbead of it, fortior auxit avis are unintelligible. 
So Lucr. has iMid for %Miud, ^ando %Alid ex alio refictt NU' 
turuy L.I. p. 8. 
*^ter£ in the Dative, oiliera dum narrat. Ter, Heau. Ac. 2. Sc. 3. 
NuUi in the Genitive, Tam Nulli confilii Sum, Ter. And. Ac. 3, 

Sc. 3. 
Nulla in the Genitive. Et fotius Nulla fibi turpis confcius reu Lucr* 

1. 6. p. 181. 
Sdd in the Dative. Mihi Sola ridiculofuit, Tcr. Eun. Ac, 5. Sc. 6* 

Plaut. Mil. Ac. 4. Sc. 2. 
T^ota, Otium, Tota infula conciliavity Nep. Vit. Eumen. 
W in the Genitive. Itane eruhuifli ? quafi veto corpori reliqueris 

Tuo foteftatcm celwris Vlli capiendi^ mala^ Plaut. True. Ac. 2, 
Sc.2- 



fti^ Of Adje stipes Heterocli$e» 

Vmd, in the Genitive. 

Efficitur quiddam ^adrdtum^ Vn^que fi^urs. Lucr* L. 2# 
P- 53- 



Grammar^ E'^g* f> 7. 

NOtc^ That Vnw hath not the Plural Number, but 
when it is joyn'd with a Word that ]ackcth the 
Singular Number, as Vn^ Liter^e^ Vna Mania. 



Animadversion LXXXV. 



T 



His Rule is left without a Remark by all the Kotes upon 
this Grammar, but I ihall therefore give one in the fol- 
lowing Examples. 

Vn4t quinque remorantur mind, Plaut. Pfeud. Ac. I. Sc. i, 
j^«M ego rure dum f»m Vnosfex dies. Plaut. Trin. Ac. r. 
Sc. I. 

■ 

So TreuHOj fujfiu. Id. Moluf afinariM VnM, Cat. R. R. c. 10. C.i i. 
C. 13. In qua. tihi invideo quod Vnif l^efiimentK tumdiu Uuiut es, Cic 
pro Flac. p. ^76. Now theft Words, 'tis plain, have all a Sin- 
gular Number, with which Vnm is joyn*d in the Plural, it is 
not therefore true, without limitation, that Vnus has not the 
Plural Number, but when it is joyn'd with a Word that lacks 
the Singular. 'Tis true indeed, that in the Phrafe Vnotfcx dies, 
Vn* quinque mms^ and the like, the Subftantive to Vnos and 
2/iM IS not Dies or Minn alone, outfex dies and qmnque mmd to- 
gether, which in fome fcnfe wants the Singular, L r. if the ftve- 
rals be particularly refpeded, but as taken together it is one 
fingle fpace of fix days, ^c, and Vnum, not Vnos^ would icem 
to be the Adjecftivc required, but for this Obfervation, with- 
out which alio it would not be known whether Vnm MtdM^ and 
Vmig VeftimenWy were Jjuin* 



0/ 



0/ ComfAYtfon. 217 



A 



Of Comparifbn. 

Gra?7:mr.r-, Eng. ^. S* 

DjeEllves^ whofc Signification may cncrealc, or be 
di:T}inHhed, may iorm Corr.parifon* 

Gr^tVifTiar, Lat. ^. 31. 

COmpnrantur nomhiaj quorum fignlficatio augeriy ^^ 
nuive pouft. 

Animadversion LXXXVL 

THerc is no one thing, in which the Dodrinc of the Gram- 
marians is lefs to be relied on, than this one of Comparifon, 
Learned Men are generally agreed, that nothing of this kind 
is to be attempted, but what the iifeof the Claflicks will bear a 
Man out in. I^oj/ius and Scali^cr particularly are pofitive in this, 
however this laft Writer breaks his own Rule in the ufe oi Manciom 
from MdHcuty de Cau.L.L.L.7. ^,"^66, for which there is no Example 
in anygood Author : And the firft comes very ihort in his limita- 
tion ofthis Rule by Exceptions, his Rule for which is as follows. 
Sujftrefi VUeamuf de xAdjtlf'tvidyqu* non v^criantur fcrgradi*s,Talitjf*ntgen^ 
tilu^t RomaHuSy SpurtUta : Pojfejfivay ut futrius Evandnus : NumeralUut 
fyimug^ecimut ; MaterialUy ut aureus^ *ncus : temporis fi^nificativay ut 
beftcrnusycruftinus : participialia in dus,w^ anundus^reverendus : definentUtn 
bundus, ut errahundusy moribundus : in plex exeuntia^ ut duplex^ triplex^ 
Excipe fimpUxy & multiplex, Dcfmcntia, in imus, ut htmus^ legitimuSy tH 
ivus, utfugitivusy deliberativus, CompofitA a fero, & gero, ut frugtfer^ 
ietifeTy corniger^ armiger. Item bdc udje£fiva. j almuf^ bulbus^ culvuj, coi* 
morujy cunus, cicur^ cluudus^ crifpus ; dtfgener^ difar^ egenuf^ magn^tnimuSy 
mediocrify memor, miruj, opimus, Jilvejiery vetults.^ unicut : utque ^Ut 
fedpMUCAf ut putOy in quibui per particuUs excejjuf (utifunt magisy Valdit 
^maxime) fupplemuf comp.tr.itivo/umy & fuptrtativorum defeffisnt. And 
m this he is followed with little Variation by thole that have 
wrote after him, namely Vurnaby^ Danefius, MeJJ\tms de Tort Hpyal^ 
the Annotators, and tAr. Leedx, not to name others of lefs Note. 
Sut this Rule has thefe feveral Faults* OThofe Adjet^ives which 

JFf tnd 



ai8 Of Adjectives. 

end in hundus^ are not fo Univerfally excluded, but that Tremehun^ 
dior is found in ColumtlU^ which all but the Annotators have over- 
looked. 

Effcetd Tr emtbun dior uhtre for cd, L. lo. p. $82. 

Secondly, Not only the Compounds from Fero and Gero^ but 
from whatever Verbs, except fome few from Dico^facio^ or fio and 
Lcqitcr^ arc not compared, as ^Altivolus^ oiltifonuSj CurniVorus, dec, and 
yet they all give this Rule for Compounds of Ptro and Gero only. 

Thirdly, Of Adjectives that end in ivus^ Ftftivut is compar'd, 
though forgot by Vurnabyy Melficurs de Port Royul, the Annotators 
and Mr. Leeds, pater mi Veftivijfimf, Ter. Ad. Ac. 5. Sc. 9. And 
ilt*id ifto F./I/vi'm/, Cic. in Ver. 5. So is Lafcivt4s 2l\Io^ and Tempe- 
ftivut. See for the iirft Ov, de oirt, vAm, L. 3. p. 229. Suet. Vit. Tib. 
p. 14.7. for thelaft Hor. L. 4. Od. i. 

Fourthly, Some of thcfe particular Adjectives here nam'd, and 
by others, as excluded Comparifon, are yet found compared in un- 
qucftionablc Authors. 

Crif^'us fet down by Vojfms^ Farnaby, and Mr. Leedf^ as not compared, 
is found in the Comparative frequently in Pliny^whom this laft 
Author owns in another place to be peritus Komuni loquendi mo- 
y*f, Leonum duo genera^ compuHile^ 6" breve^ Criffioribf*j jubis» Plin. 
N. H. L. 8. C. 16. folium olivM verum CrifpiuSj & aculeatum. Id. 
lb. L. 12. c. I 5. Muteries Crifpiorps eleganti^y Id. lb. L. 1 3. C. 9, 
Radice nihil Crifpius^ Id. lb. L. I 3.C. i6, Montanum^ i. e, acer 
Ver 9 Crifpius^duriufque^ etUmnum e mafculk Crifpius ad luutiora, operm. 
So it is in my Book,I fuppofc it iliould be Mafculo^ Id. lb. l.i^. 
C. 15, Meliora. materie^ Crtfpioraqu^f inmontihus. Id. lb. 1. i6» 
C. 17. Mediaque pars arborum Crifpior^ Id. lb. L. I^. €.4.3. Cbry' 
fif^us feminam cU'e dicit Crifpioribus folii^^ Id. lb. L. 2o. C. II, 
Crifpius fie putant fitri^ Id. lb. L. 19. C. 8. Capillum Crifpiorem, 
Id, lb. L. 22. c. 10. Befide that Solinus has folium licet Oifpiusy 
olivs tamen fimile^ c. ^^, The Superlative is aifb fonnd in Co* 
lumelU Crifpi/fimi folii, L. ll.c. 3, 

Jc}i*nu§ reckon'd among thofe that have no Comparifon by Danefiusy 
farnaby^ and Mr. Leeds^ has the Comparative in Cicero fcveral 
times. Hdc dicuntur fortafj'e Jejunius, Cic. de Fin. L, 3. p, 187. 
Lyfias orationt locuples^ rebus ipfis Jejunior^ Cic. de Fin. L. 5. p.254« 
Si aut tAntonium Jejumorem^ aut Crajfum fuifft pleniorem futet, Cic 
de Or. L. 3. p. 8. Videtur ejfe Jejunior, Cic. de opt. gen, die 

^.21-^. 2^m enim Jejunius dixit inimicus ? Q,ic, ad At. L« 12* 
p. 21. BeiTde which, Columella has, Tamen inferiorem partem 
Jejuniorem hubety L. 2. C. 4. And Seneca^ 2i*id tarn abrupt urn tttf 
dique quam hoc faxum ? ^id ad copiat refyicienti Jejunius, Conf, 
ad Hehv c. 6. If it be faid now for thefe Authors, that they 
mean Jijunui for Fading is not compared. Firft, They ihould 
have faid fo. Secondly, the Word in that fignification is not 
of this place, for fo taken it is a Privative, and can have no 
Encrcafc, 
}/eliocris put down by Vcffius here, Meflleurs de Tort Royal^ the An» 
notatorsj and Mr. Leeds^ as a \^ ord that has no Comparifon^ 
is yet found in tha Comparative in Ciceroy Hoc vcllem mediocmi 
sd tAt. L. !• £p. 20. dnd again L. I2. £p. 4^. 

ppimh 



Of Jdjeifhes not Compard. 219 

Ofimuff put down by Mr. Leeds after ro^wr, for an Adjecf^ive that 
has no Comparilbn, is found in the Comparative in x^gellius^ 
JyitmbraOpimiO/Uy L. 5. c. 14., And xn %Aupmu*Sy 

Die ccffante eibofomno quis 0, nnior eft Glpf. Idyll. 12* 
And the worft of thefe Authors is no bad Authority. Nay, 
even Cicero himfelf has, Ne e'lfUm opimius, Orat. ad Brut, p.187. 

Sylveftrir^ reckoned alfo by Mr. Lee is afcer Fc/fnu^ for an Adjecftive 
that has no Comparifon, has yet the Comparative in Flivjy 
Silveftriora omnia turdiora, N, H. 1. 1 5. C 27. 

Now befide thefe Faults in the Words nam*d, as excepted from 
the general Rule, there are a great Number omitted, which are 
really excepted. They are thefe that follow in Alphabetical 
Order. 

A Lift of AdjcElhcs^ wliofe Signification may Encreafe, 
or be Diminiflied, which yet do noc form Degrees of 
Comparifon. 

ABfonuSy tAcclinisy tAccommo^iUy %Adt*ltcr'mus, %AJuncu6^ Mgrotw^ 
^muh4Syi^jfinii^oilh.ttus.yiMbu6^tAlmui^iAitijonus^x^Uivoluj^tAncepSy 
xAnhelus^ vArtificiulis^ xAuratuSy Bulbusy Bdlui*Sy Billuinus^ Blaw 
didicuSy CaAucus^ Cxntlus^ Catcus^ Cumpeftris-, Culumijlratus^ Cunorus^ Car* 
nivoruSy Caftificus^ Cutus^ Cuvus^ Cicur^ Cincinnatus^ CUndvjiinns^ cluudus^ 
CompoSy Concolor^ Credulus^ Crcpe/us^ C/initus^ C'u/vus^ Ihimrvficus^ />f» 
color^ DecoruSy Decrepitus^ Dijcdivus^ Dc^ttwr^ rnhvus^ LJcfcs^ DiUhi" 
dusy Difcors^ Dijpur^ Dij]>tirilisy Dijjonits^ Diutinus^ Ebriolus^ Fgenuj^ 
EmMduSyEnervuSyErruticuSyEvunidt(-s^ ExAnimus^ or ij, Exangui<^ Excors^ 
ExorSy Exitialisy Expers^ ExpcSy Pacutintts^ VumMcus^ VunAticus^ Palfi-m 
d'lcusy VuttdicuSy Ver.il'is^ Perinusy VeruSy PiflinuSy Finitimus^ VUvut^ "Flui- 
duty Vcenebris or Vumbris^PortuituSy^tctttn^Vi'^ltivuSy Fulvusy Fu/^idus^ 
Vurvusy Vutilis^ Gurrulusy Generulisy Gibber^ Giibus^ GUcidisy GUucinuj^ 
Claucusy GnuvuSy GruciUntuSy Gra-lutus^ Gruphicusy Gr^vidus^ H.irmoni" 
cuSy Herbldus^ HeroicnSy HirtuSy HiJ'pidus, Hiultur^ HunQruSy Hoftilit^ Hy- 
feiholicttSy ImmenfuSy ImpoSy Improvids^ IncuvvuSy Indi^uSy Incrmity 
InfumiSy JnfcrnuSy Infidufy Inhonorus^ lnho[/ituSy Inopinus, InopSy Jfifo^ 
^tuSy InfonSy IntempcftuSy InviduSy Irritusy Ji*gify L^ccY^ LarcfUf^ Latifi" 
cuSy LftJuSy Lcgltimus, LoripeSy Lubricus^ Lucifug-s-i LuUij\cus^ Lucfi^ 
fonuty Ludtcruf Ot Ludlcery LuriiuSy iAttfiw n lite^^ \Udlcnius^ Mugnuni- 
fnusy MuUcuSy M>tncusy MarciduSy M^yitimus^ }>Ututiniis^ Mudidiis^'Mc- 
^cusy MellificuSy MtUnchohcus^ Memory Mtms^ Mtthidicm^ MlmicuSy 
Mvrusy ModicuSy M^fiificuSy Mollipes^ MoutunuSy Monjoificus^ Mcrbidufy 
MoruSy hli^cidusy Multiformisy MuluplcXy MutiluSy i^TutivuSy NuturuUsy 
KuvuSy Nefuflusy Nocivusy Nubilus^ Nuiusy Nupaiu, ObliviofuiyObjiipuSy 
Oiorusy Oltdusy Opiparur, OrbuSy PacifuuSy Fululhi fy Fundus y Parilisy 
fmicepSy TatuluSy Pcculiaris^ Prrfidus, Fermci.ilis^ PrxcepSy P/dpeSy Prs* 
t^flcruSy Pr4tfjgnsy PnfcuSy PrivuSy Prod^guSy ProfunuSy Proycrtss, fz-evi- 
dusy PuidicuSf Pufillusy FuftlUnimus^ £:*-*Jwj, ^S^erulus^ Kubidus^ Ratio* 
»^w, RAi*cusy Ravut^ Rebellisy ReclinSy RecurVuty Regularise RvfanduSy 
^pmtinuf^ ReJeCy RefimuSy Retorridusy Rhetoric us^ Rofcidus^ Ri*dis^ 
%lif4«»/, lUli/tf/, Stdvus y Sanguinolentus y Satjricus ^ S^abiofuSy 

F f 2 ScuTiUii^ 



*2C Of the Comfdrifon of 

Scurril'is^ SeMus^ Segnifts^ Serotinus^ St/vilisy Simut^ SinuofuSy Smtt 
i^icus^ Somn'tficuSf SonSy Sonorus^ Sopofus^ SofpeSy SfUneticuSy Stomach't* 
cusy Stndulusy Stjipticus, Suhddusy SuAusy SuppU^^ Super nusy TabUusy 
TubificuSy rAfdi^riUuSy T'trdiloquut^ T^rnulentuSyTenehricuiyTenthriccfuSy 
Tttricusy 7'''<'»wW«i, Truxy TurgiduSy Tyr^nmcusy FuciviiSy ^aguSy Vduty 
VecoYS, l^enilisy Vtn'ulis^ VentruJuSy y..fiptliuy l^tfunusy Vtjcusy Fi&rixy 
yictusy/ij'sutus^ "fmhrutiliSy Vmbratiu ', Vnunimus or i/, VndifonuSy VviduSy 
Vultuojusy and all other Compounds from Nouns, or Verbs, which 
I may have omitted, except Tome of thofe from Dicoy Funo, Loq^mr 
and l^oloy of which hereafter upon the Grammar Rule concerning 
them, 4nd Diminitives, as Ftv^ i^[:*s. Sec. There are befide thcfea 
great Number of Adjectives ending in bility and in i/i/, from the 
Supines of Verbs whiCh form no degrees of Comparifon, and yet 
are capable of it by their llgnification. I fliall put down thcni 
Alphabetically, which I find Compar'd, and leave the Reader to 
take the reft as excepted from this general Rule of Compa- 
jriioD. 

A Lift rf Adjeftives m bilis^ vpbkh are found to have 
one or more D:grees of Ccmparifon. 

Admirabilius. £»o fpelfuculo nihil potift tMrnirMius ejfe, Cic. N. D. 

L. 2. p. 91. 
JEquabilius. Nihil eu jurifdiSfione ^quubilius, Cic. ad At. L. 5. 

lip. 20. 
JEquahus. yeritm id quoque Mqualins erit. Quint. L. 3. C. 8. 
Affabilior. xAHus erit xAffMlior^ uliuj Expeditior, Sen. Epift. 79. 
Ai&biliiiime. MtUta ejufmodi atiu tAffahiliJjfime dicebat, Agel. L. I^» 

Alibilior. Et fterquilimumy ut fe volutare pojfinty quod ita %JlihiUores 

fiunt. Var. R. R. L. 3. c. 9. 
^mabilior. %Am<tbilior mlhi Velia fuity quody 3cc, and fb ofcen. Cic 

Fam. L. 7. Ep. 20. 
Amabilifllmus* ^od genus (lultorum tAmabiliJpmum eft. Sen. 1. 10* 

Contr. 5. So again Suuf, ult, 
Cognobiiior. Itaque ego Cognobiliortm cognitionetn ejfe arhitrer, Agcl» 

1. 20. c. 5. ex Catone. 
Commendabilior. Nee majoris Gracchi Commendabilior modeftuifuit* 

Auf. Grat. Acfl. 
ponducibilius. Hoc eft^ utrUm venuftiusy facilius^ ConducihU:»s, Ad 

Her. 1. 2. p. 9. 
Contemptibilius. Nihil temeritute Contemptibilius, Porc. Lat. in Cat. 
Credibilior. I have overlooked, jf there be any fiich word out of 

Compofition ; but Incredibilior will be found in the Letter i. 
pebilior. Virus orr, ingenio Debilior, Tac. Hift. 1. 4. p. ^55. 
Pefiderabilior. Zft tali fuccejfore Defiderabilior ipfe qunndotpue fitftt* 

Suet. Tib. c. 22. 
Peteftabilior. j^o Dtteftahilior iftorum immanitas, Cic. Ofif. L. X* 
' p. 2j. - 

Bxccfabifior. Suod fi Verum tft^ hie Exccrabiliorcm eum dixerim, Plifl* 
^'^ N. H. 1. 22. C. (J. ' 

£xorahilfpr* 



Adjectives in bllis. mi 

Exorabilior. Longe<{ue fit in fuis^ c^uam in alienis Exornbilicr injttriif. 

Sen. de. Clem. 1. i.e. 20. 
Favorabilior. oidiiciunt Ma^i fucco cum oleo perun^os VavcrJbiliores 

fieri^ & qU4t Velint faciliftS impetra/e, Plin. N. H. 1. 20. C. 8. 
Flcbilior. NiMi VlMior^ qukm tibi Vvrgili. Hor. L. i. Od. 24. Ov 

Med.Jaf. 
Habiiior. HabUiora funt corpora puftllu. Sen, de Tranq. c. 8, 
Horribilior. Horribile eji capitis caufum Mcerey Horrtbiliw prior e loco di" 

ctre, Cic. pro Quint, p. 227. 
Ignorabilius. xMterum autem illud JgnorahiltMy obfcuriufque c/?. Agel. 

1. 9. C.12. 
Immobilior. Hit Immohilior Scopuli^y vioUntior amne. Sen. Ben. 1. 7, 

c. 23. 
Iippetrabilior. i^o ImpetrabHior pax ejfet, Liv. Dec. 3. 1. 10. 
Incredibilius. Cum (quod Incridibiliw eft) dicat Epicurus^ 6^. Scn, 

Epift, 66, 
Infatiabilior. ^ulla eft enim Infatiabilior f pedes, Cic.K . P. 1 . 2. p. 1 1 2. 
IilCefbabilior. Cum interim IntefiubUiory 6* fxvior exo/tus eft^ Tac, 

Hift. 4.. p. ^4.1. 
Intolerabilius^ Intolerubxlius nihil eft quamftminu dives, Juv. Sat. 6* 
Irrevocabilior. Et quo objcurior^ eo irrevocabdior, Tac. Vic. Agr. 

P- 745- 
Lauaabilior. Meliorem ne t^fficit^ aut Laudabiliorem virum, Cic. Fa- 
rad. I. 
Memorabilipr. EeUick tamen^ quam pack artihw KUmorabilior, Liv. 

Dec. 4. L. 8. 
^N^irabilior. J^*o ift4 majora^ ac lAirabiliora fecifti^ 8cc, Cic. dc Or. 

1. 2. p, 33. So Plin, N. H. I. 5. c. I. 
Mirabilimmus. Sfecie tenus Mirabiliffimamfoboltm progenerant, Co- 

lum. 1.. 6, c. ^6, but this is a fingle place. 
M^rabilipr. Cut mortefilia caufa mortia tndignior^ & Miferuhilior ejftf, 

Liv. Dec. I. L. I. 
Mobilior. Frcnia Caftorea Mubilior manu 

Spartanum poterii flcStere Cyllarum. Sen. Hip. Ac; 2. Chor. 
and others, 
Mobiliffimus. Inttgro^ puroj acerrimo^ eodemque MobUiJfimo ardori\ 

Cic. N. D. 1. 2. p. 62. and Sen. N. Q. 1. 6, c, 16, 
Kptflbilior. Tenuem ^ ftriduUm vocem fuiinde exprimens^ quo Jit Nd^ 

tabilior. Sen. Epift. 57. and Plin. N. H. 1. 7. c. 2. Tac. 
Optabilior. Ob eamque caufim Stoicif non videtur Optabilior long4 vita» 

Cic, Fin. 3. p. 199. and elfew here. 
Placabilior. Omniaque habuijftft aquiora 6* Flacabiliora, Cic. in Ver. 

Or. 7. 

Prxftabilius. Mundo nihil P.raftubiliut^ nihil pulchriw, Cic. de N. D. 

1. 2. p. 57* . 

Probabilior. %Antonitu autem probubiliorem populo orationem fore cenfebxt 

fuam, Cic. de Or. 1. 2. p. 6. and ellewhere often. 
Sanabilior. oiut fanior domum rcdtat^ aut San.ibilior, Sen. Epift. I oS. 
Stabilior. Cominm Stabilior, 6" tutior^ aut fxrma^ aut fcuto Liguftino Ro- 

manus erat, Liv. Dec. 5. 1. 4« ^nd others. 
Sta^iliffimus. Maximeque piw quxflus StabiUJfimufque confequitur, Cato 

R. R. Prooem. But this is a fingle Inftance. 
Tcrribilior. Serpentcm Romams Icgionibus hello i^fo Terribilioremy &c, 

' Sen, Epift. 72. ' , ' .,. 

• Tolcrabihor. 



22a Of the Comfmfon of 

Tolerabilior. Sti pr^pofita^ out pr^cifua mdo: Sic TeUrabiliusj & 

mollies. Cic. Fin. 4. p. 243* 
Tradabilior. Tradunt bulcera Tra^abiliora fieri, Plin. N. H. 1. 30. 

c. 13. SoPlin. SccL. 5. Epift. I. 
Vcndibilior. Nam ut fint ilU t^endibilioru^ bite uberioracerte funt, Cic 

Fin. p. 1 01. andVar. R. R. 1. I.e. 4. 
Vcnerad>illOr. ■ .i VcnerahHior Ijvre dives. Hor. 1. 2. Sat. 5, 

and Liv. Dec. 1. 1. 1. 

Kow what a Rule is this, which fays, that all Nouns whole fig- 
nificationmay encrcafe, or be diminifhed, may form Comparifon 
without any Exception ? And what Notes have they that have 
written upon this Grammar given us, who name fo few for all, or 
near all, out of fo many : ETpecially fince they fay, that we are 
not to form any Word by the general Analogy of the Language, 
without the Authority of the Claflicks, in which this Grammar 
alio goes along with them faying, interim acre judicium adhi* 
hendum efty ut qus in legendis autoribus raro occurrunt^ raro itidem u* 
furpeutuT, But then here is ftill another Exception to this Rule, 
unobferved not only by this Grammar, but by all the Commen- 
tators upon it, and even by all that have wrote upon this Subjed ; 
namely, that there are fome Nouns, whofe fignihcation cannot in 
reality encreafe, or be diminifhed, which yet by cuftom of fpeak- 
ing form all the Degrees of Comparifon. Of this fort arc Falfusy 
Hehus^ and yerus^ at leaft, according to t)\zto( Sen, Epift. 66. Ni- 
hil invenies Regius Ke&o^ non ma^is quam Veriuj vero^ quam temfer^o 
Temperatiusy &c. fpeaking ef the equality of Virtues. Where we 
fee there is occafion for the Comparative at leaft for the exprefling 
this fenfe.And not only in fuch like Negatives,but alio upon other 
occafions, we find thefe Words compared in Language, whofe Bu- 
iinefs it is not to coniider things meerly Philofophically, but to 
provide Expreflions for all manner of Conceptions, whether true, 
or falfc. Thus Martial^ 

Vis dicam tibi Verioru veris ? L. 6, Ep. 30. And, 
Fero Verius ergo quid fit ai*di. Id, L. 9, Ep. 764 

Befide that thefe Words are compared oftentimes, not to imply 
any degrees in truth; or falfhood, but only to ihew the clearnef»of 
the Evidence for either; 



Of 



Of the Degrees of Comfrnfon. 22? 



Of the fever al Degrees of G)m- 

parifon. 

Grammar^ Eng. f. 8. Lat. f*^t. 

THcre he three Degrees of Comparison ; fhe Pofitivc, 
the Comparative, and the Superlative, jind to the 
fame ejfeSt^ Gram. Lat* p. jx. 

Animadversion LXXXVIL 

T Kings indeed are Compared in three fcvcral Degrees: Ei- 
ther as both equal ; or one, or more exceeding fome one or 
others ; or laftly, as one or more exceeding all, or at leaifc 
very much exceeding in the Icind. But then this Firft Degree of 
Comparifon, which is here call'd the Comparative, is not iigniiied 
by the Ad jedive alone, but by the Particles Tam ^uam. JEqut ac^ 
JEqut 4iti]ue. Non minus quktn. There are therefore in Adje&ives, 
but two Degrees of Comparifon, fince the Poiitivc of it ftlf, as 
this Grammar confeffes, does but Kcm ponete^ not Componere^or Com^ 
parare. The Term Comparative, is likf wife improperly attribu- 
ted to this' Degree of Compari/^»^i, lince there can be no Degree o€ 
Comparifon, but what is Comparative. The Superlative alfe is 
no lets improper to denote that diftin(^ Degree of Comparilon, 
fince there is alfb SuperUtio^ if I may fo fay, imply'd in the Com-* 
parativc. 



Of 



224 Of the Comfdrdtive. 



1 



Of the Comparative. 

Grammar^ Eng. f, 8. 

"^He Cotnparatroc fomcwhat exceedeth the Pojitivc in 
fignitication ; as Duiior harder. 



c 



Grammar^ Lat.^. Ji, 

OmparativtiSj qui fignificationem fui frfithi per aJver- 
bium magk nuget^ ut Alblor^ (3c* 



Animadversion LXXXVIII. 



THis Rule is falfe in two refpc<ft$. Firft, The Comparative 
Termination ior^ does not always reprefent an excefs above 
the Poiitive, but only above the Thing it is compared 
with. For it is i'oinetimes put for the Pofitivo, as ^utntHum has 
obferved long iince, who well knew the Propriety of the Ijaw 
Tongue, though he has not told us in what Words. They are 
therefore theie which follow. Fluresy Comflures^ Senior^ Ocyks or 
OcVus^ Dexttriory Sinijierior, 

Dexterior. Neu te Dexhrior torttun Aeclinet ad an^uem. 

Neve Simfttrior frejfam rota ducat ad aram, Ov.Mj.2.p.^In 

Etfi Dexttnrius cornu fu^averant U^ionem vicijjimam ^mtam, CiC« 

Fam. 1. 10. £p. 30. 
Complures. G, Vcmre falvum volume efi. C. Credo, G, i^uid 4^twr« 

f. Multa advcnientiy ut fit^ nova hie Comfluria, Ter. Phor. Ac 4* 

Sc. 2. Erant frstterea Complures faulo occultius confilii bujufce Parti' 

eipes NMeSy quos mugis dominationis fpes hortabatur^ quam inofta out 

alia necejjfitudo, Sal* Conj. Cat. p. ii« 
Plures. xAquatilium tegumenta fluru funt. Plin. N. H, 1. p. C 12. 

i. e. Multa, S^fautwn valtat eloquentia fluribus credere fotes, Plin* 

1. 3. Ep. 3. 
Ociits« xAccife a me hunc ocim, i. c, Ociter^ if that Wordjwerc in uic. 
. Ter, %And, Ac. 4. $.4. Nemin* oleum feret Oaus, Hor. L. 2. Sat.7. 

Senior. Is frequently us'd for Senex^ as in that of Ovid. Met. 12. 
p. 25?. 

^9 



Of the Compsrative^ s 2 5 

lAiqi alt : HercuUs mirum efi OUivU Uudis 

xAEta. tihi Senior^ or Senex, 
Vemrut 6t Senior fando SileuM afello» Ov, Vafl, i. p. 17. ue, SeneX* 
Sed fi auMrimui cur adolefcent nut^it floruertt dicendo quatn Senior 
Hortenjiue. Cic, Brut, p. 173. or Senex y for there is no diffe- 
rence. 

Bos0jrety astt mwtem Seniorilm imfutet annif* Ov. Met. x 5. 

>inifterior. Beiide what ii faid of it above in Dexterior^ is ufed 
alfo for the Pofitivc in Suetonius^ Vit. Tib.C.^. Debinc ^uhefcenS 
oiSfiaco trii^bo currum %Augufit comitatus efi Sintfieriore^frnMi 
etptOf cum Murcellus OSta.vi* fitius Dexteriore veberetur. It is alfo 
ufed to flgnific left than the Pofitive, either by the help of 
5«/io. PauToy MQuoy or Solito cxprefs'd, or Elliptically under- 
stood, fo that tne Comparative only appears, and yet fignifies 
lefs than the Pofitive. Examples of the firft kind are, 
■ Ineftus 

Mt jM^antior hie paulo eft^ Hon L. I. Sat. 3* 

x At efi Truculentiory atque 
Plus aquo liher, Id. lb. 

Examples of the fecond kind are, j^t</ prsterem *d tefcrihamnow 
babeo ; & mebercuU tram conturbatior. S*m puer feflivuSy am^no* 
ftes mejUr Sofitheut dec^ernty me que plus oudrnfervi mors debet fvi'^ 
dehutuTy cwnmoverat, C5ic« ad At. L* I. £p. 1 2. And this goes 
generally through all Comparatives. So u4^eUin s ufes Ihtutiory 
J. 15. C. 9* and Potior,!. 4. c. i. Ofientahat quiff iam Qrammatics 
rn Doitiw Scb^ieti qusdam m^alia, 

tt is Do^or in my Book, but Veri\onius quotes it DoSHor^ and I ani 
pC to believe he made ufe of a better Copy, for mine is errone- 
as in many things. However the Reader hath other Examples 
nouffh of this kind. 

Bende all this, the Word %Mbiory given as an InfVance of the 
mrmation of the Comparative in the L<itin Grammar, is a meer 
iTencion of this Author's, and no where found in the compafs of 
icie BookSp which are as many as learned Men have thought of 
.uchority in this cafe. 

Tlwreisyet wanting one Kemark more upon this Subie<f);, name- 
9 that though the Comparative alone do lufHciently fignifie this 
[cdL it is yet allowable to add ACn^i/ to it, by way of Pleonafm^ to 
prdent Hyperbolical Exaggerations *, and this is a familiar thing 
it^kPUums ; as, Imo emm tw magis efi dulcius, Stich. Ac. 5. Sc. 4* 
^ dederit nh^k mdjorts nugeit egerit* Id. Men. Prol. So Amph* 
cuSc,i. 



Gg 0/ 



226 Of the SaferUtht. 



T 



Of the Superlative. 

Grammary Eng. ^. 8. 

He Suferlntlve exce^deth the Fcfitivc In the higheft 
Degree, ijc. 



Animadversion LXXXIX- 

THc Lutxn Rule gives a better account of this matter, faying, 
SuferUtivuj qm fupra. pofittvumcumvaldey Vtl nutximt fignificut^ 
<yc. but this Et^giifly Rule is always firft taught, and moft 
times only taught, and in that there's a Notorious Miftake. For 
the Superlative does not always exceed the Pofitivc in the higheft 
Degree, but fometimes fpeaks only of a <oniiderable, and extra- 
ordinary, but not of the higheft Excefs. Thus in that of Ckcro, 
i^ale i^itury mi Cicero^ tihiq\ ferjuudtf^ te mihi quUem ejf^ curijimum ; jti 
tnulto fieri cariortm^ji taiibus monumentii^ frscentifa', Utabere. K^ic» deOC 
I.3.p.ult.where by Curijpmum cannot be meant the higheft Excefs,fbr 
then there would be no room for Carioremyhut only lome confidera' 
ble. and extraordinary Degree. And of like nature is that of the 
fame Author to his Wife Tertntia. E^o autem hoc mifiriorfutn qnm 
tUy quM es miferrimay quod ipft caUmitas communis eft utriufy^ noftrum^ 
fed culp^ meft propria eft. Cic. Fam. 1. 14, Ep. 3. And this njnifica- 
tion of the Superlative will be found to hold in many other Inftan- 
ces, where the Comparative does not thus follow, as exceeding the 
Superlative, This Confideration induced Sancfius to believe and 
teach, that there is never any Comparifon fignified by the Super- 
lative« But this is one of the Errors of that Author, into which 
too eager a defire of contradicfling the eftabliih'd Do<flrine of o« 
ther Grammarians carried him. For in the following Inftances, 
and innumerable others, there is a plain Comparifon Or Excdfs of 
one thing above another, imply*d in the fignification of thc^uper- 
lative. Oculorum^ in(iuit Plato, tfl in nobis fenfuj acerrimus, ^ic. Fin. 
1.2. p. 149. iAnt'iochum politijfimumy ^ Mcuti^mum omnium tioftr4 mC' 
Tnorxdt phihfophorum juiico, Cic. Fin. 1. 2. p. 58. Zeno in una yirtute 
fofitum heAtam vitam putat. Quid %Antiochui ? Etiam^ tfi^fiiV, beatam^ 
fed uon beatiffimam. If there be not a Comparifon in thefe Senten* 
ccs, I am yet to learn what is Comparifon, And as M»igis is added 
to tke Com.parative, Maximi is for the fame reafon added ibme- 
times to the Superlative, or to cfcertain its iignifying the higheft 
Excefs, as Hifunt vcl moMtni bumamjfimi. Agel, L 13. c. x 5. At o- 

thef 



'J 



Of the Superlative. 227 

thcr times the fame is done by q«49n,which is freqaent with all Au- 
thors ; as, Necejfitati dant operamy ut qw^m occmltijfimt fareant, Cic. 
Off. 1. X • p. 52. Si earn tfuain. exfeditiffimam milM traduUris^ facUior 
trit mihi <\u*fi decurfus met temforisy Cic. Fam. 1. 3. £p. 2. and others 
freaucntly. Sometimes the Superlative is confidered as a Pofitive, 
ana fo a liew formation made from it, of which Vo£its gives (tvt- 
ral InftaDCes </«!>!»• 1.2. C. 2^. as Extrrwmx, Extrermj^mmSyMinirmfi- 
WW/, Peffijfimusy Poftremiusy FoftrcmiJfimMy Proximiory but of none bat 
this lair, out of any of theie Authors. lu umcn ut €juovum abfHntn' 
tiam interrupt^ modumftrvemy & quidem abftimntis Proximionm^ Sen.Ep. 
loS. Dext'tmiu in Sail. Bell. Jug. Syila. aim ecjuitatu ap*d Dtxtimos^ 
feems to be only Pofitive, and fo Smiftlmus is faid to be by Vtfluu 



Of the Formation of the Super- 
lative from Pofitives in er. 

Grammar^ Eng.;>. 9. Lar. />. JJ. 

ANd if the Pofitlve end in <rr, the Superlative is 
formed by putting to r/wm, as Bulchcr Pulcher* 
rimus. 

Animadversion XC. 



MIL* teedf upon this Rule talces notice of Ceteriffimufy from. 
CtleTy or CeUris rather, after VoJ/iusy found only in Quotati- 
ons of PrifcUny but he forgets Crehnjfmus alfo from CVr- 
her or Cr Arris obfolete, for which there is the Authority of xAgelUuf, 
Nam fiuSFufy ^mj flante a<^ilone maximiy & Crcbriffmi cxcitantur, 1, 2. 
c. 30. Of near kin to thefe is, Maturrime ufed by Sulufiy Hift. 1. 1. 
p. 141* Vt quMm JAaSurrime meriu invenia*. And ajgain, p. 242. of 
the fame Book, Vti Li^iduf & Catulus decretis exerctfibus Maturrime 
frofidfcereutur. So Caff. Bel. Gal. 1. I. Quihus rebus tju^m Maturrime 
•ccurrendum futabit. For which we read alfo M^turijp.musy as, In 
4a4ti Maiurijimay Ad Her. 1. 4. p. 27. 



Gg a Of 



22$ Of the SuftrUtivf' 



Of the Superlative from Pofir 

tiyes in lis. 

Grammar^ Eng. f. 9. 

ALfo the(c Nouns ending in /«/, make the Superla- 
tive by changing Its into limus j as humili^ humil' 
limw iJimilfSj/imillifnus ; facilk^ fdciUimus } gracUif gracil'r 
limus '^ Agilisy agillimusj docilis^ doctttimus* 

Animadyei^siqn XGL 

AGillimus and Docillimus^ are to be found in nogood Author, 
and Charifius is exprefs for %AgiltJfimusy Docilijmus. But jRJr 
CracilUmus (which lAr, Leeds rejects, laying, Et-iefidttam 
adbuc tAutur qui dixit^ out %Ag\Uimusiy attt GraciUtmujy as Vojmt had done 
before hini^ there is very good Authority, namely, thatof '5)Mff^ 
«iti»j,Vit. Claud. Neron. €.51. Centre projekoy CraaUimis crmSms^H' 
letudine profpera. And yet Danefiuj^ farnaby and i^r1(i»oodi are all VOh 

der this Miftake* InieciUimus from JmbroZ^, ihould have bMfl 
added to thefe Suj^erlatives in limus^ which is ttied by iirw. £p« B(. 
Quantum autem fapienti damuf^ fi Imbecillimis fortior efi ? Thougm i^ 
Pofitive ending alfo in »i, imbecillij/iinus alfo may be ibrm'a froni 
that, as, Ovum durum valentijinnf maeritf tfk : MoUfy VrZ/orMr^ Imke^ 
eilliffim4, Ceir.L2.c.x8. ' » 



Qf 



(>f Cmfoimis from Dico, Loquor, &e, 220 



Of the Comparifbn of G)m- 
pounds ^o;« Dico, Loquor, 
V olo, Facio. 

Gramnmry Lat. *, 33. 

OXJ* dtrhantur k Dicoy loquor^ volof faetOy ddbimc mtr 
dttm Comfarantur : Maledicus, maUJicentiort maledi- 
centijJmuK k Sco : Magniloquus, magniloquenttory nutgnilo' 
^uentifftmuf, k loquor* 

Animadversion XCII. 

T His Rule is too loofely worded, for BUndi<Ucus, talfiJlcus^ 
V^aUicusy Venous from Dico are not comparM at all, no 
more C^Hfif^y HtHrr^uuSyLdtificutjlM&ificm, Mellificus^a^fi^ 
tits, Iio9iftnfieu$^ Taeificust TJ^icuf mm Ecoo, From Mhnficns^ Terence 
Imns hBnfUiMmiHy Phorm. Ac. j. Sc. 6* Neither is there any A u- 
thority for l£e Comparifbn of TierdHotpms from Loquw^ tho' from 
toi^iiinnUimus, Mendaciloipms fUutus forms Cwifidentiloqinits, Mtniaci* 

hv^* Trin. Ac* i« Sct 2. 






Of 



83 o Of AdjeBives with * Fomd heftri its.' 



i 



Of G)mpari{bn of Adje<ftives, 
who/e Pofitive ends with a 
Vowel before us. 



Q 



Grammar y Lat. />• ^J. 

Z/ottes vocalis friccedit us, Comparatio fit fer adverbU 
magU Gf maximCy C$^c, 

Animadversion XCIIL 



THis Rule docsf not hold fo perpetually,- bu^ that fevcral of 
thefe Adied^ives are found compared after the ordinary 
manner, oy the Ad jedlion of or and Jfimusy as will appear 
by the following Lift. 

Arduius, Quod iter lon^'m %Arduiuft\ue erat a curia. Cat. in Prifc. 1.3* 

otfperrimo^ atque tArdu'iJpmo aditu, Ic|. Ibid, 
Afliduior. Ita, enimfunt %Affiduiores. Var. R. R. 1. 2. C. 9, 
AlHduifHme» %AffidutJme autem mecum fuit Dionyfiuj, Cic Brut. 

Egregior. ^gregi»s ecenuty meliufque miferrimus horitm. JuV. Sit. n. 

Nam nihil ^gre^iuf quam resfecernere apertM 
%A dubiis Lucr. 1. 3. p.107. 

Exiguius. Is quoted by Ko^»/ out of Vlpian ^ and it is fo much the 

more allowable, becaufe the Superlative is found in Ovid^ and 

Tliny. 

Defratrum populo pars ExiguiJ/ima reftaK Hypefm. Lvnc. " 

Qui nunc Ex^guijjima leguta theutralis opera corollarium ^apitnt, 

Plin. 1. 7. Ep. 24. ad Gem. 
Induftrior. Quo neque Indttftrior de juventute erat, Plaut. Moft. 

Ac. I. Sc. 2. 
Injurius. Nihil amore Iuiuriu% Plant. Gift. *Tis in noy Book, 

Nihil amori Injurium eft. But Du^a reads it as flrft quoted. 
Inrioxius. Is quoted out of Cato by Prifctan^ and is fo much the 

more allowable, for that Noxior is found in Seneca^ De Clem. 

1. I.e. 15. Omnibus rets Noxior^ & Solicitior, And Noxiiffimus 

too in the (ame Author, c. 26, of the fame Book, Si Serpentihus 



Of Vmfud Ci>mfmfon. aj i 




Compa 
ioTy which are alfo fometimes thus written, I fee no rcafon. 

Luxurior, Is found in Valerius Maxlmuu Tunc Crajfus : Vter i^itwr 
tuxuricrefi? E^one^ &c, L. 9. C i. 

Plillimus. Is found in fevcral Writers after Cicero's Time, though 
in his Age it were difj^prov*d, as appears by his Jeer upon 
Kf^Mtom'S^ Phil, 1 3, Tu forro nepios quidem fed Fiiffimos quarts \ fisr 
<iutd verhum omnino nuUum in Latina lingua efl^ idfrofUr tuam divu' 
nam fietatem novum inducts. However after- times did indeed. 
induce this Word, For Qmntilian ufes it, Dedamat. 6, Illeju^ 
Vents ante hoc crimen Fitjfimuf, So Seneca^ Quod longe a fenfibus tuit 
frudenttjfirms^ Piijpmifque abeft^ Conf. ad Pol. C. 26. and Curtit*t 
and xAufonius afterwards. 

PerP.iffimus. { ^re quoted by M^Un out of Ca,^ 

Strenuior. Is found m fUutus. 

/^-«*- Strenutor deterton fi fradicat 

Sum fugnoi^ de illius ire fiunt fordida, Epid. Ac. 3. "Sc. 4, 
Strenuiflimns. Is ufed by Cato R. R, Protjem. %At ex a^ricolis & viri 
fortijfimiy ^ Strenuijfimi milites gignuntur. So Nam Strtnuijfimus 
quifque aut occiderat in fralio^ aut^ 6'c, Sal. Conj. Cat. p. 45. So 
Plin. "N. H. 1. 1 8. C, 5. Strenuiffimi milites, 
Vacuiflfimus. Is found in Ovid de Ponto^ 1. 1 . El. 3. 
A^f rurfus jubeo dumfit Vacuijfma qt»aras. 



Of Unufual Comparilbn. 

Grammar 9 Lat. />• 33* 

INterea acre judicium adhibendum e/!, ut quA in Icgcndis 
..^uifwibus rari occurrunt^ raro itidem ufurpentur^ 
Cujufmodi funt qucc fe^iuuntur ; 
Ajfiduiortftrenuior^ Egregiijjimus^ MirifictJJimus^ Ticntiffimut 
vel Pajfimufj Ipjijftmus ; 

PerfetuiJJimus 7 C ExigmJJimus afud Ovidium* 
TuiJJimus S L Multijfimui apud Ciceroncm, 

Animadversion XCIV. 

THis Rule indeed a Man would oblige himfelf, in point of 
Prudence, to obferve, confidering how imperfeA the cene- 
rality of Readers are in the Latin Tongue ; who may there- 
fere fuppofc that which is rare and unufual^ not to be at all, and 

fo 



9J2 Of Vfiufudl Comfirijhtl. 

lb condemn the Writer without reafon. Othenvile t io not fee| 
in an imperfe^ Language, as this is^ why the moft unuiual wora 
in Fl4mtm may not well enough be uied, provided the Charader of 
the Peribn fecaking, and the occaiion and Humour of (peaking be 
the fame. In the Cafe before us, Perjuriffimuf is a peculiar word of 
fUutus^ but yet cicerQ ufed it after him, pro Qu. Rofc JV4m BttUiomem 
iUum imfrehijlimum^ & fentirijfumum lenomem cum «^f>, ^git CbmreMttu p. 
24^. And yet this word is found no where but in TUutm^ and m 
this place, in imitation of him. But let us fee how this Author 
obferves his own Rule. And firft it might have been expcded af- 
ter fuch a Rule, that he Ihould have given a juft Account of what 
Comparifons are unufual, which 'tis plain he has not ; for there 
are many other unufual ones, befide thofe he mentions ; and (bme 
of thofe ne mentions are not unufnal,as Tiijfimus \ others as %4ffidmiory 
Strenuior^ not lefs ufual than great Numbers which he takes no No- 
tice of. £x(gM^«/,which he thinks to be only in OvitL is alfb in P/iinpi 
as has been obierv'd before ; and MultiJ/imuf^ which he thinks to be 
in oVrro, is difcharged by Learned Men, as yUforws^ H* Stefhtnty and 
Vojfms^ and Multk mcis replaced from the Authority of^the beft 
Copies, oV. ad %4t, /. II. ef, 3. Mulieffimus indeea is found in 
iMcretius^ but then it is a difbributive there, and not a Compa- 
rative. 

2tMm fit farvttU farsy ^ <{U4m iMteJ/ma, eotfiaf^ Lucr. L 6* 

p. i88. 

And after all, this Author, who would have us lb cautious 
againft ufing words that are but rarely ufed, makes uie of 
one himfelf that is never ufed, namely w^V, as I hate ddd 
before* 



mm^ 



Of 



Of irregular Comj>arifoft, 2 j J 



Of Irregular Comparifon. 

Grammar Lat. /^. 34^ 

Compdratio anomala, 

BOnuSj melior^ oftimus, Malus^ f^^j^^j fcjfimus. Mag* 
nus^ majory maxlmm. Parvus^ minovj minimus, 
'Muhusy plurimus > Multa, flurima^ Multum^ flus fluri* 
'muwy &CC. 

Animadversion XC V. 

IT may be (bme occafion to make young People the lefs boggle 
at thefe irregularities, and by confequence the better retain 
them, to explain the reafon of thefe Comparifons, which with 
l^offiiu I take tol>e this. The true reafon of Dilproportionate Com* 
parifon is nothing elfe but the Arbitrary Will of Mankind, which 
at pleafure overrules all ordinary Rules. From hence it has hap' 
pen'd, that whereas the Latins in other words form'd the Com-^ 
parative by an Adje(f^ion of Termination to fome Cafe of the Po- 
fitivc, they have in thefe borrowed them from fome other words, 
as Mtlior quafi Muveltor from tnagis velim\ Oftimm from Opto^ becaufe 
what is better, or beft, we more, or moft wifh for. ?e\or and Pey* 
fmw quafi Viffar Vcjfxmm from Pejfumy becaufe the worft is often at 
the bottom, and to be undermofV in Contention, Signifies to have 
the worft of it : Minor MtnimM, either from f*tfvt oitticli^ which 
fienifies the fame withftixe^r, or from Mina^ the Turrets and Spires 
of Buildings, which are the fmalleft. But Pan^ijpmus is alfo found 
from Parvus, Parviffima corpora^ and Parvijjima quaque^ Lucr, L, i. 
p. iS. Plus from irAift» or irhH^f or 9rc\u(^ Major and Maximm^ feem 
to be but contracflions from Magnior^ Mugniffimus, In the following 
Account which this Author gives of Adjecftives, which form Coni- 
pariibn from indeclinables, fuch as Citra^ Intra^ Infru^ Extra^ Supra^ 
Polly Vltruy Prope^ Pridem^ JDw, Sape ; I fliall not trouble the Rca-*- 
dcr with the Dilute between Vbjfms and others, whether the For- 
mation be from thofe Adverbs, or Prcpofitions, or from Adje- 
^ives conjugate with them ', becaufe as to the ufe of the word it 
is not Matetial. I ihall therefore only take Notice of three things 
upon the remaining part of the Rule, v/hich are neceflTary for 
vie. 

H h PiMffor 



2 ? 4 ^f I^^^i^^^^ Comfmfon. 

IHutivr and Diutijfimtuy formM by this Author from Diu^ are meer 
inventions of his own, and no where ibund in any Author. 
yo/fii*s fays he does not remember that he ever read them ; and 
I dare alfure the Reader there are no fuch words, the' the Ad- 
verbs Diutiits DiutiJJime be common enough, 
T^jlumut for Poftftmus from Pojlerus is allow 'd by ^offius, and ki this 
Senfe it is, that he undcrflands that oft^irgUy JEn, 6* 

Proxima forte tenet lucii locuy primus ad auras 

JEthereai Itulo commixtus fun^uine Jur^et 

Siiviusy jVbanum nonuft^ tua Pofthuma frolis : 

^Ci^m tibi lotigavo firum Lavinia conjux 

Educet filvis regent^ reg^mq\ farentew* 
Where for Pofthuma he would have it read Pofhuma^ and the 
meaning to be, that he was the laft Son born to JEneM^ but 
not after his Death ; becaufe by tihi longavo is imply'd that 
jEneM was yet alive, tho* very old, long4tyus never being ap- 
vly'd to figniHe the State of Immortality alter Death, but 
length of life only. But Serv'ws expounds it the other way^ 
faying, longavo^ id r/l, D^, Avum tnim proprie atcrnitatif efi^ tju* 
non niji in deos vcnit, Male autem vindicavit ufus per mtem dixit 
JLon^dVoffj\ fcties. And this is agreeable to the truth of the 
Story, as Serviuj tells it, namely. That Lavinia fearing the 
Treachery of her Son-in-Law oijcanius^ fled into the Woods, 
where ilie was brought to Bed of this Silviuf^ who took his 
Kame from thence, and that «^/r«»i»/ finding himfelf under 
an Odium upon that Account, recalled his Mother, and gave 
her the Kingdom of JLaurolayiuiunu keeping nAiba to himfelf, 
and after dving without Heirs, left both to thi« Silviwy who 
alfb boretne name of %Afcanius, But however thn he^ md 
whatever Poftuma fignifies in this Place, 'tis certain it if u4d 
fometimes to denote a Perfon born after his Father's Death, 
not fo neceifarily in that Place of PUutm^ infilled on by I^m- 
hinus in his Comment. Tumehus %Adverf, 1. lo. c. 23. not l.i8« 
C. 23. as Vojfiut quotes him. Qui. Canterus Var. Letft. I.r2. C. 10. 
not 1. 7. as f^ojjius quotes him, and others, 

?c^ mediam atatemy t^ui medium ducit uxorum dowu*tHy 

Si earn fenex anum pr^gnantem fectrit^ 

fluid dubitaSy quinfit faratum nomen puero Pcftumo ^ Aul* A<» 

2. Sc. 2. 

where though 'tis probable he means the Father will not live 
to fee the Son Born *, vet 'tis pofTible he means no more than 
that he will be his laft, io that this fignification of Potbtmus 
or Poflbumusy cannot of necelTity be evinced from this Place. 
But there are two others from whence it may, one of ^^/hVi 
Cbarilao fdio ejuSy qui ttatus Pofthumus fuerat regnum fummi fide 
reflitutitf 1. 3. p. 44. the other of Ciceroy DicuHtq\ ut lAtris cw 
fultum velimuj^ etiam fi Poflbumi futuri fint , Fin. h 3. p. 20^^ 
In this lafl Example it is plain, without more to do^ thatPe- 
ftumi^ or Poflbumi fignifies Children born after the Father's 
Death, and it is no lefs plain from the iirfl, if tkfr Story pf 
Lycur^iH and his Brother be conlidered ; by which it ^^^pean 
that the Son he fpoke of, was born after his Father^s deatk* 
S^^ijpmus is quoted by Prifrian from CatOyPr otter diem 6r Sspifim4m d^ 

cQriltm fuijfey of which t|us Author takes no Notice* 



Of Defective Comfarifotf. 235 



^"n 



Of Defedbive Comparifon. 

Grammar Lar, /». 34. 

Comfarntio Defecliva* 

Inclytus ^^Meritusy 

IncljftiJpmuSy&CC.SL^^^^^^^JJ^'^^h ^^' 

Animadversion XCVI. 

THi$ is a Dcfe^iyc Ri^e of Dffecfive CompaylfoH^ for there is a 
great Number of words not here mentioned, which want 
one of the degrees ok Comparifon, of which the Gramma^ 
rians have hitherto given no tolerable Account.Kc^^*/ fays upon this 
Subject, Compurativo defiituuntur Nufer five Nuperus Kt*ptrnmusy Sucery 
Sacerrimusj Invitus^ Invitijfimus : Et tju^dum alU^ etft non tanto numcroy 
qukmcreditum vulgo, And of thofe that want thcSuperlative,^i*^*r/rffi- 

Vum no^ aguefcunt %AdoUfcenSy JuveniSy Senex, Slmiliafunt IngenSy 

SfttuTy pexteTy Siniftcry to which he adds Supinusy Supinior ; Infinitusy 
Jnfimtyyr 1 DiveSy Divitior ; Taciturttusy Taciturnius ; Sulutarify Salut** 
nus -y and xAnterior without a Pofitivc. This is a very fliort Ac* 
county as will be feen by the Lift which I ihall fubjoyn ; and even 
in this there is one thing omittcd^that Hiould have been taken No- 
tice of; namely, that though /nV{>ior the Adjccftive,bcnot found, 
yet [wvitius Adverbially is us*d even by Ciceroy ^ucm ego paulo fcubum 
Vcl fudeMtiitSy vel hUf'ttiiif ad hoc genus fcrmonui uccederey Cic de Or. 
!• 2. p. 13^. Now this gives at leaft great Countenance to the ufe 
or the Aaje<f^ivc in the fame degree, fince it has the Pofitive and 
Superlative^ though one wou*d not for the fake of D'lutius fay Diu- 
tioTy because it has neither. Mr. Leeds and Varnahy add to thofe that 
want the Comparative Diverfusy Vulfusy HAus\ and the Annotators 
add to them both, tApricusy Bellm^ Conjultuss Invifus : But with what 
Reafon let the Rc^fider judge by the following Lift. 

« 

^friciw is found in ColumelUy an unevceptionable Author. NonnulU 
hi»c eandtm lock iAprUiortlM^s a Calendis Murtiis deponunty l.ii. 

MiUior is quoted out of yarro €^ /ntBuMSf by I^ontus, Nunc venio ad 
MlierumgenmTeflimifniiy quod dicitur Vhyficouy in quo Graci BtUi" 
4HU$ qu4m' ntfin, 

^onfuliiks 



2} 6 Of Deje Stive Comparifon. 

Confult'iHS fimply has flip'd my Obfcrvation, though I perfuade my 
felf I have read it, but the Compound InconfuUim I find ir^ 
Livy, Vl>i Inconfulti^s qt*am venerat^ fe gtjfit^ r}CQ, ^, \, i. 
Diver fior denied by thefe, and fcveral other Grammarians of Note, 
is found feveral times, firft in Lucrtuus^ 1. 3. p. 8^. 

^uii enim Divtrfius ejfe putandum eft. So %A^eUius 
S^tt in annalihus^ non peunai Dddali frspeteSy fed longe Di- 
viffius inquit^ \, 6, c. 7. Again, ^^uod enim diet fotejl 
efferatiuf ^ ^id 4k bominis ingenio DiverfiuSy Id, 1. ioi 
c. I. ' 

■ »Kec armorum cultu Diverfior unquam ■ Confluxit fofulus^ 

Claud. Lau. Stil. i. p. 1(^5. And even P/i«»y , whom 
Mr. ir^i/ owns to be Teritum Komani loqutndi mofu^ 
has rreiid nttlli Diverfiora^ N.H.I. 12. C. 19. '' 
Valfius is read in Petronius^ another good Author, Hominum inefta 

pcrfnaficne nihil Falfius^ p. 314. 
ViJior alfq (lands excluded oy thefe^ and all other Grammarians 
who have happened to think of it, but unjuftly. For Juftin 
has -/ ■ 

Vt eos fibi Fidioref^ & dominis inftftiores redderetj 1, i^, 
p. 175. And jLtvjf, Fidiora. hdc generu homtHum fore ra.- 
tus in Romuno kdloy Dec. 4. 1. loJ Nay, Jamts i^Vi^ 
ppood^ an Eminent Grammarian, and one who nas 
made a very Laudable attempt to reform Defjauteriu'i 
for the ufe of the Scotch Nation, does not only agree 
with the forementioned in the exclufion of Palftu^ Ff- 
dr4§^ Invitus^ from the Comparative, but in a manner 
excludes Fidiffimus^ faying rarius etiam fuperUtivo legM : 
tdeoq\ poiws dicer em^ ejl hie vir maxime fiduf, quam fi» 
dijjimus. But this Learned Man had ftrangely for- 

fot himfelfat this time, for no word whatever has 
etter Authority*, and I will underuke to ihdw fi^fh 

mus oftener, than he can ihew maxime "Bidus* 
AAJJidet tnde Jovi ; Jovis eft Pidijpmu cuftoSy Ov. Faft. 5. 

Fab.l. 
Purius eft ighur noftrum^ T'tdijpma cofQity(j 

Illo quodfubiit Mfone natus^ opuf, Ov. dc Pont.l. I. El. 5. 
JPoftibus lAuguftit endem fidijjfma cuftos 
xAnte fores ftabis^ mediamq\ tuebere quercum^ Or* Mct. Xf 

p. 20. 
tAut ultor Veftrdy Fidiffimu corpora^ mortis^ 
iAut comeSy inquit^ ero, Ov. Met. 3. J>. 52. 
Te qt*oq\ nunc adamat ; quoi>tdam Pidiffime fuTVO 
Celme^ Jovi, Ov, Met. 4. p. 78. 
JNTo*, ait arcanis Vidijfima, Ov. Met. 7. p. 1^7* 
Et puulum blandita, fer baSy Vidijfime noftrOy 
Dixit, Ov. Met. 9. p. 1 9(jr. 
O lux Dardaniay fpes ¥idijfifi/ia Teucrum , Vif* JEjtU 2* 

p. 123. 
Traterea retina tut Vidijfima dffxfra 
Occidit ijffe fua^ Vifg/^n. 12. p. 173« 
lydia dtcebar^ domino Ptdijfima dextra. Mart. Lxi«£p*70< 
^onvocatos domi Fidiffimos amicoruni in vMiff-am foiris 
» horiaturJnCt.L26. p. 237. 



Of DefeSUve Comparifon. 2 57 

f^t re^U verhii ah lAurio fetivere^ duos <p*am Vidtffumos ad ettm mit 
teret, Sal. Bel. Jug. p. 124. Nay even Cicero ufes not only t\yQ 
Adverb in the Superlative, which alone would give count^^ 
liance for the like ufc of the Adjecftive. Nee me ifia ter/tjit tjud 
mibi k te ud timorem Vidifime^ atque umuntij/ime po}>onuntur ad Vum» 
L. 2. Ep. l^. ' But the Adjecftive Cafe, as Mta TerentU^ VidijUfima, 
itf^'te oftimu uxor^ ad ^am, L. 14. Ep. 4.. It may be needlefs af- 
ter all this to fay Suetomm alfo has it, Vit. Claud, c. 47. cUu* 
'dian, deKu r, Hon. ^ Mar. dt Eapt, Prof. 1. i. p. 253. Curt. 1. 6, 
p. 190. 1, 9. p. ^52. Tacit, in the Life of %J^r, %Aufonius in fcyc-" 
ral Places, and Sut, over and over. 
nvifior alfo is unjuftly excluded its freedom of the Latin Tongue, 
there being no better Authority for any word than it, witnefi* 
the following Inftances. Huttriuf Jnvifior futt, Tac. Ant tf, 
p. 214. Vrticu quid Invtfim effe fottft ^ Plin. N. H. 1, 22. €.13. 
£t ft qua hid Invifwr vox tft. Sen. dc Ira. 1. 2. C 35. Inviftdrjin 
quam fervientibut. Sen. de Clem. 1. i. C. 13. tAdje^is Qtt^fe com" 
mendauorem^ ^ inimicum Jnvifiorem faSfura videbantur, V. M. ]. J. 
C. 8. Quoque ilium miferabiliorefn redder et^ fe fecit Invtfiorem, V. M. 
]. 4. C. 7. 

Heu Nero crudelis^ nullaque Jnvifior umhra. Mart. 1. 7. ep. 20» 

Q»a ftnm quifqut verfutior^ & callidior eft, hoc InvifioTj & fafpt^ier, 

' CiC. Off. 1. 2. p .78. Sontcmftior in dit^s 6- Invifior, Suct. Tib. 

c. 13. 



to come to fomethins that may be depended upon in rhit 
r, I fhall fubjoyn a Lift of Adjecftives that are Defccftive iii 



But 

lUtter, 

me of the Dcgi-ees of Comparifon ; in which, Tor fear thofe that 
►bfcrve them to want one^may alfo conclude,for want of Example! 
t hand,that they are alio excluded from the other Degree : I iiiall 
ive one inftance of the Decree in which thefe Dcfc^i^cs ara 
ntnd, leaving the Reader to luppofe they vant the other. 



A Lift of Adjectives that are DcfeEiive in Comparifon, 

li^oiior. £0 mobilior & tASfuofior^ quo vehementior fuerit, Sen.£p.3^, 

Eternior. Kec efi ligno ulli ^termor natura, Plin. N. H. 1. 4. G. i. 

Lgreftior. Vorenfeis caufas %Agrefiiorihms mufis reliquerunt, CiC. Or, 
p. 175. 

llacrior. Hoftcs ad pugnundnm otlacriores effecit, Ca:f. Bel. Gal. I, )• 

Llbidior. Color Caruleo %Mhidior, Piridiory & frej/ior. Plin. L« 8* 
Epift,2o. 

Ufius. Nihil quietiuty nihil tMfiwy nihil amaniiu, Cic. ad At. L. 4« 
Epift. 8. Lucretius ufes this Word in the Pofitivc, but no Bo- 
dy elfe that I know of. 

J^nis enim curavit, ut %Alfia corpora frigm» 

Non itaj<im pojfent cceli fub tegmineferrt, L. 5* p. Ik9. 

iquatius. Omne autem l^trnum Cdquatius afhvo^ Plin. N. H* f.28t C.^* 

Sen.N. Q.L. I.C.3. 
Ircanius. l^idtameniArcanimjudiccmfuo iocodicam* Colum. t. 3* 

Barbarior. 



2 3 S Of DefeSive Comfmfon. 

Barbatior. Sucrafuofdcio Barhariora loco, Ov. de Pont. L. 3. El. «. 
Capicalior. TotmiUttnnii^jufiitisnulUCafititlioreft^^uam^&c, Cic« 

Off. L. I. p. 19- 
Civilius. Iffe pater fatrid (q»id enim Civiliiu illo) 

Suftinet tn n»!lro carmine fape le^i, Ov. Tr. L. 4* EL 4. 
Communior. Nee ullo fpelfacuU gi:nere Communiory out remtffior traU 

Suet. V. Claud. c.2f. 
Conciunior* Et quo fomum fuam Concinmorem efficerent, V« M. 

1. 2. c. I. and others. 
Corpulentior. Cctrpui^ntior videre^ 4t(fte ^^ilior^ Plaut. £pid. Ac. i. 

Sc. I. 
Crudior. Cttm ad Ulud frandium Crudior Venijfit, Cic pro Clttcn. 

p. 4X7- 
I>irius. ^uibm nihil videtmr effe Dvrm, Cic. de Div. 1. 2. p. 225. 
Divitior. Vt fimper aliquid uddent Dvvitiorihus. Tcr. Phor. Ac. i: 

Sc. I. and others. Cic. de Or. 1. 3. 
Diuturnior. Hic qui diUgitur VtUem Diuturnior effeU Ov. Met. 3. 

p. 59. and others. 
Eviratior. Spadonc cumfis Eviratior Vluxo, Mart. L. 5. Ep. 42, . 
EiLilior. ^uoniam Jit £^i/ii«, & candidim, PUn, JSf. H. L 2o, c. 15. 

and elfewhere, and others. 
Exitiofius. Nihil eft, ttnim Exitiofius civii4tibuj, Cic. leg. 3. p. 3^5. 
Fluxior. Nam Drufm animt t'luxiori^ remijfiorifque vita eratm Suet. 

Tib. C 52. 
Fufcior. Qraci duo genera ejus fecere altera m duriorem fw 

Jrioremque, Plin. N. H. 1. 16. c. 13. Mart. 1. 1. 4. Ep. 62. 
Geminifllmus. To: Tace ftulte^ He ejus Geminm eft frater, Po : Hkv 

cme'ft 5* To : oic Gtmimjfimus, Plaut. Pers : Ac. 5. Sc ult. 
Germanidimus. Erat quidemfi perpauca mutaviffet Qermanijftnm Stob* 

yitts, Cic. A . Q. 1. 2. p. ^8. 
Glabrior. GUbriorem rcddat mihi €p*am Volfm Ljdiin eft. Plant* AuL 

Ac 2. Sc. 9. . 

Gnarifiiinus. Jnier bof if Jndiam Gnarijfijni ciconan loc^eraut* Solin* 

p-.sss. 

Hebetior. Neceffe eft cum populariter Uquamur ejfe interdum p*ulo Hthe' 

iiorem» Cic. Fin. 2. p. 1 34. 
Horridior. Hcrridior^s evadunty afperioreSy duriores, Cic Fin. 4. 

p. 247. 
Ignariffimus. Ba. w4n nefti* ? ^a fit hac res .' St. Juxtk cum Jgrn^- 

rijfimy, Plaud. Pfeud. Ac. 4. Sc. 7. 
Ignitius* ^od fcmina qu^dam color it in fefi hahtnrety effet^ n^iutn Jg' 

nitim, Agel. 1. 1 7, c. 8. 
Induftrior. iil^o ncque Induftrior de juyentute er4t. Flaut. Moil. 

Ac. X • Sc. 2. ^ 
IlIecebroHus. iluU iftoc lUecehrofius -Vieri nM poteft, Plaut. 

Bacch. Ac x. Sc i. 
Incolumior. Nam hac maxime verfatur dcorum ini^itaSy ^uod deterkfft 

funt Jncolumlores, Agel. ex Quadrigario, 1. 1 7. c 2. 
Infandiflfimus. Jamferoy Infandijfima, jam facere cogor. Quint, l/J. 

C 8. ex Fario, 
Informiu;. Nihil eft illis dumfiunty & afacefua feparantuTy Jnformiitf* 

Sen. Ep. 94. 
Ingen tier. O fama ingens^ Ingentior uStis. Virg. ^n. i i. p. 3 3 x • 

lAfubidlust 



Of Defeifi*ve Cemfmfon. 2? A 

lafabidiUs. Nihil eft frorfus iftis^ inquit^ imfcritiw, mhil Inftibidim. 

A gel. \. 6*c,2, 
JaveniLor. Silenufque fuit femper Juvenilior antm, Ov. Met. 14, p. 30^. 
Languidior. JLanguidiore ftudio in cauja fuifik. Cic. pro Lie. p. g8o, 

and etfewhere. 
Licentior. Non converfa$io cum vitik Liccntior. Sen. 1. 6* Contr. 8« 

and elfewhcre. 
Longinquior. Nee Longinquior4, brevibus anteponentur, Cic. Fin* 5 , 

p. 1 99* and otliers. 
Lutulentius. lllius domino non lutum eft Lutulentius. Plaut. Fcen. 

Ac. x« Sc. I. 
Mediocrius. HocvelUm Mediocrius. Cic ad At. 1, i. Ep. 20. and 

L. 2. £p. 4^. 
Meracior. Nifi b^c Meradore 

Se ufquam ftrcujjit fiore Libyco. Plaut. Cat 
Ac. 3. Sc. 5. and Solin. p. 305. 
Mirificifnmu& G. ^odnam arbittare .' A. Nefcio, G, %Afqui Mirifi'^ 

ciffimum, Ter. Phor. Ac. 5. Sc. 6. 
Miiericordior. Mijericordior nulla me eft ftminarum, Plaut. Rud 

Ac. I. Sc 5. 
Mortalius. Eademque frovidensiu nihil in nbus Mortalius facietite^ emam 

quod infeftiffimum mortalituti, Plin. N. H. 1. 34. c. 14. 
Kefandiflimus. Ferrem tamenadhuc fufpiciones tuM Nefundijfimi ftnex^ 

Quint. Peel. 18. p. 200.' and Juft. 1. itf. p. 174. 
Oculatior. Simulne 0eiBi^iif mea^ qua in agendo appuruit^ injcribendo 

fit Oculatior, Cic. ad At. 1. 4. £p. 6» 
Occulillimus. SJve Oculijfime ifom^ — Plaut. Cure, Ac, i. Sc,2« 
^bliquior. I^uia pofitis fignlfieri circa media fui Obltquicr eft, Plin. 

N. H, 1. 2. c. 77. 
Obftinatior. ^anto mihi videatur volutitas illim Obftinatior, Cic. ad 

At. L. i.Ep. II. , 
Opinioiiffimus. ointipaiir^ 6* tArchidemtUy Opiniofi/fimi homines, Cic« 

A. Q. 1. 2. p. 7J. 
PaedidifHmus. Padtdiffimi firvi minorem nobis aftum fua frequentia fa" 

dent. Petron. p. 62» 
Pathiciflimus. Mufai Tathicifmos libellos^ 6^, Mart. L. 13. £p. 97. 
Pariflimus. Pariffimi eftis hibm, Plaut, Cure. Ac. 4 Sc. 2. 
Patruiflimus. patrue mi Patruijfmt, Plaut. Pcen. Ac. 5. Sc. 4, 
Pcrennius. Exegt monimentum *re Pertnniue, Hor. 1. 3. Od. ult. 
Penitior, and PenitilTinius^which farnahy fays, have no Pofitivejhavc 

it in PUutiUy As : Ac, x. Sc. i. quafo hercle ex Penitiffaucihs* 
Popularius. Et quo nihil Populartw eft^ qutbm artibm petierut magiftrof' 

tmy iiagerebat. Liv. Dec. i. L. 7. 
Peniffime. Ea fuUevit os mihi Penijfime* Plaut. Aul. Ac. 4. Sc. tf. 

and Ac. 3. Sc. 4. 
Portuoilor. j^'« Portttcfiory ^ adificm magis exornata erat. Sail. Bell. 

J"g«P«59- 
Proclivior. %Adolefcentiam Procliviorem ad libidifiem, CiCrPaMTt* Or. 

p. 2o^. and others. 
Prolixius. %Accipit homo nemo melius prcrfus^ neque Fr©/i«W-'Tfer. £uh. 

Ac. 5. Sc. ult. and others.. 
Pronior. \Ad fufpicionem accapta cladidy qukm ad ulUm bonam fpem 

Promor erat, Liv. Dec 3. 1. <. and others. 
Propihqttior. Mitim tStilium pauloqtte Propinquim pr#« Ov. Tr. L. 4. 

TEI. 3. and others. Protcrvior. 



t4^ QT Defeiiive Cofftfirijbm. 

Protcrviof. j^wam Prottrviorem f^uotiMjimirtgu fittfrdt fuitUnt 

Juft. 1, 3c. p. 254- 
Putiflfinius. i^*am bonum met* ?uUjfmH or^tiokihiu ^Mtiam rtuUerit, 

Cic. ad Ac. 1. 2. £p. 9. 
Ridiculifllmus. ^*undo oMfibtro^ allud'uboy turn fum RiMcmllfimus. 

PUut. Stich. Ac. 2. Sc. 3. 
Kubicundior. S^bulo ulhm alitnus : contra KmbicunJior apfofiimf^ Yar. 

R. K. 1. I.e. xo. 
Kubrior. Colorcm illico mutant Kubriore fHo, Plin. N. H. 1. 1 1« c ^3. 
and el^e^^'here. 

Kll£or. Nam & matcries mam dua^ Kufiorque tr nojofa, PUvu N. H. 
1. i^. c. 14. and ellcwbcre. 

Kufticior. Simuj hoc titulo RufUciorr contentl. Sen. Ep, 88« 
Rufticius. Ktifticius toufo t(^a dtjiuit, Hof. L. i. Sat. 3. 
Sacerrimus. Deprccor hoc unum per jura Sacerrima UcH, Ov. Dejaif. 

Here. 
SacrilegiflTimus. Exi i fano^ natum quantum ejl bominmm^ Sacrtl^j/ime* 

Plauc. Rud. Ac. 3. Sc. 4. 
Salutarius. Nihil fracUrius aStum unquam^ nibtl rtip, S^lutarius^ Cic* 

Fam. 1. 9. Ep. 14. ^ , 
Saturior. P$4rpuram, quo me/tor, Saturiorque cfl, eo offntety &ۥ Seo. 

N. Q 1. I. C. 5. Coi*m. 1. 7/ C. 4» 
Scabrior, Horridiwr eft mm Scahio'qui'. Plin. K. H. 1. 33. c 6, 
Scgiiior. N'ec Se^Htorem ad respomdenaitm rt^didtfli* Cic.Fin. I. p. II0« 

and elfewhcre, with others. 
Serior. Sutionts cju§ dugs fcrvamust ■ Scriorcm alteram^ &c^ Co- 

lum.l. 2. c. 10. 
SpifficradilUmus. Hot dttco oAvocatOf homines Spijfjgradijfimos, Plaut. 
SquaUidius. Sed quia fu a fponte Squallidiorafunt Cic. Or* md StfiJ' 

Itdius. Id. Fin. 4. ^. 214* Poen* Ac. 3. Sc. i* 
StOmachofior. Stomacbofiores meM lit eras qua Aiau effe non imfell^, 

Cic. Fam. 1. 3. Fp. i !• . 
^ublimior. ■ j ^w fcit qtianto Sublimtor \AtlM 

Omnibus tn Ijbya fit montibus* JUT* Sat. II* 
V. 24. and others. 
Surdior. Surdior Ulefret^ cUmuntem nomen Oreftis 
Traxit, Ov. Herm. Oreft. 

Sylvcftrior. Sylveftfiora. omnia tardiora, Plin. N. H. I. i^. C 11. 
Taciturnus. Is allowed the Comparative by all, and good mfoB 
becaufe of that of Horace, 

Statua Taciturnius exit, L. 2. Epift. 2. 
But then 9^offius excludes it the Superlative, and fodo the An- 
iiotators, and Mr. Leeds after him. What th^n will tdhey (ay 
to that of FUutuSf 

Bellijfimum bercle lidi tr Tacit urfiijpmum. Cure. At. I.-Sc. I. 
Mr. Leeds indeed reckons this Author among the TrUetwntm. 
Writers, as he calls them ; but To^m/ has another Opinion of 
Jiim, and often rebukes the Grammarians upon his Audiority, 
with an Ipfe Plautus, 
Tcmpcrius. Without Pofitivc, or Superlative. 

Memini te mihi Pbames canam narrare : Temperims fUt* Old 

:Fam.9. Ep^i^. 

Temporius . Vt antt crefufctUum propter cibifpem temponus ^td tffichuai^ 

redeant, Colum* 1. S* c 4. Ajid this alio has neither Pofitivei 

Aor SuperlaiivcOvti has it alfo^ Met* 4. p« 7^ TttiUdior. 



OfPronguns. 241 

fur^idjor. l^umtne hoj oifer Turbidiore notat. Mart. 1. 9« Ef . 25. 

Quint. 1. 3.C. 8* 
V^^l^ior. Modo ytgetiorcy mo^o Unguidioie ftdfn vetntrum, V« M* 1. 5« 

c. /• and elfewjiere. 
Verberaliffimus. yvrhtrSjfime etiam rogitM ? Plant. Aul. Ac.4» Sc.4. 
Vicinior. Si convpfAforet^ parti l^icinior ejftt, Ov. Faft. 6. And Plin* 

N. K. 1. 34» c. 14- and others. 
Virilius. Omnes ifii yirilms pecctfttt. Sen. dc Brev. Vitae. c. 6. 
Viyidior. M>t^i»i exercitns compUxui^b^m4mt4te^qt*amJpiruu^ yivid'iQrfi 

fuffecit, V.M.1. 5. C. |. 
Vocaliliimus. Scrifjit — tU^trttttr alibis ex \ffis Vqcalijfimus, Plin. 

1, 4. Ep. 7. 

Now if there be no Degrees of Comparifon to be allow 'd, but 
what; are adually JFbund in Authors, as learned Men agree, a^ well 
as the Author or Authors of this Grammar, by limiting th? Ge- 
neral Rule by fomc Exceptions, th^y have altogether given but ^ 
lame Account of this Matter, and th( Header is little beholding to 
him for tying him or them up fo ftridly to the ufe of Authors,and 
yet giving him ne account in a manner of that ufe. What he gets by 
{lis reading, wh;ch they €0 often refer hini to, he may thank him^ 
jfelf fqr, and not them. I have fpoken my Mind already as to the 
liberty of Analogical Formations in general *, and whatever the 
Reader ihall thinly: of that Matter, thefe Lifts will be of Service to 
him, by ihewing bim the ufe of Authors, if he have a mind Ariel- 
ly CO keep to that, or what ground there is for other Formations, 
if he ihall think that liberty allowably. There are befide all tjacfe 
a great Number of Adjecftives Participial, and fome Participles, 
which though Compared? neither this (jrammar, no? any other,, 
have taken any notice of, but I ihall ref^rve them tijl I come to 
treat of Particles. 



I ' t ' ii. -ai u. i. ' .I t •n^f^mmnr^T' 



Cff Pronouns. 



I Shall not trouble the Reader with 4Py Difpute about the Num« 
ber of Pronouns, whether i/Uius^ %Alur^ Solus^ Totus^ Vllusy 
Vnusy Vter^ Neuter^ be to be added to them, as fome fuppofe, 
or theie afllgn'd here by this Author, be the complete Number. 
Becaufe, as to pra^ife of fpeaking, it will make no Difference, and 
fo there is no ufe of the Speculation in this Place. That which is 
more material, is the extraordinary Significations they are found 
to have in Authors, which being no where, that I know of, weJl 
ftated yety I ihall give fuch Ini^ances of them, as I have ob- 
ierved. 

QW, which this Author makes to be a Relative only, is alio both 
an latcrrpgative and indefinite. This laft ule of it nohert 

I i Stephens 



242 Of Prorjouns. 

Stephen} gives no account of, but it is as certain as the firllrj 
which he takes notice of, as,u4 ([mbusji Qui tju^reret^ fedijfenfne pf- 
dicef in C, Vubriciun^ ; fedilfe fe dicerent, ClC.pro A.Clucnt, 04)09. 
Interceffit Ltgusijie nej'cio Qui, Cic. pro Sext. p. 553. So foT the 
Indefinite %Aliquif^ he has alfo %Alitjni. Si tt dolor olliqui cwforii 
aut tnfi/mitas valetudinii tenuity Fam. 1. 7. Ep. 3, So GMurdus 
will have it, ^^ying, Sic Viitovius^ 6* V.mc, & alibi f*piffime refti- 
fuimuf Qf#ij pro quo vulgahatur Quit, Of thc Interrogative ufe, 
Stephens gives feveral Inftances, and there are belide, one in Ci- 
ceroy and one in Terence Quod attinuit relinquere banc urhem ? 
Cic. pro Flac. p. 480. Qui nominat me .' Tcr. Phor, Ac. 5. S.8. 
It is alfo ufed m the figiiification of Qualify as, Tundem agne^i 
Qui futn. Ter. And. Ac. 3. Sc.4. for which he has before Ac.3. 
Sc, 2. Non Jutii me pcrnojli Qf*ali% fm^ Simo, So Sentiet Qui vir fiem. 
Id. Eun. Ac. !• Sc. I. and Cicero in feveral places, as quoted by 
Stephens, 
Quifque is alfo fouiid ufed for Quicunque although not obfcrv'd by 
the Di^ionaries, nor even by Stephens^ as. 

Qui omnisfe amare credit^ Quaque afptxerit mnlier^ 
Mum oderc qua ViVi, qua mulieres, Plaut. Mil. Ac 4. Sc. 9. 
.Si vera non quifque loquitur orator efly & turn non tanepuam oratoret 
loquehantur : Necejfe eft oratorem fa£fum arte^ nee ante artem fuil[c 
fateantur. Quint. Inil. 1. 2. c 17. 

Hac non modo ilium qui amat, fed Q^'^'"^*'' ''^^'i^^j 

JvfavnOf atquejolido mu^ut infortunio, Plaut. Mere. Ac. I. 

Sc, I, 

Quicquid is uicd for tMiquid by LucretiuSjZnd tfnumquidquid for Vnim- 
quodque j aS, 

Sempi^r enimfummum Quicquid de rehas ahundat^ 
Quod jaculentur, i. c. xAliquid, L. 4. p. 99. 
SicVnumquidquid puulatim protrahit at as, id. 1. $.p. 1^8. 
Quifquam is ufed by Flautus for Quicunque ; as, 

y^^**^*-"*" eife fimdem fenty condecet^ 
Quenwam bominem attigerit profe£to aut malum^ aut damnum 
dun. Plaut, True. Ac. 2. Sc. i, 



Of 



DecUn^n of Pronouns. 



24J 



Of the Declenfions of Pro- 
nouns. 



Grammar^ Eng. f, lo. 



Singularker. 
Nom. ego. 
Gen. met, 
Dat. wibk 
Ace. rne* 
Voc. c/irr^ 
Abl. a w. 

Singukriter. 
Nom. Ttt. 
Gen. T«/. 
Dat. T«i/. 
Ace. Te. 
Voc. • Ti/* 
Abl. a Te. 



Pluralitcr. 
Nom. 710S* 

Gen. ncjlrum vel wo^r/, 
Dat. twbis* 
Ace. woj. 
Voc. caret. 
Abl. ^ ?2oi;h 

Pluraliter. 
Nom. vo-s. 

Gen. vcftrum vel ^/r/??;, 
Dat. i;o/'«r. 

Ace. v^tf. 
Voc. vos, 
Abl. <f vob^. 



Animadversion XCV. 

THcrc ire fcveral Remarks upon the Dcdcnfion of thefe 
two Pronouns, ufeful for the underftanding offome Au- 
thors, omitted here by this Grammar, Tome of which 
are likcwife omitted by all the Annotators that have wrote 
upon it. As, 

Firft, Ego had anciently Mtf, and T», T»5 in the Genitive Singu- 
lar, inftead o€Mei and Tui, which the Oxford Notes fay nothing'^of, 
though t^ojpus had oblerv'd it before them, and 'tis Hill to be found 
ill HuutM* ; as, 

%Ait Ulam miferam^ cruciari^ 6* lamentantftn ffe uffliSfarey 
S^U Tis treaty quia te careat. Mil, Ac. 4.. Sc. 2. 

I i 2 Vuorum 



ii44 Dectenfion of Pronouns. 

DuoYum Uhori tgo hominum parfiffem lubens^ 
Met te rog€nii^ 6* Tw refpondtudi mihi. Id. Pfeud. Ac. I. 
Sc. I. / 

So yojfim would have it read, and not Tut refpondenii, as it is gene- 
rally ; Af»5 he fays, is in PUutus tooy Tan, fcSalfi potently i. e. Ac. 4. 
Sc. I. but I cannot find it. 

Secondly, Mt and Te are found to have the Literal Adjed^ion d in 
the Accusative and Ablative, and the Syllabic cum in the Accufa- 
tive, in RUutusy as Vt aJfimuUbat Suurtam hfed ejfe, Af. Ac« 3. Sc. 2. 
Vna, 4cdepol opera infurnum calidum ionditOy 
tAtquif ibi torreto me pro pane calido hcr.ty 
^*am iftanc operam a Med impetrcs quod poftulas. Plaut. Cxf. Ac. 2. 
Sc. 5. oiudiviTed ejfe iratum mihi, Plaut, Amph. Ac. 2. Sc. 3, Nam 
abfque Ted ejfet nunquam bodie ud folcm occufum viverim. Id. Men. 

Ac. 5. Sc. 7. 

Negitvi enim optimo coneejfurum Jovi 

Si « Mecamoraret Plaut. Caf. Ac. 2. Sf. 5. 

Where jt take Mecum not to be the A blativc, but the Accufative, 
with the Adje<flion of cumy both becaufe the fame Author makes 
oro govern an Accufative in another place. Vt quod me liravifH impe- 
tres, Capt. Ac. 3. Sc. 2. And that he has Mecum where there can 
be no room to fuppofe the Ablative ; as, 

*At ego ctnfui ahs te pojfe hoc Mecum impetrare uxor mea 

Cafin.t ut uxor fnihi daxetu r . Plaut. Caf. Ac.2.Sc. 6, 

And this young People may be well fuppofed to boggle at, if they 
Have no account of it before hand, as there has yet hone been 
given. 

Thirdly, In the Genitive Plural of thefe Pronouns, we fre- 
<juently read iVo/b'oyt^m for jVTo/^^iim, when Mafculine Perfbns are 
Ipoken of, and l^oftrurum when Feminine, and fo likewife yiiflrerum 
and Vefirarum ; of which Voffius gives no Example, but of Vefirwum 
for Veftrum ; fuppofing only, that Noflrum is likewife but a Contra- 
cflion o£ Nolhorum, And Mr. Leeds dots not jfo much as intimate 
Noflrorum for Noftrum ; and as for Kollrarum and Vefirarum^ neither 
of them give the Icaft Intimation. I fliall therefore confirm all 
by Examples. Nam Noflrorum nemo dgnus eft, i, e. No/hum of U$| 
as will appear by the Place, the Perfon fpeaking being included in 
Vhe Number, 



Hunc oculfs fuis 
Noflra.Y4m nunnu^m quifquum vidit Phadria, Says JythtM of 

her felf and others. Ter. Eun. Ac, 4. Sc. 4. So 
Verum iUud efty muximaque pars Vtftrwum intdtigit 
^ibus anus domi uxoresfnnt^ qua vos dote meruertmt, Plaut. 

Moft. Ac. I. Sc, 3, 
Et cum egomet nunc mecum in animo vitam tutem confUiif^, 
^iAdeoque l^oftrarum omnium^ valgus qua ab fefe fi^fgani | 
£t vos effe iftiufmodiy & uos non effty bgud mirabUeeJK TtX, 

Hcau. Ac. 2. Sc. 4. 
tAn quia ruHri efe crebro foleOf nefcire arkitraminiy 
2j*o quifque paifo hie vitam Vbftrarum exigat f Ttr. Hcc» 

Ac. 2. Sc. I. 



■Kam VoprjBtnm fiUlU efi^ qtttHgmtHtm VtUt \ 

Vucerr wKort m ■ Id. lb. 

> 



Decknfidn of ProHdMu 245 

The ufc of the Reciprocals ihotild propetly hare coihe in here, 
IS not being matter of Governihent, but Application or Significa- 
tion, and here I thought to have treated of it } but I have been 
perfuaded to refer it to the Place where the Grammar treats of it, 
that the Aniitiadverfion itiay lie tnere apj^ofite to ihk Grammar 
Rule. 

Of the Second Declenfion of 

Pronouns. 

Grammar^ Erlg. p. to* 

THefe fix iile^ ipfcj sfitj hicy », and ^nt\ be df the Se- 
cond Dcclenfion, and be thus Declined. 

Animadversion 5CCVL 

IN the Declenfions of the Pronoun^, thefe are feVeriil k^tinarks 
omitted, both here, and in the Lati^ Gratbihar, which yet 
conduce all of them to the clearing of Authors, and ftiimy to 
the joftifying our life of them. From 

HiV we find Hifce, for Hi in the Nominative Plural Mafculine, and 
H^ fbr K^e, HHws for Hit ; aJS, 

Non herdt Hifce homines *he mixrefh^ fed fefhinath 
Vicifti renfvt ejfe fevyi mHifis. Plaut. Mil. Ac. j. Sc. 6, 
Non pojfunt minucw tuis Hifce oculifaditi. Plant. Mil. Ac.24 
Sc. 4. 
Kifct hnwi^ ^ kite teruhdinef fufnt inhH fjusfiu^ & t^Uu, Id. Rud« 
Ac. 2. Sc. I. Periertf Hdc oppido ddes, Plaut. Moft* Ac. X. St. 3. 
Vhilfhhae Cunt qua$ merhorm fnuliietes. Id. Rud. Ac,2. Sc.7. 
Tahjfifd tftis mfu6. Id. Cure. Ac. 4. Sc. 2. 
I&t has llU for lUius in the Genitive, and IUm alfo for llli in the 
Dative^ 

Etfiimtdi fahftmt^ oui infUgunt Uiere id iffufn^ 

i^deUmpti c/l, raiifsiinde llU gtrinihii finptkt, i. e, fitdAei 

lUiuf, Lucr. 1. 4. p. 124. 
St^e^f OS IIU ltH4y tt maifi nMditrk, Plant. Mil. Ac. 7. 
Sc. i. 
m for ////, h not Only ftund axfibhg the WHtdrt tf the firft 
Aft, but ih VlriU aUb, 

ma 



2^6 DecUfffioff of Pronouns^ 

OUt ftslnridens hominHtn fator at que dcwrum^ 
Vultu quo catlum^ temptjlatofciue fcrtnat, 
. 'bfculu libavit natdy dcbinc taliajutur, JEti, I. p. loi. 
So that the Ancient Nominative (eems to have been Ollus or 
OUty as l^ojfius obferves^ which he proves by Oloe for lUi Plural, 
out of the Lex Re^Uy So Ollit for lUpf^ Lucr. 1. 5. p. 141. 
fpfe is alfo found to have ///« for Ipfius in the Genitive Singular, 
asj^»» pojleti ereverunty feculU divtferunt^ ac faStumy ut dicerentur^ 
alii u^ricolSf alii pa/lores, 2^a if fa pars efi duplex, tarn etfi a nulU 
fatk difcreta, quod altera cfi vilUttcu paftio, altera a^reftiSy Vat, R.R. 
1. 3. c. I. i.r, Cujus ipfius. From 
// there is alfo found Bit or £tf, for £{ in the DJtive Singular, and 
not only Im for Eum, which Mr. Leeds oblerves atter Fofftuy 
but Em alfo, which neither of them take Notice of. Sp alfo 
ibm for lis and Eabus in the Feminine, as 

Nee facile in venM ct\>m omnis diditur Eiiy Lucr. 1. 2. p. 62* 
Feci ejus Eii quod me oravit coyiam^ Plaut. Cifb« Ac. I. Sc.2. 
So he frequently, and Lucr, twice elfewhere. I know not how 
the Grammarians came to take no Notice of this variation ; I 
think it as coniiderable, at leaft as fome others, which they 
mention. 

Ifoh nim'ti dcfidia Em dare ludum, Plaut. Bacch. Ac. 4« 

Sc. 10. 
Fropter huncfpes etiam ^ hodie exinaniri Im mititem, Id.Truc 

Ac. 4. Sc. 4. See Fr/i^/, and Nonius. 
In ihusendt olim amijfum filium, Plaut. Capt. Arg. as G»* 
tielmius and Gruterus have reftor'd him. 
Navxs confraSta efi ibut, Plaut. Rud. Prol. So True. A ex. Sc.2. 
Eabus for its in the Feminine, is not only found in Pnfdan from 
the Annals of CaJHus Henunoy as produced by l^ofi:*Sy which a^e 
loft, but in Cato alfo de R. R. which is ftill extant ; as, Fact^if 
fcopm VirgeMy Eabufque latera ddiis intrinfecus ferfricato^ c 152. 
Ifle is alio found to have Ifta for ifti in the Dative Singular, and I/les 
for Iftos in the Accufative Plural, as IJU dedi, Plaut. True. 
Ac. 4* Sc. 3. 

Iftes qui nunc me culpant confuiaverim. Id. Truc. Ac.2. Sc.3. 
And flautus has IfH for Iflius in the Compound Ifiimodi ; as, 

Sij*i malum ! belUy ant faceta es f qua umas bominem IjHmodi, 

True. Ac. 5. 
Quty belldes qua for cujus^ already in Ipfe^ has alfo quoius for cujus, 
and qt*oi tor cuiy and that frequently, either (imply, or in-com* 

polition ; as, 

Q^^**'*^' amatores olivi 
Dynumin domi habent maximam, plaut. Pfeud. Ac. X. Sc 2. 
Eorumft quoiufquam fcropbum in publico confpexerc, plaut. 
Capt. Ac. A. Sc. 2. 

Quoi juvenis ipfe parferit» Plaut. Mere. Prol. 
Quojufcumque duet de corporefufa vaguri, Lucr. L 4. p. ^6» 

Nam feorfum quoi poteftas 
ZHvifa ed, fuavis quoique efi, Lucr. 1. 4. p. 108. 
Xefcit quojus otii effet non modo prafcribere hoc, fed etiam animadvet'^ 
terfj, Cic. Fam. L. 8. Ep. X. Vt in totum vita'm quoivis fatis effet. 
Id. Fam. L» 8. Ep. 2. Nee auod non Vitnderet quoiquam reli^erat. 

Id. Fam. L. 8. Ep. 8. and elfewhere, as is obferved hy Voffus» 

^ And 



Declenfion of Pronouns. 247 

And anfwerable to ^umus and ^uoi^ the Accufative feems for- 
merly to have been 4/m>, and that either Singularly or Plural* 
ly, by which fuppoution thofe common £xprelHons are regu- 
larly refolvable. Poft buncfundum^ <\uo ut venimus, i. e. ud<iuem» 
Digmjfhni quo crucUtus confiuant, i. e. ad quos. Me ud cam partem 
effe Vifnturum q»o te maxime Velle arbitrabor, i. e. ud qunm. The fame 
^rmation, feems to have taken place anciently in the antece- 
dents Is and llle^ and the fame way £« and iHo may be refolv'd 
when they are not Ablatives, as, Eo dementia ventum eft, Vbi 
lllo adveniy and the like. Though I know of no Example, 
-where thefe can be fuppofed to be Plural. Qui in the Ablative 
is (aid by Fojpus to be obfolete, unlefsin Compofition, or when 
Modo is underfVood. Extra vero Compofitionem qui in ufu ejfe dtf- 
Jit. Excipe cum intelligxtur modo, are his Words. I cannot but 
wonder at this, fince he produces feveral Inftances of it out of 
flautus^ and betide them, there are a great many more. 'Tis not 
fo ftrange that Mr. Leeds ihould follow him in it, as he does. 
Qui pro quo extra compofitionem nunc non utimur^ nifi ft^inteUi^itur 
modo. For with him Plaufus pafTes but for a Proletarian Writer, 
but with yo[fius,ax other times he is of another Figure, and cited 
with an life PUutusJThey both of them citej^utVf^m out ofyirgil^ 
as extraordinary, but with fome doubt, faying that for S^i 
in fome ancient Copies there is found i^ua, liliallfet this 
Matter clearly before the Reader, and /hew him other good 
Authority, not only for Quicum^ but for Qui alfo, where modo 
is not underftood. But becaufe i have found frequently by 
Converfation with (bme School^Mafters and others, that it is 
doubted whether there be any Example of qut in the Abla- 
tive, either in, or out of Compofition, I (hall firft fet down 
what Authorities there are for it in Compofition* 

tfic ^uid me cenfes aquum tiki pro ilia dare^ 



iAnnum hunc ne cum quttfuam alio pt^ PlauC. As* Ac f« Sc. 3, 
Nam ne(fy ufquam fi^umy ueq'y piftum^ neq'j fcriptum in poematis^ 
vbi lena bene a^at citm quiquam amantt^ qua fru^i effe volt. 

Id. lb. 
■ Keq'y cum quiquam alio quidem^ Id. As. Ac. 4. Sc, I . 

Sed tu en unquam cum quiquam viro —— 
Confuevifliy Plant. Ci(t. Ac. x. Sc. i. 
Ergo ob hoc verbum te Scapha donabo ego prcfe^c ^ hodie %Miqmy 

Id. Mod. Ac. I. Sc. 3. So tAut turey aut oiliqui femper 

Supplicanty Id. Aul. Prol. True. Ac. 5. 
.. Nee fdtis a quiquam homine accepi^ Id. Perf. Ac. 4« 

- Sc 3. 
Quicunvis depugno multo fuciliusy quam citm fame^ \df Stich. 

Ac. 4. Sc. 2. 
xAbs quivis hominey cum eft opusy beneficium accipere gaudeas^' 

Ter. ad Ac. ^. Sc. 3. 

Now for quicumy of which they fpeak fo doubtfully, not only 
flantusy but Terence alio has it, and that feveral times, befide 
t\kdX oi Virgil, 

tAmpbitruo qui nunc prafe^us eft Thelanis tegionibus, 
. Quicum nuptu nAlcumtna^ Plaut, Amph« Ac. i. Sc. x. 

Nam 



M« 



ft*m iM ill* <^Vfi(i, ip»fi f4iTidu fmrjt tauieM*, 
i4nr 4M«tM, Mt (nnff'fit 4-**Wi tpfUttm lufittut, 

ftidtm h4c mi ^Vtmiifli «f 4>;m, ^ Wf <Ut3em lit* tfi, Ui 

CapE. Ac- S> ?f- 8- where it ii f tminine and Plural. 

fl<i opt ■»<«• ^w«i b(>it ^KjnHH ciibiidrri drdij Plaut, Scich. 

Ac. 4> Sc. ;, wtwtaii u again Fcminin*. 
Q»J(«n I.J liii ^rrr^riai. rfl, Ter. Eun. Ac 4. 8c. li. 

SoAf.4. St,V 
F^. fHKwin/ Po, AiiK Fiirtntume, Q^iciim f*4Miw ^w/ 

Id. Heau. Aci.Si;. S. /» *<.««■ mM^* ^ j«i-. Id. 

Head. Ac. 4. ^c- 1. W which three lift icii MafciiUiu. 
IlU ba»iit yir no^i ffilttiam fi diis pUcel. 
ffftvit 4H4l-<|ib vitiu, Ter. Ad. Ac 3. Sc.4- where ir ii 

Feniinitie. 
ft* •» Ai ■"•tm, M viJm fumjiuftum 
f.iffi^M» iitdt, HI tiiiMt, ^Hirmi cantilti. Id. Ad. Ac 4- 

Sc. 7. v'bere it i; Feminine again. 

affctidi aJvnUHi. 
Q^Uum v«f.L)M o^i «t vobJuM con/wdtdw/Jian, Ter. Ptnr. 

Ac I. Sc. I. 
fiwji if ftff't ih l»fif' Jrrrfnlt dVellnr 
QhJ mm cam/iirlftt M( 4^HBJy una turn bomixm iticf 
N'cw»mfju-fi,mumi>utM. Ter.Hrc. Ac4. Sc. 1.^ 
Therf is no doubt thetefqie to be made of the uft of ^^^^i^ 
which )i fuppoled by fuch Authorities. Now ijuj^-ww being 
ngthing but ^1./, with the Prepofition fet after it, a* in k (f- 
mrt, Rtm,im vir/ii, Ti p<>f»t>, and the like, 'til already plain, 
that fuf if not out of ure, but when mtio a underftood. And 
fhui Pj4»rKf ha* it frequently, \«ithout Cuim, which inftancet 
I lliall pift doWB for the TaiitfaAion af thole who think 
KH n not found in the Ablative, at leaft in all Genders, and 
both Humbert ; and then add fuch out of Ttrenct, as may 
Uxi^t thofe who may be apt to fcruple the ufe of it, when 
mail* u A0| uiidcrftood upon V^0iiii't Authority. 

Mafculine Singular. 

Sfi ifi frtftme U Ai/rmii Tietiiima duum ift ? Plant. Saccl. 
Ac. 3. Sc. 3, 

Fcnunine Singular. 

rtfTtU ri* ««) fuittrtfiliiKi eft Mtl tttrti. Plant. Amph. 

Ac 1, §c I. 
MiUm Bfilia, (jtn ftfi'u, "Mttr, aittntt oYtt, 
ullimaii bJiet fecmlUrem, ^ui fitmfeltlurfit**. Plaut. Af. 

Phil. Crdo inm/jm. ' ^ Qpd ctzuffi t(«f A i Phij. H<m >fi 

n4l» oW(>w™. Plaut. Moft. Ac. I. Sc. j. 

~ nthutjm qjU <A, si/ INH '^<tC«> 

;; «^«rwr,i fwl ^^^?. ?l(»tr Cure. ^C 4. Sc J. 
Kttttec 



% 



Of Fronouns. 249 



Neuter Singular. 



o 



t>Am.(U adeUy <{ui dedit argentum fceneri^ 
C^i arnica, cfi emp ta . Plaut. Moft. Ac, 5. Sc. I. 

Q«»# ilium Porfamy atque omnes Perfas^ atque etiam omnes ferfonaa 
Malt Di omnes ferdanU i. e, Vtinam aliquid fiat qui. So I revive 
thcfc abrupt Sentences. Plaut. perf, Ac. 5. Sc. 2. 

■ Nam nunc nihil eHqui te inanem, Plaut. Rud. 
Ac 2. Sc. 4. 
Occln/fti linguam nijnleti qui refpondeam, Plaut. Trin, Ac/i. 
Sc, 2. 

Feminine, or Neuter Plural. . 

t h4V« not feen it in tke Mafcqlinc Plural, but I do not Aippofe 
but tbey us*d it fo, though it has not happened to come to our 
hsmd^x o^ I ^iSLYQ overlook'd it. 

Iftas minas decern^ qui me procurem^ 

Dumy melius fit fnihi des Plaut. Cure. Ac. 4. Sc. 2, 

Enim mibi quidem squum elf purpuram^ aurum dan 

tA^m^ medos^ muliones^ pedijfequas^ 

SalutigerulospuerQSy vehicula qui vehar. Plant, Aul. Ac. 3 
^C. 5. 

Sed tandem opinor aquius efl, hera^m mibi effe fuppHcem 

tAtque oratores mittere ad me^ donaq'y ex auro^ & quadri^as 

Q»t vehar, Plaut. Stich. Ac. 2. Sc. 2. 

Quin tu in paludcm i/^ exfLcafq!^ arundines^ 

Qui pertegamus villam dum fudum efty I4aut, Rud, Ac. I, 
Sc, 2. 
Aii4 thii^ 95iuch out of Plautui^ to fliew that qui is to be read 
in th/? A Illative, for the fatisfa<ftion of thofe who think other- 
wife. Now for thofe who think this ufe died with him, or 
at lo^ft npw is not now to be found in after Writers, but with 
inodn v^deri^oo^ I ihall produce infbances of like kind out of 

tore^/tm ^ 

Hanc fidem fibi^ me ohfecravit^ qug fe fciret non deferturumj ut 
darem, Ter. And. Ac. 3. Sc. 2. t. e, qui fide^ for that I 
take to be more Katural than Quomofy, 
i m I n i l Nam hfircle nemo pofftt^ fat fcioy 
0^4$ babfret qui pararet aUum^ hunc perpeti, Ter. £un, Ac.3. 
Sc. 2. 
where if modo may be underiload, fo may Vnde or Quo like- 
wife. And if modo may be underftood, it muft figmfy the 
hicans, not barely the manner, which is worth remarlc 
Thr. Quid ignave ? peniculone pugnare, qui iftum hue portes^ cogitas? 
S, Egone ? Jmperatoris Virtutem noveram^ & vim militum. 

Sine {anguine hoc fieri non pojfe. Qui abflergertm volnera^ Ter. 

Eun. Ac. 4. Sc. 7. 
Homo tonfidens ! Qui ilium dii omnes perduinty Ter. Phon 

Ac. I, Sc. 2, 



252 Of TroBoaift, 



Of Pronouns of the Fouifrth 
Declenfion. 



N 



Grammar Eng. p. IZ, 

Ojtrasf Veftrasj and this Noun Cujas be of the 
Fourth Declenfion, and be thus Dectmed, (Sc 



Animadversion XCVIIL 

THefe are Nouns contra(n:ed into as from ^tttr, their An- 
cient ending, which yet remains in one of them, as 
■ Die mihi 

Q^id eum nunc <jf»4tnSj ^t Cuj^is ? nemipe es. Plautt Oirc« 

Ac. 3. ' 

Ko^ant Cuj^tis fit. Id. Men. Ac, 2. Sc. s. 



m 






( 250 



mm 



Of a YERK 



And Firft 



Of the Definition. 



Grammar^ Eng. f, ij, 

A Verb IS a part of Speech, dccUoed with Mood tnd 
Tcnfe, and betokening Doing ; as, Amoj I lore : 
or fuffcring ; as, Amor^ I am loved : Or being ; as, 
&um^ I am. And to the fame parpofe in the Latin 
Grammar. 

Animadversion XCIX; 

' A ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ P^^ ^^ ^^^ Definition, the being Declined 
Z\ with Mood and Tenfe, it might h^c been admitted for z 
-X jL tolerable Defcription of a Verb, if it had been explain'd, 
that by Moods were meant the Modes or Maimers of Predication, 
which being the only thing pecaliar to a Verb, fhoald by no maans 
have been omitted. And nioagh this defe<fl be in fome meaiure 
fupply*d by the addition of the Moods at length s^fterwards, where 
Predication is imply'd ; yet not being expreft*d, it is not plain e- 
not^ for the Capacities of young Learners, who for want of a 
f learer and more diftincft Definition, are often at a lofs to find 
which is the Verb, efpecially in EngUfh^ where they frequently mi- 
flakc the Participle of the Praeter Tenfe for a Verb, becaufc being 
all one in Sound and Spelling with the Verb, they think it may be 
declined with Mood and Teme. And I appeal to the experience of 
any School-mafter, whether he does not find it a very difficult 
thing to teach Boys how to find out a Verb by this Definition ; 
iUQT, whether when they come at lafi: to difiringuiih it, they do 
not do it rather by fome other Obfervation, than by that* I am 
fare I have always found that the Partrci^^ Xove^, Taught^ ICeU, 
jHuithc like, are often nckeii by die ^chotorfbr Verbs, i>ecauie 
6 the 



the fame WorHsin Sound and Spelling, arc frequently Verbs. And 
whereas it is faid, that the Verb is declined with Mood and Tenfe, 
it does not appear, whether the Mood and Tenfe be in the Verb, 
or fignified by fomething elfc ; which yet ihould have been, to 
Lave made the Definition plain and intelligible. For fometimes 
the Mood and Tenfc is fignified by the Verb, as %Amuto^ *Amatote^ 
Ibmetimes they are fignmed of the Verb by fo^iething elfe, as 
nAmat'ne^ where the interrogative Mood is 'fignified by the Particle 
ar, not by tAma.t^ which differs in nothing from the Indicative 
Mood, and fo cannot of it felf fignifie the Interrogative. And fo 
in the Potential, and Permiffivc, and fome other Moods, in which 
the Mood is fignified by the Senfc or Context,and not by the Verb, 
which has all one Termination with the Subjuncf^ive Mood. It 
mufi: therefore be undcrftood at leaft, that thece is. no neccfllty,, 
that the Mood /hould be in the Word it felf, to bring it under this 
Definition, and make it a Verb. And fo lilcewife oT Tenfe, it is 
not requir'd that it fhould be in the Verb, there being feveral 
Tenfes, which have but one and the fame Termination, and fo 
cannot be diflinguiflved by that alone, but by the fenfe of the Sen- 
tence, or by the Context, as I fliall fhew when I come to treat of 
thofc Tenfes. And now for the Term Declined, it implies a Va- 
riation from fome Primitive, which in the LAtxn Tongue ^1 Verbs 
have not, witnefs Infit^ which is the fole Word, and therefore not 
I>echned. Nay, Words of the Infinitive Mood, fo call'd, have 
both Mood and Tenfe, according to this Grammar, and yet are 
iiot Verbs but Nouns, as I fliall lliew hereafter, when I come to 
treat of that Mood. As for the other part, vi\. Its betokening 
Doc»^, Sufferin^f or Bcin^^ it can by no means enter into the Defini- 
tionof a Verb, there being feveral which fignifie neither Doing, 
nor Suffering, nor mcer Being, as Lihct, Li<\uety Jaceo^ Cubo^ PendeOy 
O^rtet^ Soho^ and the like. Now a Verl) being a Wo^d of that 
nfcfulnefs, both in the Conftrucftion df Sentences, and for the 
Formations that come from it, it mufi: neceflarily be a great in- 
convenience to have it thus obfcurdy and imperfecflly Defic'd. 
And yet this Definition is not peculiar only to this Author,. but 
runs in a manner tlirough all the Grammarians. Wherefore I 
have taken fomething the more pains to come to the bottom of 
this matter, which is at laf^ no more than this. 

The Mind, in its Conceptions of Things, takes notice of Ibme 
as Suhjecfts, and fome as Predicates, and this fame Complex Ap- 
prehenfion is the Ground and Subjcdl oi all Hum<(ne Dif- 
^ourfe. 





tttdl 

cate is affirmed of Homo, a? of its Subjecfi, is the Verb E^l by thq 
iinterpofition of which, they are no longer confider'J as twoindc' 
pendent Words or Things, but the firft as the ^ubje(ft, tlic latter 
as the Predicate ; from whence arifes a diftihcS and con\plete fenft 
9r propofition in the Indicative Mode, or form of Speech. Now 
pis application of fomething to another, as to its .Subie<f^ is eve? 
in the Verbj which waij therefore called Verhum, the Wofd ««7f* i*y}9 
{or excellency fakc> bec^ufe no complete fenf< can b^ without it. 



</^« V E R B. 2f5 

Tis by this therefore that I Define the Verb *, namely, that it is 
4 ?(trt of Speech^ by which fomethin^ is appiyd to unothery m to its SiA- 
jeff- ^ and not by its being Declined with Mood and Tenfe, which 
are not always in the Verb, and even when they are, differ however 
from the Power of Predication, as the Mode or Time from the 
Thing, and therefore are not the immediate Notion 'i^ii 
Verb. ; 

By thif Definition, when it is once under ftood by a little ap- 
plication, which will not be long, where there is a fufficient Ca- 
pacity in the Scholar, it wMl not be hard to find out the Verb itt 
any Language, which the Scholar may be put to Tranflate frona, 
fior to diflrinsuiih it from the Participle of the Preterperfet3: 
Tenfe in En^lijhy where though it be all one in Sound and Spelling, 
yet it differs much in Signification, the Verb and the Noun ma^ 
king a complete Senfe, which the Participle and the Noun dofii 
jiot. But becaufe the Apprehenfions of Mankind are diffintnt, 
and fome things though plain to one, are not fo to another, I hfifc 
try'd to inculcate this another way into fuch Children as v/cvcwk^ 
apprehenfive of the former. 

I refolved the whole Verb into %Am in En^liJJj^ and its feveral V^ 
nations* ' 



c/fm, tjire^ %Art, 
WaSy Were^ Wert., 
Isy g«^, and Been^ 



And allow -d nothing for a Verb, but one of thefe nine Words^ _'^ 
that which imply 'd them. 

For Example ; %Amo I faid was therefore a Verb, becaufe it fig- 
nified as much as Sum tAmant, I am Loving. Legebam was there- 
fore a Verb, becaufe it was as much as Eram Legeus^ I was Read- 
ing, As Ttrence fays, Vt tu fis fciensy for Vt tu fcias. And by th« 
lalt way at leaft, I always found it an eafie thing to make a Ohfld 
ready at finding the Verb, and diftinguiihing it from ail odter 
Parts of Speech. 



.1^^ 



Of 



q 5<5 ^f ^^^^^ Perfof$dldnd Imferfonsl. 



^W^>^^wwp^wimipwwwi^—^^«^w I n f— lit— ^^^f— i^ 



Of Verbs Perfbnal rf»^ Imper- 

fonal. 



GrAmmur^ Eng. ^. I J. 

OF Verbs, fiich as have PcrfoDS, aie called Perfbnal ; 
a$, £^0 Amn^ Tu Amas. And fuch as have no 
Persons, are called Imperfbnal j as, Htdstj \t Irketh j 
Ofortet^ k Bcboveth. 

Animapversion C. 



THis Denomination of thcfc Verbs, is lipproper by dw Cofl- 
ceffions of this Grammar. For if an InfinitiYe Moq4 may 
be the Nominative Cafet6 any oneof thefe VcrbjK or an 
iB^nitiye Propofition, as it may, and is ip a hundred InftaiKef , 
a«d this Grammar allows, then a Noun may be the NominatiYe 
Caie ', and by confequence the Verb is of the Third Person by ^s 
<3rammar> which makes ^ Verb to agree with its KomiiutiYe 
Cafe, in Number and Per/ on, and all Nouns to be of fd^e Third 
Perfon ; and fo it cannot be altogether Imperfonal, which has one 
Perfon. I do not iniif): meerly upon the Grammars calling the In- 
finitive Mood the Nominative Cafe, by which this Author may 
mean only, that it fupplies the ufe of that Cafe only ; but fince it 
is the SubjeA of the Verb, it muft be the Name ot a Thing, for 
nothing elfe can be the Subjed of a Verb, and by confequence it is 
a Noun Subftantive. But properlv Ipcaking there are indeed in 
the Latin Tnneue Imperfonal Verbs ; that is, whofe Subfedt can 
never be a Perfon, but always a Thing, as diftin<ft from a Perfon. 
And this Thing, or Name of a Thing, is indifferent, according 
to the different fignification of Verbs Imperfonal* And that it is 
fbmctimes omitted, is not becaufe, as the Author of the Englijh 
Syntax fays. The Verb Imperfonal has no Nominative Cafe before 
it, (which is downright A^^furdity, that a Verb, which imiplies 
Predication, fliould have no Subjecft to Predicate of, or elfe we 
muft unlearn that Rule, which has pafs'd ail over the World hi- 
therto •, namely, l^ihil nuU^funt affelfiones) but becaufe in fuch Ca- 
fes it is plain by the Senfe, what the Subjecfl, or Nominative Cafe 
muft be, whenevci* it is omitted. But before I proceed to inftance 

in 



Of Verbs Imferfon^l. 257 

in this, which wUI not be proper till I come to Syntax^ where X 
ihali treat at large of the Subjeas of Verbs, it will be rcquiiite in 
the firft place, rightly to enumerate thcfe Verbs Imperfbnals, for 
they are not all fuch which this Grammar accounts fo. The Im- 
pergonals reckoned up by this Grammar in the Rules for tho Go- 
vernment of ImpeHonals in the LAt'tn Syntax^ are, oiccidit^ tJttin" 
nety Benefit^ Certum eft^ Competit^ Conducit^ Confer ty Conftaty Continuity 
Convenit , Decet^ Dedecet^ DcUUaty Difplicet^ DoUt, Efi^ Exfedit, Eve^* 
nity Interefly Juvat^ Libet^ Licet ^ Liquet ^ Mulefity Miferet^ Mifenfcity 
Nocety Obeflj Ofortet^ Patetj Tertinet^ Piget^ Placet^ PrsfCtt^ Pcenitet^ 
Prodeh, Pudet^ Keferty Reftaty Satiffit\ SfeStaty Staty Sufficity SupereH y 
Tadety Vacat, K6w whatever it is which makes a Verb Imperfonal, 
whether becaufe it cannot Predicate of a Perfon, which is my No- 
tion ; or becaufe it has no Nominative Cafe before it, or has only 
the Third Perfon Singular, which is that of this Grammar, (which 
in the Ltuin Syntax fays, NonuulU ImperfonalU remigrant aliauando iff 
Ptnrfonulioy becaufe fome of them are found in the Third Perfon 
Plural) I fay, take it which way we will, feveral of thefe Imperfo- 
nals are found us'd Perfonally upon at leafb one of thefe two Ac- 
counts, and fome upon both* 

tAccidity reckoned among the Imperfonals by this Grammar, i^ 
found in the Third Perfon Plural in cictroy and that in the 
fenfe of happening or falling out, in which alone ic can be ac- 
counted ImperlbnaK As, ^a de hominum atque ordinum omnium 
<rg« te ftudii^ fcribts ad me minime mihi miranday & maxime jucund.t 
%Acciderant, Ad Fam* L. 3. £p. 10. limelum enim ne evenirent 
euy qus %Acctderunt, Id. ad Fam. L. 6, £p. 21. Mihicjue a perituf 
im tAfia. pr^diStum esiy fore eos eventut rerum^ qui oicciderunt. Id* 
Div. L. I. p. 180. If therefore Imperfonals have no Nomina- 
tive Cafe before them, nor any Perfon but the Third Singu- 
lar, oicctdit muft be ftruck out of the Lift upon both Ac- 
<counts. But yet properly fpeaking, after all, it is a Verb Im- 
perfonal, forafmuch as it cannot Predicate of a Perfon, fince 
wc cannot fay, XUc %Accidit effe domiy but oUcidit iltum ejj'e 
domi, 
obtimt is Perfonal too, not only as this Grammar accounts Perfo' 
nal, as having alfo the Third Perfon Plural, and a Nomina- 
tive Cafe, or a Cafual Word in the Nominative Cafe, before 
it, but as Predicating of a Perfon ; as, 

'D, E^o vera bine aheOy quando w, quamobrem hue veneranty 
Rift abiity ilium euro unum^ iUe ad me xAttinet, Tcr, Ad. Ac. ^. 
Sc. 3. 
In me tota ruens Venus 
Cyprum deferuit ; Nee patitur Seythas 
Mt verfij animofum equit 

Parthum dicere : Nee qu£ nihil iAttinent, Hor. L. I. Od. ip. 
^ ^ifMy ilU cultura vitium in vite infity ipfa e^tterjty eredo^ velity quf 
^ colepdam vitem xAtti^ebant, Cic. Fin. 1. 4. p. 229« 
ffrtum efiyis another of this Qrammarian'$ Imperfonals. The moft 
favourable Conftrucftion that can be put upon this, is that £fl 
in this iBxpreffion of Certum esl for Statutum efiy is Imperfonal. 
j£ this be what he means, I grant it y but then it is the fame 

ffi Hifl? ?^IB if> W iM JV?^ fiSfufita^i^n^witl^ Uwt which i> 



258 Of Verhs Imftrfond. 

Perfonal. l€ is indeed ufed here of a Thing, and not of a 
Perfon ; but if there be any Imperfonality here, it is in Or- 
tum^ which is an unufual lignihcation, not in Efiy in which 
there is nothing more than the ufual iignification la this place. 
And that Eji in the fame iigniEcation may be uied Per(bnally> 
there can be no doubt. Nay, even Certm it felf, and even i*^ 
this fignification, is ufed Personally in that of yirgiU 

JEncM'celfk inpuppijam Certm eundi. 
And if Certum tfi muft be a Verb Imperfonal, this Catalogue 
is very ihort *, for Mquum eft^ Pur efly ¥a$ eft^ and many others 
ihould have come in with as good reafbn. 
-^empetity can only be fuppofed to be Imperfonal, when it is taken 
for oL'Ctdit ; as, Non qu^trit ^n mvdicum cloqucntem^ fed fanantem. 
Si tamen it a. Competit^ nt item tile tiuifunare poteB^ compte de ii^y qujt 
facienAufunt^ diljcrat^ fccni confulet. Sen. Ep. 7^. And yet CYCn in 
this ienfe it is not Imperfonal, if the having of a Nominative 
Cafe can make it Perfonal. For, Vt idem ilU qui funare poteft^ 
com,'te de iii qu^ faciendafunt^ differat is the Nominative Cafe, 
and that according to this Grammar, which allows that a 
whole Claule, or lome Member of a Sentence may be the 
Nominative Cafe to the Verb. But properly freaking, it is 
Imperfonal, forafmuch as it cannot Predicate of a Perfon, fo 
as to fay inftead of, Si ita Competit ut idem ilUy 8cc» Si ilU Com* 
petit qui funare poteH comj^te de iis^ qu* facienda frnty fjfe dif- 
ferere, 
Conducit is not an Imperfonal according to the Notion of Imper- 
fonal s delivered by this Grammar ; namely, as not having a 
Nominative Cafe before it, nor any other than the Third 
Perfon Singular. For it has a Nominative Cale before it fre- 
quently, and is found alfo in the Third Perfon PluraL Conducit 
hoc tud laudiy and 2l*€ ad ventris viSfum Conducunt^ are cited by 
this Grammarian himfelf in other Places. Befide which, Ci- 
cero has, £« Maxime Conducunt qus funt re^ijfima. Ad Fam* L. 5* 

Ep. 19. 

Quod non propofito Conducaty 6* hdreat apte, Hor. de Art. 
Neque homini infatiti^ aut impotenti injuffe fa^u Conducunt, Fin. 1. 1. 
So ne elfewhere, and others. But yet properly fpeaking, it is 
Imperfonal, as never Predicating in this fenfe of a Perfon ; fo 
that wc can fay, Cicero magii Conducit reipuh, quam tAntomm^ at 
Jeafl: I have not obferved any fuch Expreffion. Let the Reader 
fee what he can find. 
Corfert has nothing extraordinary in it, that I ^ety but its figura* 
tivc ufe, namely, when it is apply'd to fignine the means to 
fome end, for lilcenefs of Effect, where there is no literal con* 
ferring, or contributing. And in that Cafe it is not only Per- 
fonal, as this Grammar accounts Perfonal, by its having a 
Nominative Cafe before it^and being found alfb in the Third 
Per(bn Plural \ as. In hdc fiudia. incumhite^ naturane plut ad eU' 
c^uentittm Conferat^ an do^rina^ which this Grammar cites upon 
another occafion ; and Caterum ad aftivos caltirestemferandos flnn- 
mum Conferunt falientes rivi, Colum. 1. i. but alfo in the triiC 
notion of a Perfonal, as being Predicated of a Perfbn alfo in 
this fenfe ; as, Multum autem veteres Latini Conferunt^ i. e, adelo* 
quentittm^ qmanquum plus fi^rmoj qthtm 4r$t yalncrttni. Quint. 1. 1* 

ۥ8* 



Vf Verbs Imferfondl. 2 j^ 

%* S« Defenmt enim vits fodet€tem^ t^uU nihil Conferunl in edmftudii'> 
nibU operd^ nihil fdculututn, Cic. de Off. 1. i. p. 13. 

'^flat^ fignifying it is agreed, reci^oned here for an Imperfonal, is 
fo indeed according to the true notion of an Imperlbnal ; that 
is, it cannot Predicate lof a Perfon : But it may have a Ncv 
minative Cafe, as, Quinque igitur funt fortes ejut aygumeutationisy 
qus fer ratioeinationem traifaiu r Eorum qud Confiantj r«- 

empU fonemm : Ecrum^ qua dubiafunty rationes efftremw, Cic» Inv. 
1. 1, p. 50, Thus GroHOviw publiihes it, and though Zamlinuf 
has Confiftant for Conftant^ yet it is plain from the Place it mufl: 
be Con/lanu For he is difputing againfb them who allowed but 
three parts of Argumentation, in behalf of thofe who made 
£ve : Three parts therefore were agreed on all hands, and that 
is it which he muft mean by ConJUnt, There is alfo another 
PaHage of the fame Author, where he has Conftant in the 
iameienfe, namely, Nonus locus t^^ fert^em^ cum aliify qud Con- 
ftant effe feccutdy hoc^ quodeouaflio e^ comfaratur. Id. lb. p»55» 
but here there is fome dilpute. Stephens cites it as here fet 
down, and fo Lumhinus fet 8 it forth, but Gronovius makes it 
Confiat* However thik be, of the firfl: there can be no di- 
fpute. 

mtitigit is Perfonal, as this Grammar accounts Perfonat ; that is» 
it is found in the Third Perfon Plural, with a Kominative 
Calc before it j as, 

Sed jdm out Contigerant illiconnubia, matrisy 

%Autfuerant promiffa tu d Ov. Met. 12. p. 3^o» 

Soceri tiln Marfque Venufque 

Contjgerant Id. Met. 3. p. 54.. 

Where it is Perfonal alfo ftri^ly fpeaking, for it Predicates of 
a Perfon. But in other Senfes it cannot Predicate of a Perfon. 
As for Example : There is no iayin^ Ego Coutigi ejje domi^ I 
happened to be at home ; or, lUe Contigit efft domiy He happen- 
ed to be at home > but Me Cont^git ejfe domiy Xllum Contigit ejfc 
domi, 

wvemV, in the fenfe of Decet^ is properly Iraperibnal, as never 
Predicating of a Perfon. For th*e is no faying in Ldtiny itle 
Convenit fiudio opirdtn dare^ He ought to Study, but Ilium conft^nit 
fMio opftTdm dare. Neither in this fenfe can it have a Cafual 
Word, but only an Infinitive Mood, or Proportion Infini- 
tive for its Subjecfl. But when it fignifies being agreed upon, 
in which fenfe alfo it may pafs with tome for an Imperfonal, it 
jnay have not only a Cafual Word, but even a Perfon for its 
Subje^ ; as, In tempore poftquam ardeutia procul videt caftra. m^gi- 
fter equitum (id fgnum Convenerat) boftium terga. invakit^ Liv« 
JDec. 1. 1. 9. p. 3^0. Nunciarentque ei utfi pax Convent j[ety fine p/etio 
fos Carth^imenfibus redderet, Liv» Ita pax Convenerat^ ut Etru^ 
feisy JLatinifque fluvim tMbuU^ quern nunc Tiber im vocajityfitis ejfet^ 
Id. Dec. I. L I. p. 3. and elfe where. 

Bal. Hem dliutfervos hue ad me argentum attuHt 
J^f chfignatum fymbdum. Si. Quid pofteu ? 
Bal. Qui ii^er me atquf ilium militem Cowtnerdtm Plaut» 

Pfeufl. Ac. 4. Sc. 6, 

L 1 3 And 



s6o t)f Verhs Imferfond. 

And To much for the Cafual Word ; now for a Perfini bein^ 
the Subjed, there is that of QMntilUm^ in fortum vem, navim 
f^ofptxiy quunti Vehertt interrogans de p'retio ConVrni, Inft« L 4* C 2; 
Vi^cet is confeft by this Author, to be one of thofe which pafs iome- 
timcs into a Perlbnal, as having the Third Perfon Plural, and 
the Nominative Cafe of a Cafual Word for its Subjecf);,. as ap- 
pears by the Examples which he fubjoynsto hit Rule, Non- 
nulla ImperfonalU remtgrant uliquando in PerfonalU,But then Dedecety 
tof which he fays nothing, nor any Body elfe that I know ofjaf-* 
fords Dedecui with a Nominative of a Perfon once inStatm, 
Si non Dedecui tua julftt^ tulique prtmentem 
S^pe veniy fdpc banc djgnare irrumpere mentemm Theb. lOt 
V. 334. 
It has alfo a Nominative of a Cafual Word in the Singular; 

Quid Deceat^ <\uid non^ <juo virtusy quo ferat error, Hor. de 
Arte;; and others. 
t>ele^at is ONvn*d by this Author, ibmetimes to pafs into a Peribnal, 
but then he gives no other inftance of it, than its having a 
Nominative Cafe of a Thing ; as, *^ffricolam arbor ad frugem 
frodu^a DeUcfat, But the truth of the matter is, this Verb is 
never Imperfonal ; that is, it never fignifies any thing which 
may not be Predicated of a Perfon, for when I lay, t^dua 
fr*pera[fe Dde&aty it is the fame DeU^aty as \yhen I fay, %Ardu4, 
fuper.indofe DeUSfat, There is no other difference, but that 
in one it Predicates of a Thing, in the other of a Perfon, but 
the figiiiiication of the Verb, is the fame in both. And if a 
Verb muft be called Imperfonal, as often as it does not Predi- 
cate of a Perfon, though it have the capacity of doing fb, this 
Author is very Hiort in the account he gives of Imperfbnah, 
to which fhould have been added feme hundreds more, if this 
be the notion of an Imperfonal. Now for inftances ^ its 
Predicating of a Perfon, take thefe that follow. Tu ifte te%Athf 
tiano Jure DcU^ato : Ego me hie HirtianOy Cic ad Fam. 1.9.£p.l8. 

/r4(pr aut lihrK me Velettoy Cic. ad At. 1. 2. £p. 6* and fb he and 
others frequently, 
piff licet is Perfonal, not only as having a Cafual Word for its 
Subjed, but alfo a Perfon, as, Difpliceo mihiy nee fine fummo do' 
lorefcrihoy Cic. ad At. L, 2. Ep. 18. And elfewhere, £beu ^im 
ego nunc totut difpUceo mibi, Ter. Heau. A. 5. Sc. 4* 
JOolety in the fenfc of this Author's Example, is indeed ipropctly 
Imperfonal. Dolet diS^um imprudently adolefcentiy & iwero^ ic. 
AoloYcm fert, or efficit,But it is not confiftent in thisAuthor to call 
it fo for the fake of this Example, who allows a Verb to pSt 
into a Perfonal, by having a Cafual Word for its Nomina- 
tive Cafe ; for fuch is Di^um here, the Nominative Cafe to 
JDolet. A lib in that ofTerencey it has not only a Cafual Word 
; for its Subje(fl, or Nominative, but a Pronoun, which is a fort 
>of Perfonality. 

■ Thaity -7hiMy utinam effet mt'H, 

Pars aqua amoris telum ; ac pafiter fieret 

Vt aut hoc tihi Doleret itidumy ut mibi Dolet ; 

'\4t*t ego iftud gbs tefa&um nilAli.fendcrem. Tcr. £un« Ac u 

\ £ft 



Of Verbs IfHp^irfonAL 1261 

mi by the Nature of its Signification may certainly Predicate of 
aH manner of SubjetSs, whether Perfonal, or Imperfonal. 
And if this be all the Author nrt'eans, it is fo very plain by its 
fignification, that there is no need to Notifie it in a Gram- 
mar. And the rankine of it thus, without any diftiii<^iohj 
with fo manv other Veros, which can never be Perfonal, ierves 
only to bewilder, and confound the Reader. 

£vemt does not only frequently pafs into a Perfonal, according to 
thisAuthor'g notion of Perlonalityjas having the third Perfon 
Plural with a Nominative Cafe of a Cafual word before 

^h *» . . ^ 

Non hac fine nnmine divnin 

Eyeniunty' Virg. ^n.2. p. 137. / 

Eveniunt Optuta dtd^ Ov. Met, 6, p.i 12. But Predicates al* 
fb of a Perfon, as 

Hofhhus EvenUt lento, puella meis. Prop. L. 3. El. 8. 
and yet with an Infinitive Mood, or a Subjuncflive, with ut 
it is not applicable to a Perfon. For inftance, it is not allow- 
able to fay Evenit ille mori^ but Evenit ilium mori^ or ut tile mo^ 
rnetur, 
Sxfedit alfo pafTes into a Perfonal, as far as having a Nominative 
Cafeofa Cafual word will make it fo, which is this Author's 
Notion of a Perfonal. For Cicero has Xon quo quidquam minus 
CMfari Exfediat ad diuturmtaUm dominationisy ad At. L. 7. Ep,22. 
^Mti duhtabant quid optimum effety Multi quid fibi Expedirety i'o 
pro M. MarceL 'Tis found alfo in the Third Pcrlbn Plural, 

I Omnium primum 

olmoris artes eloquar^ quemadmodum Expediant^ Plaut. Trin, 
Ac 2. Sc I. 
lAcet is Perfonal, if having the Third Perfon Plural will make it 
fo. For Seneca fays, Quoniam fub dijpari titulo pana in illos Licent* 

Ben. 1.3. c. 1 8. 

Ob^A C arenoothcrwifelmperfonals, than becaufe they fometimes 
Predicate of things, not of Perfons, and particularly of an 
Infinitive Mood, or Propofition Indefinite, but then they 
have alwafys a capacity of Predicating of Perfons in the fame 
Senfe, and fo ought not to have been ranked with the Iniper- 
fonals, properly fo called, without diftindion. 

l^dfet in theTranflated Scnfe fignifying being plain or manifefl, is 
indeed Imperfonal, as never Predicating but of an Infinitive 
Mood or Propofition, as it cannot be faid lUe Pant effe doHusy 
but Tatet ilium effe doStum^ yet as Relative to the Infinitive it 
may have, Hoc^ jd^ Quod^ or fuch like for its Nominative, as 
IlU do&us efty quod Fatet omnibus, Nempe Ilium doEtum ejj'e, 

Tertinet fignifying belonging or appertaining to, fliould not by this 
Author have been called an Imperfonal, as having the Nomi- 
native Cafe of a Cafual word before it, and being found alfo 
to have the Third Perfon Plural, which in his Account make 
it Perfonal, Vtjam ad f<xdus veniam quod ad cat/fam nihil pertitut, 
Cic. pro Balb. p. 588. and fo he and others frequently. Ncc 
veto DOC oratio meaadinfirmandum fa:dus Gaditunorum}Udices Fertinet^ 
9d« lb. P. 58. Simflicem praterea^ 6 communcm^ ^^confentienttmy 

& 



a(J 2 Of Verbs Imferfind/. 

& <iui rebus iifdem moveaiur^ eli^i fur efl \ ^un ommn TertineM aS 
fidelitatem^ Cic. de Atnic* p. 1^79 I68» £t mamme ea tp*4 ud u-w 
fum navium Fertinerenty froviderc injiituunty Caef. Bel. Gal. 1. 3. 
p. 55. 
TUc^t is no otherwUe ImperfonaU than as it may Predicate of an. 
Infinitive Mood or Propoiition ; but then in the, fame Senfe 
alfo it is Perfonal, in a T houfand Inftances. For whether it be 
a thing that pleafes,or a Perfon, the pleafing in both is flili the 
fame ; yet with an Infinitive Mood or Propofition Indefinice> 
it is not allowable to fsiyPlacet'ne ttbi mc Romum proficifcijbut PU* 
cet'ne ttbi me KomAtn proficifci. Or ut e^o Romam froficifcarm 
lanitet is ufed indeed Imperfonaliy : but then it is ufed PerfanaiJy 
too in the belt Authors. yoJJUus fays Pixmteo tftsoMe fro Pcmta 
me PriJ.i dixifft videntur. And then alledges out Otjt^tin,, Primi 
Pcxnitert caper unt. And out o( oipuleius^ Citm c^perisfer'o Fttnitere^ 
But there is much better Authority^not only to prove that this 
word was fo uied by the Ancients, but alfo that is lawfiii now 
to ufe it fo. But firfl: for that of Jufiin^ to make it plain that 
it is there ufed Perfonaily, the whole Sentence is %>itbenienfes, 
Jicuti primi defecerunt : It a primi Pixnitern Cdptfrunt^ l.ll, p. X07. 
JEtolos quoqtie <puan<\u<tm non fecuti fint r('^emyj<fd Accerfierint^ 6* in^ 
ctf btlliy non focii fuerint : Si Pcenitere pojfint^ fojje fSr incolumes ejfe, 
JLiv. 1. ^6. p. (^78. where he plainly intends it Perfbnally, O' 
therwi^ he would have faid St Pamtrre los poffit, Deinde utrum 
id [acinus Jity Quad Panittre fuerit neceffcfiiclnw . \» 2 p. ^O. For 
in the Imperlbn4l ufe, the thing repented of, i^ always in the 
Genitive. Neqne mibi unquam venit in menttm Crajfo iuviderey 
neque Pcenitere^ ^uod ipfe a me non defcivrnm , Cic. ad At. L. 2. 
£p 4. where 'tis plain it fignifies to repent, and is attributed 
to the Perfbn. So Latro in Salluftium non modo non Panituity fed 
rmfus aliofurori awejfit. There needs no further Proof than 
this ; but if the Reader be not yet fatisfied, let him confider 
the following inftances in the ufe of the Participles, and 
Gerunds, where he will fee that the fignification of the word 
muft of neceffity be apply 'd to the Perfon. And firft of the 
Participle of the Preient Tenfe. Sub exitu vitdtjigna tfUdidam^ 
nee obfcura^ Panitentis df matrimonio x^gripfin^^ detfy Neronis adopti- 
ene dederaty Suet. Vit. Claud, c. 43. Cum & frdlium 6* inctn' 
Aium e Tiberiana frofpiceret domo inter epulas^ non multa^fufi fttmitens 
fi^iy 6^ . Suet. vit. Vitel. c. 1 5. Portus optimus Potmitenti >w»- 
tatio confiHiy Cic. Phil. 12. And for the Participle of the Fu- 
ture in rusy Salluft has Non Paniturum for non punitentiam aitu- 
rum. And though j^mnrtVun ccnfures him for it, ikying Z/^i 
eo procejfum efty ut non fceniturum pro non panitentuim a&nrum Sd- 
lufiiw dixerity yet it may be that was for want of confidering 
thele inftances, and that ^cciiu had gone before him in it, who 
has neque fr, neaue imenquam arbitror Pceniturum laudis. 

For the Participle or the Future in dus, there is that of Se^ 
necuy Vanas fuggerit Voluftates^ breVes^ Pctnitendai^ Ep. 23. Smbbaud 
Pcenitendo magiftroy Liv. 1. 1. Itaque hie ager colono eft Pitmtendusy 
Colum. 1. 2. c. 2. Gens fluina. reip. baud quanquam Pmntenda, Suet. 
Vit. Vefp. For the Gerunds, Sed non fenatui libertm dd Psniten* 
dum erat, Tac. An, 3. Non eft ejus frsceftoris Ptmittndttmy 
Sal. in Jug. Sdfiufify relinquk cavfat Pitnitemdi^ qfwn rtco- 

ddtidiy 



Of Verbs Im^rfonal. 2^6 j 

Jiani'i'^ Cic, Fin. L. 2. p. 173. oilexandrum regem videmtu^ qu 
<um iuttremijfet Clytum^ famiUarem Juunty vix a f« manus 4ibftinuit^ 
tanta, VPt fuit Pcenitendi. Cic, T. Q. 1. 4. p. 44,7. 

And all this confidered, I think 'tis probable that whenever 
the Accufative of the Perfon is not with Pvnittt, it is in^ 
tended Perfonaily, as 

^o^iue fuo propior fceltrri^ mn^it horrety 6" aufi 

Panitet Ov. Met* J. 10. V. 4^1. 

Turn viola J e deum^ qudim non u^nojfe nefotem 
Paenitei Id. Met. 4, V. ^13. 

Pr^c/lti is indeed uled Imperfonally when its Subje<fl is an Infinitive 
Mood, or a Propofition, as, Pr^tfintftrrmrtuternvmori^ quam per 
dcdecus yivere^ But then it is Perfonal too in the fame fignifi- 
cation, as, Prafiut ingenio alim alium. Where there is no diffe- 
rence in the figniiication of Pr^ftat^ being ufed in the fame 
tranflated fenfe in both. 
frodefl is alio fometimes ufed Imperfonally, that is, its Subje^ is 
not a Perfon, but an Infinitive Mood or Propofition ; but 
then in the fame fignification it may alfo be ufed Perfonally ^ 
as llU Profts, Ter. Fun. Ac. 5. Sc. 5. And fo he and others in a 
thoiifand other Places. 
^udety though it be ufed Imperfonally, is yet ufed Perfonally too ; 
as, PUnquc omtusy or, homines j quos cum nihil reftrt Pudtnty ubi 
pudendum eftjlU tos defcrit fudor^ cum ttfu'fl ut Pudtant, Plaut. Ep. 
Ac. 2. Sc I. 

So Ita, nunc PudeOy Plaut. Caf. Ac. 5. Sc. 2. 
So that it does not only pafs into one of this Autiior's 
Perfbnals as having the third Perfon Plural, and a Nomina- 
tive Cafe before it, but is Perfonal alfo in the proper Notion 
of Perfonality, as applying its fignification to a Ferfon, or 
Predicating of him. 
TieJUtjchou^ it have fometimes an Infinitive Mood,or Propofition 
for its Subjecfl, is neverthelefs Perfonal for that. For when it 
i$ laid, 

Ire t4men reHdt Kumu ^0 devenity t5r tAncus^ Hor. 1. I . Ep. 6* 
and Reftat ut hi* rejpondeam^ qui fermonihus ejufmodi nolint 
ftnrfonas tarn graves aUigariy Cic. Ac. 4. Rtftat is all one 
with that of Tfr. 
Kefiut Chfttmes qui mtbi exoranddt efiy Andr. Ac. I. Sc i. 
Sointhefirft Perfon 

— -.— — Nunc ego refloy Hor. 1. i. Sat. p: 
Sedet ihould have been here as well as Stat, For in the Tranfiated 
Senfe, when it fignifies to be refolv'd on, it cannot predicate 
of a Perfon, it being not allowable to fay Vie Sedet hocfacere ia 
thisSenfe, hut lUifedet hocfacere^ as 

Si nabi non animofixum immotumque Seder et 
Ne cui me vinclo vellem fociare jugali^ Virg, ^n. 4. p. I^o. 
Sedji noftra Dares bac Troiw arma recufat^ 

Jdq\ pio Sedet JEnea^ probat autor tAcefies, Ncmpe ft Dareta bac 

4trma recufure Sedet Mnea^ Virg. J&Ji, 5. p. l^2» \ 

Supereft fignifying remaining, or being over and above, is indeed 

ufed fometimes imperfonally, if being Predicated fometimes 

of ai^ Infinitive Mood, or Proportion, can make ic Jmpcr- 

ibnal, as 



a64 Of Verbs ImferfonAl. 

TervigiUm fupereft herhiifophe Araconem^ Ov. Met. I. 7. V.i4p. 
But then Supertjl is Predicated of a Pcrlon by the fame 
Author, as 
Soluf xJiMHttades Ji> Qr'i^ine cretm cadem 
tAcriftm Supcrefl^ Ov. Met. L. 4. V. 60S, And of this there 
arc a thouiand inflances. 
T^Act is not fo entirely Irapcrfonaljbut that tAgeUiw^ a carious Cri- 
tick ufcs the Compound Pm^tittj/Jl-wr Perfonally. For 1. i.c.2. 
Thus he fays, Hm tile itMni^ cum flargt ^loriaa^ jsmqut omntsfinem 
cuper'cnt^ verbifque eiw defatigati Pertddutjfent, 

Fkcat is put down here for an Iniperfonal againft aJi the reafbn ia 

the World, for it is a meer Imperfonal. Imperfonally indoecL 

it is ufed fomctimes, as ^f 

Non vucut txigupf nbw adeffc Jovu ,; 

But then in the fame Senfe it may be faid, ^' 

. Jupiter non l^ucut adeffe exiguis rebus, ^ 

For Ttmpus^ in fuch Cafe as the Conftrudtion requiresyis to Lr 
imderflood in both» as 

Jovi non vacat tempus, or Jupiter non vacat tempore^ 
For proof of this, take the following inftances. In itineref^ 
lutus ceteris curis huic uni Fdcabat^ Plin. Ep, 5. L J. Nullum tern* 
fus illi unquam V<xcabai aut a forenfi dMone^ auty oCC, Cic. Brut. 
De quibm quid ipfe ftntiam^ fi placet^ exponam^ it a tamen ji Vor 
cas animOy neque habeas aliquidy quod pravertendum huicfermoni futes, 
£go vera inquam^ Pbilofopbidiy ^inte^femper Fuco, Cic. Div. 1, i, 
p. 1 59, I think thcfe are fufficicnt to clear this point, and the 
Reader, if he obferves, cannot but meet with many more. 

I think therefore upon the whole matter, that the Denomi- 
nation of thefe Verbs is very improper, and that they Aoold 
rather have been call'd Innomina],than Impedbnal, thcnigh e- 
ven that would not have agreed with all of them, manyhaTr 
ing Nouns for their Subjccfls. But to have fpoke to the pur« 
pofe in this Cafc,and fo as to give any ufeful diredion for the 
writing or fpeaking Latin, it was neceffary to have confideredi 
that bciide what may be known by the iienification of the fe<- 
veral Verbs *, there arc fome which , by the peculiar ufe 
of the Latin Tongue, may predicate of Perfbns only, or 
things taken Perfonally. Others of Perfons or things ; 0- 
thers of things only. And of thefe lafl: fbme may Predicate 
of fuch things as are reprcfented by Cafual Nouns, others only 
of Infinitive Moods, commonly fo called, or Propofitions Ip* 
definite. And accordingly the divifion of Verbs in this Re- 
fpecT, iliould have been mto Perfonal and Imperfonal, partly 
Pcrfonal, partly Imperfonal : and of Imoerfonal into Nomi- 
nal and Innominal.But the aflbrtment made by this Grammar 
of fo many words of various Conftrudion altogether with- 
out any diftin<ftion, is of no manner of Edificatioi^ 9nd fervc^ 
only to puzzle and blunder the Reader. 



oj 



Of Verbs. 2^5 



Of the T)iviJion of Verbs into 

their kinds. 



Grammar f Eng. />. 13. 

OF Verbs Perfbnals there be five kinds j j^tfhe, Paf- 
fhcj Ncuterj Dcpoyicnt and Common* And accord- 
ingly in the Latin Grammar. 

Animadversion CI. 



ALL Verbs by their Signification muft be A<ftive, PalliTC^ 
or Neuter* Becaufe this la A: being a mcer negation of th» 
other two, muft of necclTity be fuppofed to Comprize the 
reft. And no Verb can be ufcd at one and the fame time, in more 
than one of theie Significations. But becaufe it happens that fome 
Verbs aftd Actively, in fome Places, are found alio to fignify Pai^ 
iiyely mothers ^ upon this Account the Branch of Commons comet 
well enough in. But for Deponents they feem to have no right to 
a Place in this Divifion. Becaufe having laid afide their Paffive 
fignification (from whence they are cali'd Deponents from fhpcno) 
which they formerly had, they now remain meer Adives in ngni^ 
fication^ and the PalTive fienification which they once had, but have 
now loft, is of no u(e to know their fignification or conftrudion| 
which can be the only advantage of this Divifion. ' 



Mm of 



^66 Of Verbs Ntuter. 



i 



Of Verbs Neuter. 

That there Ate fuch in the Latin Tongue. 



THerc needed no more to be faid npon this Head, had not 
Sun^ius^ the great Reftorer, or rather the firft Author of 
Grammar Learning, by what Miflake I know not, with 
fo much Solemnity, to fay no worfe, rejected Verbs Neuter out of 
the Diviiion, in which he brings in Scali^er, and other great Men 
to abet him. Wherefore having admitted Verbs Neuter into this 
Divifion J am obliged to juftify my felf againft SanSt'ius and others; 
and to do him and the Argument Juftice, 1 ihall Tranfcribe what 
he fays upon this Head, which is as follows. 

Grammatici n.jcio quo errore induffi^ verba omnia in quinquf genera di- 

vifcrnnt^ lAcHvunty Paffivumy Neutrum^ Commune^ /7f|>0RCitf, Nobis au* 

^em, inquit Caf, Scali^er^ Satis fit univerfum verborum ambitum in 

duo dividere, qua: A<^ionem dc pafllonem, fignificent ; quemad- 

snodum horum utrumq; ad unum, quippe ad ipfum EST, quod 

ell utriufq-, radix &C fundamentum« Hunc: Scali^evirationem^ fie con- 

firman pojjumus J Philofophia^ id efty rei^a^ 6* in cor/upta jtHlicandi ratioy 

nullum 'One edit medium inter a^ere^ & fati \ omnts. namely niotus out <- 

ifio ejl^ aut fuj/io ; imo^ fi xcm fenitus infpictM^ tfff lo, & faffio^ nihil dif- 

ferunt^ niji ratione quadam^ ficut Aclive (sr Declive. id tfuod docet 

tAriflotelcs 3. Phyfies Cap, 3. ^are quod in rerum nutura nou eft^ ne nfintn 

€^uidem huhehit. Nihil enim agens, inquit Cicero ne cogitari quidem 

poted quale fit. 2. Academ. idem Jecundo de Natura dfor, HM 

inquit qui nihil agit efCe omnino non videtur. Sl^d igitur ^ent verU 

ineutra^ fi nee xMtva^ nee Pajjiva funt 9 nam fi agit^ aliquid 4git \ fi vivitj 

aliquo vivit.: cur enim conced.im rem agentem in verbis^ qns meutravocAS? 

ft tollis quid agant ? xAn nefcii omnem caufam ejjicientem deberc neccjfano 

effeBum yroducere ? Delnde etiam effeEtum ne foffe confiftere fine cavfi f 

Sj*anto re^ius lAriftotelcs^ qui libro primo de generatione 6* interttu ajferit^ 

in omni actionc alterum cSe quod agat, alterum quod pktiatur. 

%A Philofophis^ inquif ifta fum'is \ metutbam ne a lenonibns dieere$\ q^P 

ulU fit arsy qua p<jffit effe a ratione alietta. Itaque verba ncutra nequeulk 

funty neq\ naturaeife poffunt^ quoniam illorum nulla pot eft demonfirari de^ 

Jinitto, Sedfi Philofophos fpernis^ audi eiiam Grammatieos antiqnos, ffi' 

feianus^ Verbum eft pars orationis cum temporibm, fine cafu, a- 

gendi velpatiendi, ficnificativum. Hac, m^urr, definicione omnia 

|:am finita, quam iniinita verba comprehenduntur ; & nfn^r* etiaffl 

qujB dicuntur abfoluta \ 6- deponentia omnino naturaliter vel in a^u 

funt, Vet in paffione. Eadem fere xAnton. Kebriff, X. 3, Verbum, in^^f 

eft pars orationis dedinabilis, cum modis, Sc temporibus, ^c^^ ' 

tel paticndi fignificativa. %Apertius Cafar Sctdiger 9 Qiiibus inq^y 



I'. 



Of Verbs Neuter. 267 

tnanifeftum eft, verba neutra noil efTe ab acJ^ivis fcjun^fta. Vatetr 

tur ifaque omnes ^uum rationem aAmittunt ducem^ Verba tantum in tASliVit 
6- Pajfiva poffe DiviJi., Now all the Strength that there is in this Ar- 
gument, turns wholly upon the Dodrine of Caufe and Effccft ; 
namely. That there is nothing that can be Predicated of a Subjcd:, 
but muft be either Caufe or Hffed. If it be a Caufe it muft ad, 
if an Effed it muft fuffer the Adion of fome Caufe ; and by con- 
fequence all Verbs muft in nature be either Adive, or Paflive. This 
indeed is true, inpointof Philofophy, where all things are driven 
as far as they will go, and where we do not fit down contented with 
the bare Appearances of things, but go on to examine into their 
Caufes. But in point of Grammar the Cafe is otherwife ; for 
Grammar ferving only to reprefent our Conceptions fuch as they 
arc, and not to form them Philofophically into what they fliould 
be y fince we have Neuter Conceptions, Grammar muft allow of 
Keuter Verbs to exprefs them by. Thus in 

DurOf F/4Vtfo, Jaceo^ Oportet^ which is no more than opw eft, or opor- 
tunuin eft^ or opm orium cfty quiefco and the like } all that we ge- 
nerally conceive, is the ftate of the Thing, without confider^ 
ing the caufe whence it came to be-fo, which in many Cafes is 
too abftrufe and obfcure for us to conceive. Beiidc, if it be 
fufiicient to make a Verb Paflive, becaufe it muft have fome 
caufe, I do not fee but the Verb Sum^ which this Author ex- 
cepts in the Title of this Chapter, and afterwards, and allows 
to be a Neuter ; I fay, I do not fee, but that by this Rule, it 
muft be a Paflive ; For it alfo muft have fome caufe, whatevct 
is any thing, having of ncceflity fome caufe why it is fo. Nay, 
every Verb Adive will be a Paflive too upon this account ; for 
%Amo can no more be without fome caufe, than %Amor, Further^ 
all Defining, and Dividing in the Analogical part of Gram- 
jnar, being to make us rightly apply the Rules in Syntax ; 
for inftance in the Cafe before us, to luiow the Agent from 
the Patient: becaufe if the Verb be Adive, the Agent muft be 
in the Nominative Cafe, the Patient in the Accumtive *, if the 
Verb be Paflive, the Agent muft be in the Ablative Cafe with 
the Prepofition a or 46, or the Dative, and the Patient in the 
Hominative : I fay, this confidered, there is a further reafon 
to allow of Verbs Neuter in this Divifion, becaufe of the dif- 
ferent conftrudion of thefe Verbs, and thofe that are either 
Adive, or Paflive. And though fome Verbs Neuter arc found 
in the Paflive Termination ; as, 

KAmatur^ ir Egetur acriter, Plautt Pfeud. Ac. I. Sc. 3. 
^*id agitur Sagarifiio ? Vt l^aletur ? Id. Perf. Ac 2. Sc. 5, 
^afi cum Caletur maxime cochle* in occulta latent. Id. Capt. 
Ac. I. Sc. I, 
Yet this is no more than what may be expcded from the in- 
confideration of Vulgar ufe, which many times comes to ob- 
tain among the more knowing. The like has happened in 
Toffum^ 2ueoy and Nequeo^ which I can never think to be other 
than l^eucer Verbs ; as, 

;^1 m 2 p^um 



268 



Of Verbs Neuter, 



Demum igitur^ cum fenex fis^ in otium 

Tc collocesy dum Poteftur, Plaut. Mere. Ac, 3, Sc, 2* 

Laticem pertufum congercre in vaSy 
2noA tamen expUri nulla raticne Poteftur, Lucr, 1. 3. p. 9U 
Cudcre enim crebr§ pojfunty partemque morariy 
Dum venunt tdiay ac fuppleri fumma Hucatur, Jd« L« I* 
p. 29. 

So Ter, Hec, Ac. 4. Sc. i. Vorma in tenebris nofci non Quito, eft. And 
Vt Netpntur comprimi*, Plauc. Rud. Ac. 4. Sc, 4. The fame rea- 
ion may be ^iven of the Accufative Cafe of a Cognate Noun 
being fometimes joyn'd with fomc of thefe Verbs, as, Inftnuim 
Jnfanire, Sen. de Vit. Beat. Infmire errorem. Hor. Sat. 2« and 
of thofe more common Expremons, Vtvere vtrom, Servirc fervid 
tutem. Namely, That it is a Pleonafm brought in at £rfl: by 
the Incogitancy of the Vulgar, and followed afterwards by 
better Authors, rather than to fuppofe, that the like Accufa- 
tive is to be underftood with all fuch Verbs, which is ever 
needlefs, and when added adds nothing to the fenfc^ which is 
the fame without it, as with it. Befide that, iome of thefe 
Verbs, as Stnnno and Vivo are in fome meafure A<^ive in thefe 
ExprefTions, and may be fuppos'd to mean the fame with 0^0, 
fo that yivere vt/am may bew^Serr vitam. But with nAtbeOy %4l[u* 
effco Careo^ ^f//0) ConfuefcOy Duro^ EgfOy Eruhefcoy ExceUo^ Kivro, 
tUveoj F/^gro, JaceOy Impendeo^ Indig<Oy Madeo, Mane^y Perenno^ 
PUceOy 2j*iefco^ Sapio, St^deOy Sitioy SoleOy Sto with its Compounds, 
Sum with its Compounds, T^crco, yiziloy Voloy this Cognate Ac- 
cufative is never &und, and ther<;K>re they are Neuters both 
in Signification and Conftrudion. But of this more in SwttXy 
where I ihall take what care I can, by Alphabetical Lius, to 
fettle the Conftrudion of thefe Verbs, which for want of 
that (the cufbom of our Language, and that of the HQmans 
differing in this Point) has been hitherto liable to be mi- 
flaken. 



t|>i >w»*» 



WW*- 



-^^mm 



■••■ 



0/ 



k' 



Of Verbs Common. 269 



Of Verbs Common. 

That there arejuch in the Latin Tongue. 



THc fame San^ius rcie<fls alfo Verbs Common out of tkis Di- 
viiioA, as being obfolece. His Words are, i^um i^tur in 
ufu fuerunt Verba. communUy nulla erant deponentiuy nunc tjuin 
funt d^fonentia^ nulla, erunt communia : Sluis enim nunc Utini dicat-^ 
Tu amplecfleris a me, 6* Tu ofcularis a me, 6* Liber interpretatur 
praeceptore. J confefsc indeed, that Ofculor which is given as an in- 
fiance of Verbs Common in this Grammar, E^g, p. 13. Lat, p. 42^ 
is never us'd in the Paifive, that I know of, fo that Ofculor 4 te, it 
only this Author's Latin, But then it is certain, chat there are o* 
thers ufiad both in the Aiftive and PaiTivc Signiiication by good Au^ 
thors;, and becaufe this Author will not allow it to be a proof of 
the Verb being common, becaufe the Participle of the Preter 
Tenie it found, to be us^d fo, I iliall inftance in the Verbs them- 
felves. They are thefe ^vhich follow, of whofe Adive figniiicati- 
on there is no doubt 5 and therefore I ihall content my felf to pro- 
duce only the Paflive* 

Adipifcor. Non *tute^ verum in^enio \Adififitur fapientia, Plaut. 
Trin. Ac. 2. Sc. 2. 

Afpernor. Qui bahet ultro apfetitur ; qui eft j^aufer^ otfpernatur, Cic. 
ad Nepot. as quoted by Prifcian, 

Comitor. Jam in publico vifuntur^ jam falutantur^ jam Comitantur^ 
Juftin. 1. 30. p. 254. 

Criminor. Criminor defenJere res SyUanas^ i. e. oiccufor, Cic. contr. 
Rull. Or. 2. 

Dignor, alfo is cited by VoJfiu6^ out of OV. de Inv. Obfervantiu eft^ per 
quam homines uliqua digmtate antecedentcs cultu quodam^ & honors 
Di^nuntur, Res diffimiUs inttrfe^ qua tamen conjtmili laude Dignen^ 
tur. Id. lb. and elfewherc. And whereas San^iut fays, Quit 
nunc dicat ? As if no Verbs were now to be us*d in both Voi- 
ces, 'tis certain c^^f//fM has imitated Ctarointhis, 1. 11 c. 2. 
Ele^uns diSfm antiquitw non ob ingenii elegantiam y ftd qui nimia leSto^ 
amcenoque cultu effet, Poflea elegans refrehendi quidem defnt J jed nul- 
la laude dignttbatuTy nifi cujus elegantia erat tnoderutijfima, 

Pominor, is quoted in the Pafldve by cic, out of an Ancient Poet. 
Off. 1, 1 . p. 57, 

Domw antiqua^ heu, quam difpari Dcminitre domino. In this 
^rdcr Kojfiw cites it. ~ 

Fatcor, 



2^0 Of Verbs Comtnon. 

Fateor, is ufed in the Pifltve even by Cicero ; as, Qum eft iflu Mqmtm 

C€teroSy etiam fi privutifunty fcrmitHre ut ptblicijudicentur : Hum* 
excipere nominAtim^ <]ui pt^tcm effe Vateatur^ Cic. de Leg. Agr. 
contr. Rull. Or. i . p. 43 x • 

Hortor. fUcitumdtindc non ultra, contari : Sed defignatum confulem 
Mcmmium Pollioncm ir^entihus fromijps inducunt fententUm expro^ 
mercj qua Hortaretur CUudtm defpondere Off^aviam Domtio, Tac« 
An. 12. p. 373. 

Potior, is ufed Paflllvely frequently in FUutut ^ as, 

^0 poftqitam gnatus turn Potitm eft horftum^ 
Expertrnqtantifuerity nunc defidero. CapC. Ac. I.Sc. 2. and 

elfewhere. 
Sector, is ufcd Paffivcly by V<xrro \ as Keque eorum quifquum fecerit^ 

quod in a^riculturX Saferna, prscepit, qui velletfe 4 cane Seffari^ uti 

ranam ohjtciat coEtam, R. R. 1. 2. C. 9. 
Stipulor, is proved alio by Prifcian to be ufed both Actively, and 

Paflivcly, as Latoriaj qua vetat minorem *«v. annis Stifuluri, Suct. 

4. Prastorum. He quotes alfo Livy and Plautm for the fame, 

but I cannot find the Paflages. 
Tucor, is ufcd Paffively by Koto, as, Jtaque nonfine caufa majwes no* 

ftri ex urbe in i^gris redizebant fuos civesy quod 6" in pace a vsijHcis Rc- 

manis alehantuvy & tnoelloabbis Tuehantur. RR, 1. 3. c. I« 

Other Authors afford more, but I have confined my lelf upon 
this Head to thefe which are unexceptionable ; and I can fee no 
reafon why we may not imitate them in this, as well as in other 
Matters, which are lefs frequent, and yet allowed even by S^n^m 
himfelf. 



/ 



0/ 



Depnition of a Verb ABive, vji 



Of the Definitions cf fever al 
Kinds of Verbs. 



A 



Of the Dejimtion cf a Verb AftivCt 

Grammar^ Eng. f^ Ij, 

Verb Aftive endeth in (?, and b^tokcneth to do ; 

_ as, Amo^ I Love j and by putting to r, it may 

be a Paffive j as. Amor. And accordingly in the Latin 
Grammar, p. 4,1. 

Animadversion CII. 

THis Definition fhould have been, oi Verh %4Stive if a part of 
' Speech wbicb Predicates %A£tion of its Suh\e^» For ending in o, 
is but an Accident, and does not always happen, vitnefs 
LoquoTy Sequor^ and all the Deponents, which are Verbs Active, 
as well as %Amo. This indeed, is in fprne meafiire account? 
ed for by this Graihmar, in making a particular kind of thefe 
Verb^ Deponents, but then there is an unequal Participation of 
die Genui m this Divifion, forafmuch as this Member of Deponents 
regards the Termination which is but an Accident, and Acftiveand 
Paffive regard the fignification, which is theEfTenceofthe Vert> 
as to its kind. And this is a confufed way of proceeding \ neither 
can a Doctrine ever be clear,where Dlftind notions are thus brew'd 
together without diftindion. The other Charaderiftick in this 
Definition is, that hy putting to r, it may be a TaJJiye, But neither is 
this perbetual, for FtfWo is an Active, and yet cannot take ^^ to make 
it a Pattive, the Paflive in folc iife being Fio, not Vador, So StudeOy 
Swrgo^ are A<flives both, and cannot take r ; none but Tranfitives, or 
fuch whofe Acf^ion operates upon fomething v/ithout themfelves, 
being capable of that, and therefore, according to this Author's 
Kotion, are the only Adives, whereas in reality they are but one 
Species of Aiflives, which ihould have been divided into Immanenty 
^4 Tmnfofnt. 



Of 



«7 * Defiaitioff of d Verb Pi^w." 



CJ the Definition of a Verb 

Paflive. 

Grammar Eng. ^. I g. 

A Verb Paffive endeth in or, and betokeneth to Suf* 
fer ; as, Amor^ I am Loved j and by putting a- 
way r, it may be an Afti^e ; as, Amo. And according- 
ly in the Latin Grammar, /^. 41. 

Animadversion CIII. 

THE Verb Paflive is known only by its fignification, and by 
that only it ought to have been Defin'd. For as for its end- 
ing in or it is out an Accident, which does not always hap- 
pen, witnefs Fio, Vapulo^ Veneo at leaft, which arc all PalEves, and 
have all Paflive Confbru^ion, as this Grammar allows. Several 
alio end in or, which are not Paflives, but Adives ; as, Ijitpiffr^ Se^ 
tptor^ and all thofe call'd Deponents. It may be convenient ind^d 
to obfcrve to Children, how A<ftives and Paflives generally end, 
that they may be the readier at gueflfing whidi is which, but then 
that which is but General, ought not to be delivered as Univer£d, 
as it is here, without Exception. Beiidc the Exprcfl^ons betoi^b 
to doy and betol^neth to fuffer^ in the two Definitions (which I for- 
got to take notice of in the firft^ are not peculiarly applicable to 
the Verb, but only to the Infinitive Mood, which is no Verb* For' 
otmare and udmari only betoken to Do, and to Suffer, but okiuu and 
olmatuY does not fo properly betoken to Do, and to SufEcr, as 
fometh'ingy OX fomchody does orfufferj. And therefore thefe Exprcffi- 
ons are too loofe lor a Definition. And as that of the Verb 
Adive ihould have been a part of Speech whicb Predicates %A3iom ofiu 
Subje^, fo this of a Paflfivc (hould have been %A Verb Taffoc is m part 
€if Speech ipbicb Predicates Pajfion of its Subje^^ 



Of 



( 27J ) 



Of the Definition of a Vejrb 

Neuter. 

Grammnr^ Eng. f, i J. 

AVerib Neuter endeth in o or w, and cannot take r 
to make him a Paflive ; as, Curro,, I run ; Sum^ 
I am. And It is EnglifHcd fbmctime actively, as Curro^ 
I run. And Ibmetime Palfivdy ^ as, /Egroto^ I amfickf 
And in the Lii^/w Grammar, Keutrtim r/?, quod vcl in Oyvel 
in vcifinitumy nee aHivnm^ 72cc fnjjlvam formam integre in* 
duere fotefi j ut^ Curro, Amhulo^ j4ceoj Sum^ p. 41, 

Animadversion CIV. 



THis Definition is founded upon the Notion abovementioii- 
cd, viV That none but Tranfitives are Verbs Adive^ 
which is contrary to the reafon of Things, and the com- 
moaCenfe of Mankind. And what can ihock a Child more, of a^ 
ny Ingenuity, than to be told, That iAmhulo and Cuno are Verbs 
Neuter ; that is, to fpeak according to the common Apprehensions 
of Mankind, that they fignifie neither to do, nor lulfer. Certain- 
ly it had been much more natural,to have divided Atftive Verbs in* 
to JmmanentyOT fuch whofe A(ftion is terminated in it felf, and Tratt- 
fienty or iiich whofe Adlion is terminated in fomething without it 
felf, and to have obfcrved that thefe latter may take x, and fo be« 
come Paflive, but the former cannot. And ro have confin'd Verbs 
Neuter to fuch as are really Neuter by fignification^ as the Tcrza 
Implies. 



N n 



Of 



( 274 ) 



Of Modes or Moods in Verbs. 



Grammar^ E'lg* f- ^4" 

T Here be fix Moods : The Indicative^ the Imperative^ 
the Optative, the Potential, the SubjunHive, and 
the Infinitive. And according in the Latin Grammar, 

Animadversion CV. 

StAnffiitg and Ramus rcje<ft all Mood in Verbs, fiibftitating in its 
(bead a Dividon of the Tenfcs, into Firft and Second. The 
firfl of them, after his manner, is too triuniphaiic upon this 
Head, faying, 

^n finxere Modos^ rut'ione modoque carebant. 

The Rcafon they bring for it, will not bear the weight they lay 
upon it namely, that thefc Words may be uied promifcuoufly. 
For that they cannot be upon all occafions, and that they may be 
in fome, is no better rcafon againft difference of Moods, than it 
is againft difference of Tenfes, that the ufe of them sAfo in feme 
cafes is promifcuous. Who is there that does not fee a difference 
of Mood between tAmut and lAmet, ufed without conjunction with 
another Verb, although in fuch conjuncf^ion they may (bmetimes 
be us'd indifferently. Thus Phsdria amat Thaidem, is known by the 
a. after .tm, to be an Indicative Mode of Expreffion. fhrnirU amtt 
Thiddem. is known by the rafter 4m, to be an Imperative, Poftu- 
lativc, or ConceiTive form of Speech, and the Mood is entirely in 
the Verb. And though in conjunx^ive Sentences, it may be faicl in* 
differently ; for inflance, l(lum ThxdrUm dlco qui amat Tbtadem^ or, 
^ui amit^ yet this doe^ not prove, that the Indicative and Subjnn- 
(flivc Mood in LatinJ are not different, which 'tis plain they are in 
the firft inftance,but that in fome Cafes they arc indifferent ; Not- 
u'ithftanding which, fince they are different for the moft part, and 
always in iimple Sentences, this is enough to conftitute them dif- 
ferent Moods from the principal, and major part of their ufe. 




them 



Of Moods in Verbs. 27 5 

em to expr^fs thofe Moods : but this at leafb in the Indicative 
d Imperative they have not, and therefore the Mood muft be in 
: Verb. And this will be ftill plainer when we come to c«nfider 
: particular Moods. It now remains to enquire how many in 
umber thefe Moods be, for in that alfo feveral Authors are of 
'eral Opinions. This Author reckons up fix, as we fee, the In- 
:ative, the Imperative, the Optative, the Potential, the Subjun- 
ve, and the Infinitive. Of which feme reject the Optative and 
»tential ; others add the Promiffive, the Conceflive, the Interro- 
tive, the Hortative, the Precative ; and fome diftinguifli be- 
een the Subjundiive and the Coniundive, making a particular 
cod of this latter. There are indeed all thefe feveral Modes of 
edication, but this laft, and more than thefe, vj?. The Mode of 
llty, as, Yiem ^r^Aictres^ Tcr. And. Tou JhoulJ have told me hs" 
e. The Mode of Will *, as, TVUm de fusr'itla quidem tua quant tu omni 
emperuntU addixijli, dicerem^fi hoc temfw idontum futarem^ Ad. Her, 
V. p. 2?. i e. l^ellem dicere. And as I cannot fee what reafon San* 
w had to deny Mood to belong to Verbs, unlefs he could have 
ov'd, that in i4ma there was not an Imperative Mood, or that 
ood not iigniiied by the Termination uf the Verb : So I can as 
tie imagine, why l^offim iliould fo induftrioiilly fet himiblf to dif- 
ove that Do<ftrine of former Grammarians, by which they con- 
tutc more Moods in Verbs, than the Indicative, Imperative, 
d Subjundlive. if he means only that there arc no more Modal 
iriations of Verbs in the La*in Tongue, 'tis what every Body 
rns, and what no Body ever did, or can be fuppos'd to deny i no 
di pretence having ever been fet on foot by any Grammarian 
latlbevfr, but only that under thefe three Variations, were re- 
efented all thefe feveral Modes, which he is fo far from denying, 
at he brings proof of it. The only difference between them then 
n be, whether the Number of the Moods iliall be taken from 
e power of the Moods to reprefent thefe feveral Manners of Pre- 
ution, or from the feveral Variations, by which tley are repre- 
itcd. And this is a Controverfie not worth the while, iince 
lich way foever it be taken, all that is meant, is that Finite 
srbs have but three Variations *, and all the feveral Modes of Pre- 
:atton are reprefented under them. Kay, if a Man had a mind 
draw the Saw with yojfius in this matter, he need not be at a lofs 
r an Argument to oppofe him. for whereas he fays^ ^Ac de Op» 
iyo quidem frimum videumtu^ quia eum fi everttrimus fponte corruent 
^ifit And afterward, Multo minuf divcrf* ab ^Adjun^ivo Jrx,Xi,T#«', 
f inciinationes ac modi fuerint^ fotentialis^ ac cQnccff.vus, It is eafie 
bbjecft firflr, That the Optative Mood has always a Conjur<fiion 
jmcd with it, and there is a plain EUipfis of fomc Verb to be un- 
rftood, which is exprefs'd in that of /'i/^//. 

Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima. debifcat. 

So in that, 
mihi prdtcritos referat ft Jufiter anuou 

he Coniun<flion/« is a plain Indication of th^ Sub juncftive Mood 
d of the Elljpns of another Verb, and the entire Sentence is 
4W VtUiVfi Jupiter referat f rtfcraty or £i*am mihi pUcerct, ^*am gra- 

K n 2 turn 



2^6 Of Moods in Verbs. 

turn e(fct Ji r.fcrat, So that tlicfc fort of Expreflfions ire not Proper- 
ly, or in the iirft int<^ntion Optative, but only fetch'd in by cotf- 
fcqucncc, bccaufe *tis look'd upon to be equivalent ia a W2(h ; we 
being fuppofed to \vi(h what we declare fo i^reeable to us. Kay, 
in Expreilion* properly Optative, the Verb of wiihing is moftly 
underftooJ, and is the principal Verb, and that which is exprefs'd 
is but the Matter of the Wifh, and is joyned to the principal Verb 
underlldod, 'and ib comes properly into the Subjun^ive Mood. 
Whereas in the Potential Mood, if that alfo be Subjun<f^ive, yet 
that Sub jundion docs not fo plainly appear, as not beine expms'd 
nor intimated many Times by any Conjundion. Tnusintiiat 
of Sll*int'ilUn^ V/Jtn^M enim citius^ quam com^M^ qod in trai^i^m inJit' 
ruerunt^ Inft. 1. i. c. 3. Vr^n^M has the appearance of tne principal 
Verb, neither is there any Conjundion to intimate any thine pre* 
ceding to Vrangasy to which it is Subjoyn'd. S6, Cum xAtcrim mm 
liforcj modo >iliquos invcmas \ fid (quod eft tttrfim) prJtce^tores etiam^qfi^ 




and KfarUngeltu may take place ; namely, Kcs erity Res itu erity Evenict 
i*t ffUfi^oij ut invem4i6\ yet Vran^M and Invenias are not even fo 
mcerly Subjunctive, that is, do not inake a meer SubfuiK^ive 
feiife, differing only from the Indicative in Subjun^ion, but 
plainly reprefent or Predicate a poffibility of the Verbs fraw- 
^0, and invenio^ and may be refolved by Foffum^ and muft be 
fo refolv'd. The like may be faid of the Mood of WiJI ; 
namely, that the Verb is not meerly Subjundive, as Vbjfim will 
have it, but docs likewife reprclcnt a Will of doing, fuifer- 
ing, or being fo, or h^ as will appear by the Examples fol- 
lowing. Jiberio ^tUn in relw quM non occulerety fcu n^turJty five 
a^fuetudine f/*fpenfu fempeTy & ohfa/ra. verbay Tac. An. I. I. p, 21. 
i« e. i^Oft vellet occuLre, Nam dtf punitia quidem fr*i, quam tu omniin* 
tempcruntU aliixifli, dicer cm^ fi hoc tempus idoneum putarem. Ad. Ker. 
1. 4.. p. 29. i. e. dxere VtUem, i^od fi quf« dew mibi largUtuTy ut ex 
hue 4tt.tte rcpunaf canty 6* in ctni^ vjgiam^ Valde recufem. Cic. de Sen. 
p. 212. i.e. iccufure vMm, Indeed when the Potential ieems to 
imply the fignification of DcbeOy the Duty may be fuppofed to be 
(igriified by a Verb under A:ood, as oportety par efi^ Mquum r^, or the 
lilte ; but then this Verb feldom appearing, the Duty ieems to be 
imply'd by the Potential, and might, for ought we know, be ib in- 
tended by the L-itins in after time, and if it was not, yet in point of 
Pra<fiice there will be no difference, (ince we may ufe it fur debeOy 
without any Subjunction, it bei^ng indifferent to fay, Quidfacerem .' 
or, 2jii\ opOituit ut fwerem ? Bciidt, as this Modal Formation is not 
always me:rly Suhjuniftive, even iii Subjuncftive Propofitions, fb 
ail Subi.in<fiivc Propofitions do not require the Verb to be in this 
Formation-, witnefs the feveral Conjundions which admit only of 
an Indicative Mood, and tho'e that promifcuoufly admit of either 
Indicative, or Subiuniftive, both which arc apparent to the meaneft 
Grammarian, and need no proof Nay further, an Indicative fenie 

is often reprefented by it ; as, J^.''* v^^^'' qui fugerit- is omnugfere 

vituivituvint, Cic. ad Brut. Or. p. 194.. J^i* emmtili dederity nmt 
•/TBJwt Jeum pojfy aut it* fu^urum^ p pjjjit* Cic» A. Q. 1.2. p. 28. A**w 



Of Moods in Verbs. 277 



fuehi fens rtiiculum^ malle fermonem quo locuti funt homines^ quam qu^ 
loquantur^ Quint. I. l . C« 6, Nam faS^unt ejus modeftum effe nemo d'lxe^ 
rit ; fortaffe M fit tutum ohtinebit. Quint. 1. 4. ۥ 2. Nay further yet, 
where it is meerly Subjun<flive, fuch Subjundion cannot be decla- 
red fo much by the Modal Formation of the Verb (which being 
but one, and having fo many feveral ufes, can never of it felf de- 
clare which of thofe ufes it is to be taken in) as by the Conjun<rri- 
on joyn'd with it, or fome manner of Conftrudion. Upon the 
whole Matter therefore I cannot fee, as on the one hand why San- 
^im and his Followers ihould reje(fl all Moods ; fo on the other* 
why VoJIim fhould be fo ftiff for this Denomination, exclufive of aU 
others ; this Mood having fo many Ufes, and but one of them Sub- 
junAive, and that not declared by the Verb alone ; fo that it can- 
not be faid to take this Denomination from the major part of its 
general Ufe, though as to its particular ufe it be more frequently 
Subjundlive. Indeed the occaiions of Human Difcourfe, require, 
for convcniency fake> that there fhould be three diftincft Moods, 
or Manners of Predication, Interrogative, Indicative, and Impe* 
rative ; whatever Men can fay to one another, being of Nccemty 
in one of thefe Moods. For we can have no occafion to fpeak, but 
either by the Interrogative, to enquire what we don't know, for the 
Information of our felves ; or by the Indicative, to Aev/ others 
what they do not know for their Information ; or by the Impera- 
tive, by reafon of the necellity of Supcriour and Inferiour, to give 
our Commands to others. And accordingly it had been conveni- 
ent that thefe three Moods or Manners of Predication, had had 
three diftin(ft Formations to prevent the miftaking one for the 
other, which now we are but too liable to do, there oeing but one 
and the fame Modal Formation for the Indicative, and Interroga- 
tive Mood. And though this difference be fometimes afcertaincd 
by the point of Interrogation, or the Adverbs of Interrogation, 
««•, an, num^ and their Compounds, «iw«/, nomie^ numne\ yet when 
they are omitted, which often happens, we are frequently at a lofs, 
what isfpoken Interrogatively, and what Indicatively in Authors. 
Thefe three Moods then feem to have been ncceflary by the nature 
of things, in a Language which reprefents different Words by dif- 
ferent Modal Formations of the Verb ; but for the Subjundive 
Mood, there feems to have been no ncceffity that it iliould have a 
diftincfl Formation from the Indicative, fuch Subjuncftion being 
plainly enough intimated b)^ the Conjun<ftion. Nay, the manner 
of Subjuncf^ion being fo various, it could not have been fo conve- 
niently reprefented by Modal Formations, as by Conjunctions. 
What is therefore now call'd the Subjuncftive Mood, does not fecm 
to have been principally dcfign'd to Predicate meerly Subjun- 
cftively (becauie in Subjuncftive Predications, the Indicative alio 
takes place ; and when the Subjundivc js us'd, the Subjuncftion is 
denoted rather by the Conjuncftion than the V^crb) but rather Po- 
tentially, or as of Pofllbility or Will, accotiiing as the fenfe, and 
manner of Conftrudion require. Anvl though ty fetches of Fancy 
it may be any of thefe Moods m.iy have fometUing fuppofed to 
precede them, to which they areSubjuncfrive, yet even in lucli Ca- 
fes they are not meerly Subjunctive, but Sabioyti'd Potcntinliy, or 
aso^'Poliibilirvor Will. The L»i;i«' thcu'torvMccin cohav;.Mni^inited 



tni'. 



278 Of the Prefent Tenfe Indicdtive, 

this Mood for this end, among others, tho' they fomccimcs u(ed it 
mcerly Subjuiuftively. However this were, as the Caie now (lands, 
thefe fever jI Moods of Poiribility,WiIi and Duty are now reprefented 
by this one Modal Formation, and he that underftands when they 
may be fo ufed, together with the ufe of the other Moods, knows 
as niuch as is requiiite of this Matter. I (hall therefore now pro- 
ccjsi CO examine the u(es of the fevered Moods. And becaufe the 
fam-: Modal fignification is not alike in all TenfeS;^ as Moods are 
digoitcd into Tenfcs by this Grammar, this Examination ihall be 
of the fcveral Tenfcs of the feveral Moods, as far as the ac- 
count given of them by this Grammar, gives occation for Cor- 
re(ftion. And as to the Method of placing them before GeruiKls 
and Supines, J follow that of the Ldtin Grammar, as moib Na- 
tural. 



Of the Prefent Tenfe In- 
dicative. 

Animadversion CVI. 

THE Indicative Mood does either Declare, or Interrogate, as 
this Grammar fays rightly. But then in the Interrogative 
ufc, there is fometimes impl> *d a Command, or at leaft an 
Exhortation; as, 

S^uin fotius pacem cternamy px^ofque hymendOf 
Exerccmus? Virg. ^n.4. p. id3- 

5o this and other like Sentences fliould be wrote with a point of In- 
terrogation, 2j*in being but the Contra«f^ion of 2*^1 non^ or Quid 
ni J and the Refolution of the Sentence is Qw/ now, or Quidni f«r.-r- 
wus? why Ao JVC Mof ? Now the asking fuch a Qucflion, implies 
an Exhortation to the doing of the thing. So Cicero^ Q«i» tu urges 
ifium occaftonem & fucultattfm^ qua meUor nunquAtn referietur ? Fam. L.7. 
Ep. 8. Qutn tu hue udvolas^ ^ invifif no(ir* Eeip. ^erman4» Id. ad 
At. I.. 4.. Ep- 17. Where tiie Point again ihould be Interrggative. 
And fo he elfcwhere, and others oft»jn. 

Now though all ihefe Sentences be properly Interrogative, yet 
being not fo pointed in all Books, for want of this Remark, the 
Reader is liable to miftakc them for Declaratives, and cannot 
know by this Grammar, that an Exhortative Senfe maybe fo 
cxpreis'd. 

Second fr, 



Of the Ftefent lenfe Indicdtive. ^jq J 

condly. In the Interrogative ufe of this Mood, the Pfcfent ,jj 

fe is not always Indicative, i. e. Declarative of what one does> 
what one ihould do, and is relolvable by the Infinitive Mood, 
Dcbeo ; as. 



Of 



1*' 

/ ; 



4 



V^re a^e {tum(^ue omnem curfum mihi profprru dixit 

Rf//j{to, & cutUti fuaferunt numine divt 

Jtaliam feterc^ 6* terras tentare repoftat : ^ 

Sola novumy diCfuquc mfas Hurpyia. CeUno ' i 

Trodigium canity & trtflts dtuuntiat iras^ V. . ' 

Obfccrnamque famem) t^u^t pyimapericuU vito^ 

Quidve fequens tuntos polfum fuperare labores, Virg, ^n.3» 

p. 149. i.e. Qu* prima fericuU vittm^ or Viture debeamy 

or vitanda ntihi Junt, 
Vosy (fucrum impcriHm eft^ Conftd^ prdcept-t^ modumque 

BelUndi pofco^ j'cdcone ^ i4n montitms erro ? '; ,' 

Dummecum Oaramur^ & adufius corpore Maurus 
Dividit Italiam^ an ferro^ quo cin^itls utor, Sil. 8. p. 128. '; 

i. e. %An Jedcamy or federe debeumy tAn errcm^ Or trrarc 

debeam, tAn utury or an uti dtbcam. \ \' t 

. ■ 

ither there muft be this irregularity in the Mood, or elfe it ■. ^ 

ft be fuppofed to be in the Tenfe j namely, that vitOy fedeoy erroy . 'j-. 

, are put for vifofco, fedcboy err.d>Oy utaVy neither of which are '^'^ 

en notice of by this Grammar*, nor has Voffiusy oranyelie 

t I know of, obferved it, though as well worthy of Re* 

yk, as hundreds of things fct down by him, ' : 

. > "■ 

•* ■ • . 
■> • 






I 

M _ 
i 



\ ,1 



* 



( 2%0 ) 



Of the Preterimperfed: Tenfe 

Indicative. 



Grammar^ Eng. f» j 5*. 

THe Preterimperfc^l Tenfe fpeaketh of the Time 
not pcrfeftly paft j as, Amaham^ I Lcvedy or did 

Love* 

Grammar Lat. p. 44. 

IAlpcrffclum^ quo prius quidem aliquid in agenffp fuiffe 
j^jriificatUTy non tamen abfolutam tunc terhporK fmjfe 
adio7hm : ut. 

Hie templum Junoni ingens Sidonia Dido 
Condcbnt. Virg. Erat enim adhuc in of ere. 

Animadversion CVII. 

N Either of thefe two Definitions do rightly adjuft the Ge- 
nuine iignification of this Tenfe. I ihall examine them 
feverally ; and firft of the Englijh^ which fays. That the 
Pretcrimperfed Tenfe ipcaketh of the time not PerfcAIy Paft. 
Now there is no fuch thing in nature as a Time Impcrft<ftly Paft ; 
for the Prefcnt time, which divides the Paft from the Future, be- 
ing only the Prefent moment, which is indivifible, all that is gone 
betbre is Paft, and Perfediy Paft, as well as all what is to come, is 
perfeAly Future. There is nothing therefore that can be more falfc 
and abfurd, than to Define a Tenfe by the fignification of a thing, 
which is not in nature to be fi^nified. That which this Definition 
fecms to aim at is, what is faid in the Ijitin Grammar, that it fig- 
nifies fomething to have formerly been in Adion, but not to have 
compleatcd that Acf^ion. How far this will hold, I ihall fay by and 
by^ when I come to confider the Latin Definition ; in the meantime 
whether the Adion be compleat, or no, the Time is compleat : 
for all the Time between that incomplete A^on, and the T'ime 
of fpcalcing of it, is compleat and Perfe<^Iy Paft \ aii4 it is only 

wit|i 



Of the PreterimferfeB Indicative. 281 

with refped to the Time of Speaking of it, that any thing is faid 
Grammatically to be Pafl:,Preient, or Future, Now what imprefli- 
on can a Man ever receive of the ufc of this Tenfc by this Defini- 
tion ? And then how much lefs proper muft it be for Children ? 
The lAtin Grammar comes fomething nearer, but yet does not hit 
the Mark neither. For whereas 'tis faid there, it fignifics fome- 
thine in doing, but not done, that indeed may be allowed in fomc 
mcalure of Verbs Acflive and Paffive, where the Action is depend- 
ing, i. r, where feveral continued A(ftions are denon: mated one 
Action, in order to fome end ; but in Verbs of Inftantaneous 
Acftion, and in Verbs Neuter it can have no place. 

For Example, Cond-eba-t (as all thefe Verbs ought to be diftin- 
guiih'd into the Body of the Verb; as ConA — the Interfcrtion re- 
preienting the Tenfe, as eha — and the Termination which applies 
It to the Perfon— /, in the Author's Inftance) (ignifies a depending 
Acftion, and it appears that the Work was begun, and not hniilied, 
but not properly and flricflly by eba, which is properly the Tenfe in 
that Word, but by being joyn*d with Cond^ which iigniiies a De- 
ponding Acftion, and by other Circumftances ; namely, by what 
f recedes a little before. 

Infiant ardtrntes Tyrii : pars ducere muros ; 
Moliritjue arcem^ 6* manihus fuhvolvtre fuxa.^ 
Vats aftare locum teSfo^ & concludcre juUo, 

And by what follows after. 
Namquefub ingtnti Itiflrut dum ftnguU temploy 
Reginam opperiens^ dum t^ud foriuna fa wrbi, 
%Aytificumque manus inter fe^ opcrumque labor es 
Miratur 
So in that of VaI, Maximus^ Q. autxm Vulvius VUccus impune non tulitj 
quod in cenf'Wa tegulas marmoreal ex Junonu* Ltcin'i* templo in *dem for" 
tunjt tQueflrisy quam Kom/t fxciebut^ trunftulit^ L. I. C, i, p. 32. it ap- 
pears oy the circumftances of the Sentence, that the Temple was 
then a building, bscaufe thefe Tiles muft be fuppofed to be for the 
covering it, and fo by confequence it was not fiiiiflied. But to 
make this plain, without the neceflity of further Inftances, I fliall 
Ihew, that in thefe Verbs of continued Acftion, the perfedion of 
the Adion is fometimes fignified by this Tenfe, or at leaft that 
this Tenle is ufed when the Acftion is reprefcnted as perfe^fted, which 
is all one as to the point in queftion *, namely, whether this Tenfe 
docs of it felf of neceflity fignific the Acftion to be in Viexi *, as 
they call it, and not perfected. The PafTagcs I would prove this 
by, are thefe that follow, Sed ipfe Komulus ci^cumibut, doccbutqr^e pa- 
trttmid fuptrbia faSfum^ qui connubium finitimui ncgAJfetit, Liv. L, I. 
Dec. I. Where by Cirumibat and Docebuty the Author certainly re- 
preients thofe Acf^ions as done, and not mecrly in doing. Quo quitt 
Jff^pf Numa fine uibitrUy velut ad congrejfum de* wf^rcbaty Camanui eutn 
locum facravit, Liv. L, i, Dec, i. By Infcnbat here muft be meant, 
that he perfecfted that Acftion, not that he was about it only. Se^ 
nefcere igitur civitatcm otioratus, undique muteiiam belli excitandi qu/trebat, 
Liv, L, I, Dec, i,. It is not to be underftood here by Qu^reb.tty 
that TuUus was only in the enquiry, but that he went through with 
it, and fo perfecfteci the Acftion, Tullus ad feronix fanum mercttu jfe* 
^uenti negotiatores Romanos comprehenfos qHertbatur^ Liv, L. I. Dec. i. 
where it is not to be fuppos'd that Tullus is reprefcnted as in making 

O o this 



282 Of the Preterimperfeli Indicdtive. 

this Complaint, but as performinc, and Hniihinsit. And of the 
like nature at leail, if not more plain, are thefe that fdUow. 

Oitn is nundiis Rom.rwi n.i cotifuUnAum redityconfejlim rex his feri \eihit 
putrcs confuleoaty LiV. L. I- Dec. I. Ccnfum enim inftitUit^ rem 

falubcrrimam tahto juturo imferio Quinta CluJ/is auStd^ Centuris 

jri^intuftci^. Fundat Upidcfque miJfUes hi feckin gertboHt, Jn bit 
acccfifiy (ornin'icefque tibicincfque in tres Centuriat dlftributi, Vndecim 
tntUibus hxc cUffis cenfihutur^ Liv. L. I. Dcc, I. £0 accedtbaty itt 
in Ciiiitiitc civium nihil fpei rt-ponentiy wetu regnum tutundum ej[ei ; 
t]utm ut fturibus incutcret^ cognitiones rerum capitalium fine conjiliif 
fcr fe joins ixerccbat^ Liv. L. I4 Dec. I. Comitia cum fofulofartitus 
iffy ut cxcc^ tis confuUtus comfetttoribusy de Cdtero numero camdid*it(h^ 
ruyriy fro parte dinndiky quos fopi^us vellety pronunciarentur^-frofartt 
alter a (juos ipfc didilfct. Et edebut libellos circum tribuj mtjfos Scrip* 
tura brevi : Cafar AOfutor Hit tttbui : Commendo vo6^ illumy & iOumy 
lit fuam dignitatem teneant^ Suet. Vit. Jul. C. 41, Idem viEForiaSy 
uureoi puteraSy coronoi^ quji Jimul a£forum porreSti6 munibus fufiineban' 
tufy iolUUity & eas fe acctpere^ non aufferre dicebat \ ferquamftultum 
c(]'c argument ando, a qutbus bona precamur^ ah his porrigentibus nolle 
jumertfy Val. Max. L. I. c. i. Nee minus impotentia voces pro palam 
e.lebaty ut T. oimprius vcl Ampius fcrtbity Suct. Vit. Jul, c. 77. 
Jfuere quidem temporibus antiquiores Vexores Rex JCgypti^ 6* Scythis Rex 
Tanaisy quorum alter in Pontum^ alter ufque /Egyptum exctjfit, Sed 
iougiuqua, non finitima bella gerebanty nee imperium fibi^ fed fopulff 
ftiif gloriam qudrebanty Juft. L. I. p. 2. H^tc autem eodem tempore 
Cxfari mandata rcferebantur^ & hgatt ah Fcdui6y ty Treviris Vemeoantf 
Ca:f. Bell. Gail. L. l. Cum ejfet Coefur in citeriore GalliA in hybernis 
(i>«i utifupra demonftravimus) crebri ad eum rumores afft-rebantur j lite- 
rifque item Lubieni certtor fiebat^ &c, Carf. Bell. Gall. L. 2. Qus 
res 6* lutiis utium cajbrorum ripis fluminis muniebaty 6* peft ei4m qua ef- 
fect tuta ub hojiibus reddcbat^ QxC Bell, Gall. L, 2. ^^m quod hih 
fi'.-f ap\ ropinqitabut^ confuetudine fn a Cafar fex legiones expeditat ducebat, 
Foft CM totius ixercitus impedimmta, coUoeubaty Casf. Bell. Gall. 
L. 2, 

Tliefe Inftanccs arc abundantly fufficicnt, (and if they were not, 
it were eaiie to add more) to prote that this Tenfe, even in Verbs 
t)f cpntinucd Acftion, does not neceflarily imply the Time to be 
Imperfectly paft, or the Acftion to be Imperfect. Though as often 
as an Action is to he fpoken of, as in fieri or Impcrfecft, I con^s it 
IS rcquifite to make ufe of this Tenfe, And fo even the beft of 
thcfe two Definitions, f. c, that of the Latin Grammar, will be 
found too (hort for the ufe of this Tenfe ; becaufe it reaches only 
to Verbs of continued Action, and in them alfo but in fbme Inftan- 
ccs, and even in thofe Inftanccs, that which is properly the Tenfe, 
does not alone fignifie the Aiflion Imperfectly paft, but in Conjun- 
<ftion with that part of the Verb,which denotes a continued Adion, 
;in.^» Circumftances of the Context ; or at leaft docs not fo fignifie 
bur in the Abfencc of fisich Circumftances te determine it other* 
\N ifc. All therefore that I can fee peculiar in this Pretcrimperfed 
Tenfe is, That it is a Compound Tcnfc, denoting a Thing as prefent^ 
Sit fome twe pud ; and if it had been fodefm'd, the Definition would 
have anfw(rcd the whole ufe of the Tenfe in ail Verbs, wheireas this 

of 



Of the VreterperfeSi Indicative^ 2 8 j 

of this Grammar, can with no pretence be fuppos'd to reach fur- 
ther than to Verbs of Continued Atftion, if even to them. There 
Are indeed fome ufes of this Tenie, which may ieem not to come 
under this Notion of it, but are yet weJl enough resolvable by it ; 
as, TruJebantur in faludcm gnaram vincentibuj^ iniquam ntfciis^ n't Cajar 
frodultM legiones injiruxijfet^ Tac. An. I, p. 51. Where though tru- 
dehantttr may be refolved by Trufi tffent^ yet it may likewife t\2 fup- 
pos'd to reprcfent the Thing, as done at that time upon a Conditi- 
on, whatever Incongruity there may fecm to be in it, according 
to the Idiom of our Language. The fame may be faid of that of 
the fame Author, Ibuturque in Cadet^ nifi tAffitinius BurruSy 6" xAnmtu.v 
Seneca, obvum ijjcnt^ An. 13. a. 307. And likewife that of i.iv^, oin' 
cepfifue fedcftre cert amen erat^ ni equites fupitvcnijfent, L. 28. p. 518. 
and many others. The other extraordinary uie is, when this Tcnfc 
is put to reprefent the Cuftom of doing a thing ; but here is really 
nothing extraordinary in the Tenfe, but only an Elliplis offepe or 
nonnunttuam^ femfer^ or fuch like ; as, Pratiia non tantUm deftinuto^ fed 
iex occajtone fumebat^ Suet. Vit. Jul. c. 6o* i. c. Nonnuntjuum fumebaf , 
as he fays in another place, %Armorum 6* e<\uitandi peritiff.mur^ iaborit 
ultra fidem patiens erat : in agmine nonnunquam equo^fxpius fedibus antei^ 
baty Vit. Jul. c. 57. And this ufc of it is common with this Au- 
thor, namely, for Solebat and an Infinitive •, as, xAncifiti prcdio equos 
dimitteb.tty ^ imprimis fuum^ quo major ncciJfitM imponeittur^ auxiliofu" 
ga ereftOy Id, Vit. Jul. C. ^o. Militem neque a moribus^ neque a fortunX 
frobahat^ fed tantum a viribns : tralfabatque pari f^verit ate ^ ^iyidulgentiSi, 
Non enim ubique & femper^ fed cum hoftii in proximo effet^ coercebat^ 
Id. Vit. Jul. c. (^5. ana frequently in the two foilowinjg Chapters, 
Neither is he lingular in the ufe of it ; for Val, Max. has, Q. Svr^ 
tortus per afperos Lufitania coUes cervam alb.im trahebat^ ah ea fcy quanam 
out agenda^ aut vitanda ejfent^ pradicans admone/iy L. I«C.2. And oF 
like kind is trahebat in Virgil^ where he fays, 

JLimen eraty cacuque feresy 6* pervius ufus 

TeStorum inter fe Priamiy pofiefque relihi 

v4 tergo : Infeltx qua fe , dum rtgna manebanty 

Sapius xAniromacbe ferre incomitata foUbat 

%Ad foceros : Et avo puerum %/iftyanacfa trahebat, JEn. 2« 

p. 128. i, e, Trahere fvUbaty anfwerable to f err e folebat 

afbregoine. 

So that this Tenfe inltead of Preterimperfecft, fTiould have been 

caird Prcterprcfent, and that would have anfwered the ufc of it in 

all Verbs. 



O 2 Of 



(284) 



Of the Preterperfe6l Tenfe 

Indicative. 



Gynmmnr^ Eng. /». ly, 

THE Prctcrperfecl Tenfe fpeaketh of the Time per- 
fectly pad with the Sign have : As Amavi I have 

loved. 



P 



Grammar, Lat. p. 44. 
Eifcciiwiy quo fritter it a ahfolutacjue fignificatur aRio. 

Animadversion CVIII; 



T 



'He true ufeofthePreterperfe<ftTcnfeis not to be underftood 
by cither of thefe two Definitions ; as I fhall Acw by Era* 
mining them both apart. And firft as to the Englifh De^ 
fioition which appropriates it to the time perfectly paft, with the 
Engliih fign H^cvr, it is certain that Definition comes Aort of the 
life of it : Firft becaufe the Preterimperfcd Tenfe may be ufcd of 
the time perfedly paft, as has been Aiewn in the Preterimperfeft 
Tenfe. Secondly, becaufe the Pretcrperfed Tenfe may be ufc4 
when it cannot be rendred by the Englilh Sign ttfvrj as 

Turn freta diffudit^ rapidifque tumtfcere Ventts 

Jujfity <sr ambit 4t circumdure litoru. tcrr^^ Ov. Met. I. p. 2. 

where diffudit and jujjit arc not to be rendered by Nave but by 
Did, Of like Kature alfo, is that of the fame Author. 

Turn primum ficcis atr fervoribus uftus 

Canduity & ventis giacies aftrUla fefendit^ Met. 1. I. p. 8. 

iBelides innumerable otherExamples thatimight be given Second- 
ly as to the LatinDefinition,that at theutmoft can onlvtake place 
xn Verbs of continued Acfiion^ I mean as in contradiiuncftion to 

the 



Of the PreterperfeSi Indie Ative. 285 

the Preterimperfecfl Tenfe, as it muft be fuppofcd to be here un- 
derftood-iBut in of Verbs of Inftantaneous Aaion, which are Pcr- 
fed as foon as prefent, it can have i*o Place, and much lels can it 
be fuppofcd to reach to Verbs where no Adion is dignified. Indeed 
this Tenfe having feveral Ufes, thofe feveral ufes ought to have 
been afcertaincd, and not one only, which is aJl that is to be found 
ill either of thefe Definitions. And if it had been defined by one 
as the Principal, it fliould not have bc<^n however as exclufive o£ 
the other, which by this filcnce of it feems here to be impjy'd, 
Kow the peculiar ufe of the Preterpcrfe<fl Tenfe as contradiflincft 
to the Preterimpcrfcd is, that whereas this laft reprefents the thing 
as now Paft, and formerly Prcfent^ the Preterperfe<ft reprefents ic 
iimply as now Paft, without confidering it as formerly Prefcnt : 
And if it fpcak of A<ftion, it alfo lignifids that Adion to have beeii 
Pcrfecfl. As' ThtmifiocUs vtni ad te t^ui flur'tniii maU omnium G/uiorum 
in domum tuam intuli^ Nep, Vit, Thcmift, p. 17. Tunm eft inc^nit^ Servi 
fivir cs regnum^non eorum qui alicnis manibus f tjjimum f acinus fee ere^ Liv. 
JL, I. Dec. I. p. 29. Tamen ut ipfe ad mcam vtilitatem cum Gracis 
JLatina conjunxi^ ne^'j id in rhilofophia folum^ fed etium in dictndi exer^- 
citations fcci^ idem tibi cenfeo faciendnm^ ut pur fa in utriufque lin?u^ 
fucultate, ^am quidem ad rem nos^ ut vidcmur^ magnum, attulimus 
adjumentum homintbus noftrisy Cic. Off. 1. I. p. 2. S^uauquam id nomen 
nempe hofVis, duriwjam effecit vetuftat : a peregrino enim rectjjit^ 6* 
froprie in co qui fert arma contra reman ftt^ Cic. Off. 1. i. p. 17. 

This is the ufc of this Tenfe by it felf, but in conjuri6ion with 
other Circumftances to determine it fo^ it may be iifed of a time 
formerly prcfent, which becaufe it has been unobferv'd hitherto, I 
ihaJl confirm by the more Examples. 

^An etiam quondam juxta cuhitum ejus lixa quidam ex lUyrico ixcrcitu 
janitoribus deceftisy deprehenfm eft, cultro venenato cinctus : impoftie men- 
tisy an fimulata, dementia incertum. Nihil enim exprimi quaftione potu- 
ity Suet, Vit. Aug. c. 19. h4c, t. f. Clade Variana, ixcubiaa per 
urbem indixit. Suet. Vit, Aug. C. 23. Igitur ubi animus a multis mijeriis 
tf/q; periculis requievity & mihi reliquam atatem a repub, procul habendam 
decreviy non fuit confilium focordia atq^ difidia bonum otium conterere, 
Sal. Conj. Cat. p. 3. CutUinay ubi eosy quos paulo ante memoraviy con» 
Veniffe videt ; tamctfi cum fatgulis multa f^pe egerat ; t.tmen in rem fore 
credent univerfos appellarcy & cohorturiy in abditam partem odium fecef- 
fit : atque ibi omnibus arbitris procul amotisy orationem hujufcemodi ha" 
butty Sal. Conj. Cat. p. 12. ^At Vulvia^ ex infolentia CaufA cognitay tale 
periculum reipub, hand occultum babuit, fed fublato aultorey Ae Catilina con- 
jurationeyqusy quomodo audierat^ compluribus narravity Sal. Conj. Cat. 
p. 1 5. Pofl paucos dies L, Senius feu Servius, Senator infenatu literas red- 
taVity quas Vafulis alUtaa fibi dicebat a j^, F^fc/o ; in quS)uS' fcriptum crat^ 
C. Manlium arma cepijfe ante diem vi. Kal. Nov.yJww/, id quod in tali re 
folety alii portentay atq; prodigia nunciabunty Sal. Con j. Cat. p. 18. Ea- 
dem reipub, tempeflute C.Fabiw Dorfo memorabde exemplumfervata religio^ 
ms dedity Val. Max. 1. i.e. l. Cum met elites Pontifex Maximus Tufcula* 
Hum peterety corvi duo in os ejus adve/fum^ Veluti iter impedientesy advolar- 
Verunty Val. Mex. 1. I. c, 4. i^nd illudy quod L.Paulo conftdi evenity 
quam memorabile ? Cum ei forte evenijfety ut bcllum cum rege Perfe gererety 
ibr domum i curia regrejfusy filiolam fuamy nomine Tertiamy qua tum erat 
admodum parvulay ofculatus^ triftem animadverterety interrogavity quid^ 
ita eo yultit efftt ; qu4 rcfpondit^ V^L 1. 1« c, $. Cumq) ab Herculis portuy 
■• ■"•• ■;:-■■••■. ^^^ 



^tS Of the PreterferfeSl Indic4tive. 

^uo fciihus feiVtntf^t^ navem confcendcrcty tulu vox fine uUo auEfore ad 
*»res ej^s pervcnit^ Vil. Max. I. i. c. 6* Qf^m ut in manum mulitr ac^ 
^epit^ Vifluti ad net im pucr uUuJ.i^ J lift. 1. 1. c. 6. Ontbjum frif* 
iUt-filij, Tf^no fotitu tfti cu)us Trojuno bcUo intcf fmtijj^mos ViVo/, cum aux, 
ilium iiAvtrjus Oracos fctrcty maj^nn virtutis Jojunnnfu vxtiure^ Juft* 1.2. 
p. 24. Jgit^f xAthcmcnffs^ Audito Dar'u ddventid^oMxiliNm m l^eA*moniify 
JociJi tunc- civitutey feturunty Juib. L %, p. 29. Inter CAttros tamen Thf 
mtijloclis d'ioleji'entu gloria, cmuuit : in ^1*0 j^m ttttu: indoUs future impera.' 
lOf Id virtutis up fitrmt^ Juft. 1. 2. p. 30. 

Mdtlidis Cimonis fiitus iAthfnienJis t^uum 6r anfiquitute generis^ 6r^loril 
wnajorumy & i'uk modefliJi unus amnium nuxime Jiorcrrty rjt^y effet statCy 
tit non jum julum de to btne fptrarty fed ctium confidere cives fojfent 
tuii'tn futurumy quMem co^nitum iudicurunt ; ut\idit ut %Atbemenfes Cher- 
fonvfum cclonosviUtut mittere* Ncp. Vit. ^.4ilt. S^uum acceffij'et Ixm" 
numy 6* in^oUs ejus injuU fnh potcfUtem redi^ere VelUt tAtbcmtnfiumy iV^; 
ut Lemnii Jua Jpontt fuccrcnty poftulajftt ; illi irridtntes rcfponderunty ScQt 
Ncp. V^it. Mile. And even in tiic fame Sentence Livy uies this 
Tcnfc, and die Pretcrimperfed Tcnfe promifcuouil^ of a Time 
formerly prelcnt;, as Eo pruflio pr4tcipme<{u\tum ^l.riitfut$ : utrimq*^ 46 
cornibui poJitoSy cum jojn j tUiretur media ptditum juorum ucieSy hu, incurs 
riffc ab Utoihus jvrunty ut non modo ftfitfrnt Sai'inas U^iones fcrociter m- 
fiuntes ccdentibusyjed Jubito in fugum veittYtnt, Muntes tjfufo curfU SaUni 
fctebanty <sr pauci ttni^rt^ L. I. Dec. X. Cu)us fumk perterrin cUJUrii 

3 hum manerc non uudervnty 6* flurimi hoftarcntur^ ut domos Jju,u Quifaue 
ifctderi nty mnuihnftpy fe defcndercnt : Tbemijlocles unus rcftitity iar univer- 
fos pares c(ff aitfbat : d.j\tr}\s icfl'abatur periturojy Ncp. Vit. Thcmift. 
Kay this promifcuous uie of tlicHr Tcnfes for the time Prcfcnt at 
fomc time Paft, is often fujnd in the fame Verb, as Sed ego Thud' 
didi muximi crcdoy quod Atatc pfQXimus erat qui illorum temporum bifiori* 
4im iiliquerunt & ejufdem civitattffutty Nep. Vit. Theiuifl-. fofbidie 
e}i*s dieiy quod omnittobiduumfupereraty t-'um cxtrcitui frumenttum tnftiri 
eporterety & quod a BibtaUe opptdo Heduorum lon^e mitximo ^tc cofioMmo 
non ampliM mtUibus pa'Juum xviii, abcraty ret frumcnta/tM profpiciendum 
exijtimdvtty Cxi\ Bell. Gall. L. l. Cdfary quodmemori\tenSat l^C^^ 
nm cotifulem occifumy exercitumq-y cjiu ub Hdvctiis pulfumy ^ fubjugnm 
milfumy conci'dendum non putabat : neq\ homines inimico animOf ddt* /«- 
1,-ultute pir provincitm itineris fdcicndiy ttmpaaturos ab injuriA & maUficio. 
txijiimubaty Cxf. Bell. Gal. L.I. Many more inftances of this laft 
kind, as well as of the former, might be given, but fure theie are 
fufficicnt. Thefe are the fevcral ufes of the Preterpcrfe<ft Tcnfe, 
by which it iliould have been defcrib'd, and not as it is in this 
Grammar, meerly by its iignifying an Action as Perfecf^ed, as in 
the Latin Definition, or by its fpeaking of the time PerfeijUy Paft, 
with the Si^n Havcy as in the Englifh. And I have been fomething 
the larger 111 thefe Inftances, to iliew that the Sign Jfave is not aiP 
tvays imply'd in the iignification of the Latin Preterperfecft, which 
none of them admit. Though in turning EngliHi into Latin, the 
Sign llave may be allowed to be a tolerable diredion when to turn 
the Englifli Verb into the Preterperfe<ft Tenfc in Latin, that Sigh 
generally, if not always requiring that Tcnfe. And thus much of 
the Preterperfccfl Tcnfe. The next in Order is the Preterpluper^ 
fe(ft, in which this Grammar comes as far ihort, as in the two {aft j 
and no body that I know of has fully adjuftcd the ufe iof it. 



(287) 



Of the Preterpluperfe6t 
Indicative. 



Grammar 9 JLng, p, ly. 

THE Prcterplupcrfeft Tenfe ^eaketh of the timt 
more than Perfeftly paft, with this Sign Had: 
as Amaveram I had loved. 



P 



Grammar^ Lat. f^ 44, 

Lufquam ferfe^um ^uo aBio jnmdiu fr^tcrita Jig- 
nificatur* 

Animadversion CIX. 



I Cannot imagin what diredlon can be found in cither of thcfd 
Definitions for the right uiing this Tcnfe. The Englifli (which 
I fhali examin firf):) makes it to fpeak of the time more than 
Perfectly pafV. But what is that time which is more than Pcrfc- 
<ftlv paft ? The Preterimpcrfed Tenfe, and the Preterperfed may 
either of them be ufed of any time, though never fo long Pail, 
and what is but one Thoufand Years Pafl^, is furely Perfectly PafV. 
Nay ail Pafk Time is Perfectly pafV, though never io little time 
Pafi. This therefore can never di/lin^uifh it from the Preterim- 
pcrfecft, or Preterperfe<ft Tcnfe, which may both fpeak of any 
time Perfe<ftly Paft. In the difiance of Times Paft, there is in- 
deed a great deal of difference ^ but for all that, all time Paft, is 
equally Paft, that is, one as well Paft as the other, or alike Pcrfc- 
<ftly Paft, namely quite Paft, and that is equally predicable of all 
paft Time. But if this Author has a meaning by hinifclf^ and 
by the Time more than Pcrfcdly paft, muft be liippofcd to mean 
a time longer Paft, then that which is reprcfentcd by the Preter- 
imperfe<ft./or Prcierpcrfed Tcnfe, he then fills in with the Latin 
Definition, and I ihall confidcr him in that Scnfc along with that. 
Indeed the Sign HuA^ if it were not joyn*d with this awkward Term 

i>f 



1288 Of the Prtter pluperfect Indie Ativi. 

of more than Perfecftly pait, would be a tolerable Defcription of 
the ufe of this Tenfe, for as mucli as iii a manner, wherever we 
life HaI before a Verb m Englifh, the Latins uie this Tenfe, and 
wherever the Latins ufe this Tenfe, we generally render it by HaA^ 
in onr Language. But then in both thefe Ca^es, there are fome 
P.xccptiDns, namely, where the Sign HaV in Enelifh may be ren- 
drcd by the Preterperfed Tenfe in Latin, ana whjre the Latin 
Prctcvplupcrfc(fl Tenfe cannot be rendered in EngliHi by Kmd \ and 
ib in that rcfpeJt the Rule would have been iliort, even though it 
had been cxprcfs^d thus (which would have been much the better 
way) T')e Pntcrplttpt^rfetJ Ttnje ffCu\f of the Time PoH, mtb the 
Si^H Had, I or even fo it could not have been known whether 
in any Cafe, and in what, an EngliHi Verb might be render'd by 
the Prcterpcrfedt Tenfe, though having the Sign Had, and when it 
might be rendered by the Preterplupertc<ft Tenfe, though not hav- 
ing the Sign H^td before it. And that there arc fuch Cafes 
appears by the fo^ow ing inflanccs. Of the firft, namely, where 
the Si^n Hud may be rendered by the Preterpcrfe<fl Tence, that 
of Ovid is one. 

Sl*^ foflquam evolvit c^co{j) exemit acervo^ 
Difjociuta, locis concordi face li^avit^ Met. L. I« p. 2. 

Wbich after be bad forted^ and bad tal{dn out of the conjufed Idafs, 

As alfo that of the fame Author. 

In le uhi lihatos irroravere liquores 
rijlibusy & capitis flecttmt Vefi'igia facrs 
• tAd dcluhra dua^ Met. I. P. 15. So again, 
Pojlquam vetm bumor ah i^ne 
ft'Tcaluit folU^ canumque udaque faludes. 
IntumtYe ajiu Met. I . p. I <^. 

Of like nature is that of Itvy, Pojlquam facinm^ factnorifqme ca»^ 
fatn audivity hahitum formamque viri aliquantum awplioremy at^fii* 
oremque httmana intuens^ ro^itat^ ^ui vir ejfet^ L. I. Dec. I. And then 
follows another Sentence of like nature, Vhi nomen^ fatremq$*e ac 
futriam uctepir : Jove nate Hercttlts^ falve inquit. Ana to thcfe 
might be a.ided many more out of other Authors. Kow in 
in all thefc the Latin Pretcrperfedt Tenfe may be rendred in Englijh 
by the Si<^n Hnd^ and fo we commonly exprefs thefe kinds of Sen- 
tences, though fometimes indeed we ufe mftead of it the Preterm 
impjrfcd Tenfe. The Sign Had then in Englijh^ is not a certain 
Sign, that the L>ttin Verb muft of neceffity be the Preterplupcr- 
f'cct Tenfe, which any one would be led to think by this Rule, 
^vhich is therefore iliort in this refpecfi:, as not giving a fufficienc 
direction where it only may be us*a, and where it muft. 

Now of the fecond Cafe, namely, where this Tenfe may beus'd, 
when the Si'j;n Had is not before the Englifh Verb, nor can propftljf 
be there, there are thefe Initanccs. Hie oittiemj dixeram^ tit^wV, 4 
.fmuipio ut de rcpuh, fileretur^ Cic, Brut. p. 1 58. Now to exprdfs this 
Serife in En^lift)^ we would not fay, J bad Jaid at firfly but / faid or 
did /ry, tor that which occalion'd this Saying of %Atticm^ was b€- 

€aufc 



Of the Pr$terpluperfeS ladicAtive. 2S9. 

e Brutui had broke in upon Cicero^ with a Complaint of the 
•lick State of Affairs, whilft he was fpeaking of the Orators 

is Age, and of Strvius particularly in his Commendation, 
rary to a Reftridion th^t iAsticus had laid upon the Difcourfe^ 
le beginning -, namely, that there ihould be nothing faid of 
lick Affairs j in which Cafe I fay we would not fay in Eti^lifl^^ 
I faidy but / did fay. That of ColumtlU^ is another of this kind, 
rioribus librus^ <iuos ad te frnpfiram^ nonnulU dtfuiffe dixifli : Sed 
fhn frofeffus ruftica rci dtfcifUnam^ nififallor^ non ufjeynraverumy qu4t 
fm vjuf fcicntU continrret^ cunHa mt diikwum^ L. 5. c. i. /» 
^ormtr Bool{r vfbich / rvrote^ {not had vprote to you) you faid thtre 
' fomc- Thin^t Toanting *, but when I pretended to give you a 
tife of Hmbandry^ I did not^ I thinl{^^ undertuJ^^ (not I hai not^ 
ml^^ under taJ{^n) tha' it Jhould contain all tohich might be faid 
' fo vafi a Subiecf, Non tantum^ inter crtditorem^ & debitorem 
: feJety qtn dicat^ pecuniam credidifli, i^uid ergo ? Pecuj abfgifli, fer- 
ejuf occidifiiy agcllum^ qwm non cmerM poffides : /Eflimatione fatfi, 
or Jifcedey qni creditor vcficras^ Sen. de Ben. 1, ^, c. 4. Tou half 
Poffejpon of bU Field which you huve not Bought (wof vphich you 
ttot bought) go your way Debtor whrrame (not who had comi^ 
dicor. And thus much for the Englifh Definition, I come now^ 
liat in the I^fi» Grammar, which fjys, Plufqu.m Perfe^um eft 
Uufrateritufignificatura^io, Now againil: this there are two 
e^ions. ' 

irft, That it reaches only to Acf^ive Verbs, and fo can be no 
dUon for the ufe of this Tenfe in Verbs which do not fignifie 
ion. 

condly, That it will not hold even in Verbs of Acftion, fince it 
rtain, that this Tenfc may be us*d of an Action juft Paft, and 
acher two Paft Tcnfcs, vi\, the Preterimperfctft and Pn ter- 
B^ may be us*d of an Acftion though never fo long pa ft. This 
notorious of it fclf, that it needs no proof, but to make furc, 
U give one out of Ovid^ of a Time as long Paft, as the Begm« 
; of the World, and I hope that will be allowed to be diu prate-* 
and yet the Acftion is exprefs'd by the Pret^rimperieAj and 
erpcrfiid Tenfc. 

Obftubatq/te aliit aliud : quia corpore in uno 

Vrigida pugnabant calidii^ humentt^ ficcis^ 

Moltia cum durps^ f>ne ponders hahentia pondus, 

HafiC diUs 6* mAior litem natura diremit. 

Nam Cixlo terraa^ & terrii ahfcidit undas. Met, 1. p, 1. 

nd juft above he ufes the Prcteriraperfe^ft Tenfe, and the Prt- 
loperfed of the fame time; as, 

Nullus adhuc Mundo prahebat lumina Titan : 
Net nova crefcendo repay ahat cornua Vhabe : 
Nee circumfufo pendehut in aere Tellus 
Ponderibus libraSa fuvs : Nee brachia longo 
Margint terrarum porrex^at tArnvbitfite, 



P p $m 



29^ Of PreterpJuperfe^ hdicdtive. 

4 

So afterwards in the fame Book, of the fame time, be (ays. 

NoH ium c^f* fuify fere^rinum ut viferet orbem^ ^ 

Mmtthus.^ iHlitjuidM pimus Jtj':enderut undo* : 
NulU<^e mortuies pr^tttr Juu litoru nwruut, 
Xvnium prucipifcs cii^ibant opfiiufojfs, P. 7, 

And that the Preterpluperftd Tenfe may be us'd ol a Time 
lately Pafb,nay even but juft Paft, might be prov'd by a thouiand 
Inilanccs \ two or three out of iicero may be i'utficient. Ctmmodnm 
*iil fjcrdi heri^ cum Trciutiiu venit^ faulo foji Cmtimy Cic« ad At. L«I3. 
Kp. 9. You were but jufl gone Yefbcrday, when Trebutim came, 
and loon after Curt'ms, Obfi^Huta jam Epijiola fupariore^ non flacmt ilh 
Hdre^ cut iOHliituerum^ quod erut ulicnus^ Cic. ad At. L. 10. Ep. 11* 
Huv'm^ SetVd my foi mer Letter^ / h^ no mind to ^ive ii to barn to 
Tt-Jom I itui difyndy becAuje he rcM u Stra^gmr, Plume mbil tfjf 
ijuod »td ujhibercm. hiodo enim difjclferas^ tr puullo f<fi triflicH remfc 
rjsy Cic. ad At. L. 13. £p. 8. And though the time be long fince 
that O t7o laid this, yet it was of a time juft Paft when he laid it, 
and any one may lay fo upon like occalion. There is therefore no 
futHcient direction to be had for the right ufe of this Tenfe from 
either ofthefc two Definitions \ and whatever Children ever come 
to know of this Matter, they muft learn it from their own Obfer- 
vation, or at leaft from their Maftcrs ; which is not to be expecft- 
cd from all Children, or from all Mafters ; and whatever Diredi- 
on the Mafter iliali give in this, or the like cafe, would be better 
retain'd, if it were in the Book, to bcconfulted upon all occafions. 
Now all that I can fee in which this Tenfe differs from the other 
two Paft Tcnfes is, that whereas the Preterimperfed Tenfe fpeaks 
of a thing Paft,as Prefent at fome Time Paft,the Preterperfofl of 
a thing as now Paft ; this Tenfe fpeaks of a Time as Paft, hcfon 
fome other Time Paft ; as, Hacfumu a.i Treviros ferUtMy ImiiccHmu^ 
rufy qui poflcro die cajhu Lubieni oppu^nure deer ever at ^ noifu frxftt^iiy Cxf. 
Bell. Gall. 1 5. p. 1 1 1 . where profu^it freaks of a time Paft, buc^- 
creverat of a time Palt before it. Et cum folfum latum cMculuri leBo 
circumdedijfet^ ejufque foffa tranfitum pontuulo li^neo com^ttnxijfet ; emm 
ipfum^ cum fores cubiculi cUuferuf^ detorquebat^ Cic T. Q. 1. 5, p. 473. 
Here alio detorquebut fpeaks of a time Paft, and cUufrut of a time 
Paft before it. This is the peculiar ufe of the Preterpluperied 
Tenfe, and from whence 1 fuppofe it had its Name, Plt^quum per- 
fecfum^ as iignifying a thing not barely Perfected, but Permted be- 
fore fome other. But then this can hold only in Acflive Verbs j 
whereas if it had been called Plufquum pruteritum^ that Name woaM 
have comprchcnwkd all. And I cannot but fay, but this xnighc 
p(»ir.bly be our Authors meaning, one, or both of them> by more 
than Porfc<ftly paft, and Dm p)4ttciitu : But then I know not who 
could find that meaning in the Words they ufe. But becaufc in 
fome cafes it makes no difference, as to the main of the Setife, whe- 
ther a thing be fpokcn of as Prefent at fome time Paft^ or as ha- 
vn^g been Prefent, therefore in fuch cafes the Preterpluperfed and 
Prcteriinperfc<fT, may be usM indifferently, not that tuey do not 
differ, but that difference makes no diflfcrence as to the main 

• meaning. 



Of the Preterfluperfe0 Indicative. 291 

ining. Of this kiiid is chat o^Ovid afore-cited in this Animad* 
fion. 

NuUus adbuc fAundo prdbeb*t lumina, Titan, 

And then ends with, 



•N'ec brachia tongo 



Mur^ine ttrrarum ponexerut %Ainphitrite, 

'tis plain by the Conte)ct, that Ntdlus adhuc Tit^n prahehtt, iocs 
fignifie here. The Sim Aid formerly pnne^ but did not then do fo^ as 
c^ibMr is fometimes imply'd, buc that it did fhine neither then, 
formerly, and that is all one in effe^ with forrtxerat afterwards. 
ere is the fame reafon in that which I quote afterwards with 
dmm out of the fame Author. So with Poftqnani^ «/, »W, and fimul^ 
tnie the order of time Paft is declared by them, inflead of the 
tcipluperfeA, *tis common to find the Preterperfe<ft.Tenfe, and 
tetimes the Preterimperfe<ft ; SLS^Vht jam Je ad eam rtm paratof effe 
'kit fuHt^ opfidu fua omnia 'incendunt^ Caff. Bell. Gall.). l« 

• Ea res ut efi Helvetiit per iniicium nunciata^ moribm Jup^ Orteto*!" 
€X vinctdis caufam dicer e coegerunt^ Id, fbid. Vhife dintius dun intei- 
^ C^fur I — gravtter eos accufat^ Id. Ibid. p. to. roftquamfafinttty 
imjipte caufam 4iudivit-'—'-^ro^itat qui vir ejfet^ Liv. 1. 1. Dec. i. 

3^*4 Jimul ac Tethyt fatorum ignara nef'Otis 
Keppulity & faSta «• fl immenfi copia cceli 
CofvipMerc yium^ Ov. Met. 2. p. 31. 

ftfiquam fatit virium colle^um ad omnes conatus videhat^ i fuii nnnm 
taium Romam ad p4trem mifity Liv. L.I. Dec." I. 2^ium primunt 
fkon veni^ fuitaue cut ad ttf litrras datem^ nihil priusmihi facienium pi*' 
,Cic.ad At. 1.4.£p.i. Though in thcfe Cafes the Actions may be 
k*d upon as concomitant, and as neither of them preceding. 
lis Tenfe is alio us'd fometimes to denote a time Paft before the 
Kent as, Dederam triduo ante pueris Cn. PUmcH titeras ad te^ eo nunc 
hrevior^ teque ut anteu confolubar^ hoc tempore monebo^ Cic. Fam. L.<^* 
. 20. But here it is more frequently exprefs*d by the Pretcrim- 
fe<ft, or Preterperfed Tenfe. Though there are feveral other 
junples of this ufe of the Preterplupertecf^ even in Cicero y as, 
ipferdm (pr Scripfi) ad te epifiolam^ quam daremy iv Id. Sedeo diesis 
dare voluerumy non eft prof eifus^ Cic. ad At. L. 9. Ep. 7.* Tu autem 
m *id eum fcribas de his rebus ; ut fciam (^uomodo hac accipiat : ^wies 
m me certiorem, %Atque hoc fuperioribus Uteris ddigenter ud te perfcrip^ 
tm (or perfcripfi) Cic. ad At. L, S. £p. i. Eteuim Pompeium^ qui 
7timfjipijji/ney non folum a me provocutus^ fed etium fua' jtonte^ de te 
ununicare foUty fcis temporibus xftis nonf^pe in fnatu fr4nje. Cut qui- 
iiitera tua^ quas proxime miferas ^or mijifti) quod facih tntellexerimy 
fmcundd fuerunty Cic. Fam«--L. I. £p. 7, Hoc tecum coram malutram 
: malui)fed ^uia longiusfiAat^ Volui Per iiteras eudem^ Cic. Fam. L. 7. 
U 3* jamdxu ignoro quid ^4#. Nioil enim fcribis : Nc-que ego ad te his 
ihus menfibus fcripferam (or fcripfij Cic. Fam. L. 7. Ep. 9, There 
tlib another ufe of thi» Tenfe included in the former of its fpeak* 

P p 2 ing 



I 



292 Of the PretifflMferfilt Indiiithe. 

ing of a time Paft before the Prefent^or fotiu other, but poffibly ic 
will not be fo thought without a Caution. This is when it it lued 
for a time, that would have been Paft, upon a Condition fuppos'd 
to be Paft , in which cafe though the Subjun^ive be more ufual ; 

as, 2d*^'^ H'*^**' multitgiatum erut^ tsf probabattsry afcendiffet ad bonoreSy nifi 
in f at more mantfefto dffrthenfus fanas le^ihufy & judicio dediffet^ Cic. 

Inv. L. 2. p. i6$.. Yet there are Examples ^o of the Indicative ; 

Et fi fata deuMy fi mens non Isv^i f^ifjet^ 

Jmfulerat fcrro *Arg6licm fctdart latArM* Virg* XjOm 2. 

p. 117- 

But this, I fay, is fomething extraordinary, and in (uch cafes 
it will be diicretion in the Mafter in my Opmion not to trouble 
young Head.N with extraorJiiiary matters, till they throuehly 
underftand the common ute^ but before they part, providadtM 
Scholar eo through the School, I think itis neceflary he £liould uih 
dcrftana all. 1 have now gone through the Tenfes of this Mood, 
which have any conHderable difficulty in them, and if I Icem to 
any Man not to have done it to his Satisfa<ftion, I mulb entreat 
him to confider the difficulty of the Subject, and how hard it is to 
give general Rules in fuch a Cafe, The JUams themielves were at 
no fmall variance in the ufe of Tenfbs, and the greateft Vrench Au- 
thors differ at this day in the uie of theirs. However, I hope the 
Reader will not find his time loft in perufing what I luve here ad- 
vanced nor find much to obie<^, at leaft that he will own it is 
more ufeful and fatisfat^ory than that of this Grammar, which I 
reied. And I cannot but wonder how thefe Rules came toikand 
^\{ this while uncorrected, efpecially by thofe who have underta- 
ken to write Commentaries upon this Grammar ; for I know no- 
thing more material in all the whole Subje<ft, than this DoArine 
of Mood and Tenfe. 



____^___,„ — ■! ■ » ■■ ' m*tm m I 



(4 



i 



(^tJie FuttireMfdieaivei. j|p| 



, .J. I ,x . . - ' ' ' I — — — >^— 1— » 

Of the Future Tenfe Indi- 

cative. 

Grammar J Eng. f* IS* . • 

THe Future Tenfe fpeakeih of the TJrfie t6 come, 
with this Sign, Jhall or mil ; as, Amaboy I (hall or 
will Love, 

ANIMADVERSlbN CX. 

THe W6rd /W^ his two Significations, one when it iignlfies 
the mere Futurity of a Tmng, another when to that it adds 
a Command, and ib makes the Verb equal to the Impenn 
tlve Mopd : And in this latter Senfe alio it may oe expre£s*d by this 
Future, which is therefore in effect alfo Imperative ; as, Scd. vaMg^ 
nteofte me^otU viMit^ Oic Fanu L. /« £p. 20. So eUewl^re^ T» bsc 
fiUlnt^ Ciceronem fuerum cuttSm^ff amabif. 



'. V-.-* - 



Of 



Of the Imperative Mood. 

Grammar Eng. p. 14* 

THe Imperative Mood biddetb, or commandctb 3 as, 
Ama^ Love tboiu 



I 



Grammar^ Lat. ^* 4x. 

Mperativus ^uo inter imferandum utimur. 

Animadversion CXL 



THefe Definitions of th< nfe of the Imperative are both ilK>rt ; 
iFor it is not perpetually us'd to command : And though in 
the X^rm Grammar there he this Addition y Hie moiMi e$um 
fermijfhms dieituTy quod mterdum ftr bunc permiffid J^nificatur^ 

Si fine pace tui^ atque invito numine Troes 
liulium petiere 'yJuant peccatu^ nee illos 
JuverU auxiliot 

And, Denique aliquundo et'iam fufpofitivus out horrativus afellttm : nt 
yirgilius ; Eitmus^ atque in media arma ruamus. Yet even tnus the De- 
icription of the ufe of it is not perfed. For befide all thefe, it is 
ufed to entreat, as in that of ^rgi^ 

Mufa mihi caufas mvtnora. 

Which fort of AddreiTes are frequent in the Poets, and contain not 
a Command, but an Entreaty : And of like kind is that of Ijyyy 
*At tu pater denm bominumque bine faltem arce bofies^ deme terrorem Ronm- 
nis^ fugamque faedam fifte^ with many others. And this isasdiftind 
a ufe of it as any here mentioned, and therefore an Omiffion. 
Kay, the Permifiive and Hortative Moods (for I kaovf not what 
is meant by SuppofitivM here) are reprefented by dififerent Varii' 
tions from the Imperative ; as,/o«(»r, eamut^ ruamus^ the Author's 
Examples, which though aflign'd by this Grammar to the Impe- 
rative> yet do not belong to it, as I fhaH ihew when I come to the 
Paradigm of Verbs *, and juvcrif is not aflign'd to the Imperative^ 

even 



Ufjbe ImfifAtive Mood. 295 

eVen by this Grammar, ^ut there is another Queftion mov'd about 
this Mood ; namely, whether it have the Pretcrperfed Tenfe ia 
the Paffive Voice ; and Voffius makes a folemn Difputeof it, and 
concludes at laft|in the Affirmative. The Latin Grammar has al- 
io the fame I>o<f^rine, f • 42. and that «ven for the Acflive Voice, as 
well as the Paflive. For there it is faid, fr/ttaitum Mutem a fufym" 

Cic. Std MMidfO te nibilincommodo valetudink tusfectfis. 
Martial* - Die quotus ts^ quansi cupias CQftarc^ nee uUum 
^dcUtJeris verbum^ ecena farata tibi e^. 

But here fecerisy aad addiJerisy are the Future Subjund^ive, and not 
Imperative ; that is, have not the Termination Imperative, evcfi 
accorduig to this Grammar. And ail that was to be faid upon this 
occafion, was, that the Future Subjundtive was fometimes ufed for 
the Iniperative. Nay, the thing commanded muft be always Fu- 
ture, for a thing Paft, can be no Subjecfl of Command. 

As for the Paflive, this Grammar determines it by the Authori- 
ty of Prifctan^ Qnin ir ilU FaffiifA, Prjcceptum fit^ Di^um fa^ Determir 
uatum fity frMteriti fajfivi efjefatttur Trifcianus. But VoJjfiuSy as I faid, 
makes a folemn Difpute of it. I ihall not trouble the Reader 
with his Argument at length, which he may fee in the 14th Chap* 
ter of his Third Book de oinMlo^iAy but only recite his Inftances up- 
on which he j^rounds his Opinion. 

The Firft is of yarro^ L. 4. de L. L. S^uod ad tcmporum voeahuU 
Xatina aitinet^ haStenus fit fatis dictum. 

The Second is of Cicero^ L. 4. de Fin, Sed frimum pofitumfit^ no/-- 
met iffos eommendatos ejpf nobis ; frimamque ex natura'banc habere appetir- 
si^nem^ ut canfervemm nofmet ipfos. 

The Third is of Xivy, L. 7. H4f diSfa fiut patrihus. 

The Fourth is of ^intiliany Inft. 1. i. c. i. De pueru^ inter quos 
educabitur ille buiefpei deftinatus^ idem^ qt^od dt nutricibus diitumfit. 

And at lafl he concludes, Et eurin indicativopajfivo^ itemque fuhjunr 
&ivo, Mcamujj circumfcribi praterita perfe^a^ ise plufquam perfe^a^per par^ 
ticipium^ & ^erbum Subftantivum : Cit in imperattvid idem fieri negemu*^ 
cum ruro quidem ufum eorum exigat neceffitas : Neutiquam tamen^ vel vo- 
r^, Vel ret repugnet natura, S^mobrcm aut nufquam eorum^ ubi peri- 
fhrafi oputy in temporum doEtrina ratio habenda^ aut contra quam Gramma* 
tici tradiderunty tria funt Imperativi fajfivi tempora : e quibus tertium hoc 
quod adjecimur magti differt a duobus aUs4^ quam ipfi inter fe. 

But fure the Nature of the Imperative has a plain repugnancy 
to all Paft time, fo that it cannot poffibly be the Subiecft of Com- 
mand, which muft always follow the Command, and fo be Future 
in'refpecft of that, as the Command it felf is Prefcnt. And for 
this reafon, the Imperative Mood may be call'd either Prefent or 
Future, according to the re{pc<ft which is had to cither of thefe in 
the Denomination. Becaufc the Command is always Prefent, the 
thing Commanded always to come, though fometimes fo immedi* 
ately, that that alfo has by fome been call'd Prefent. So that this 
is one of the Compound Tenfes *, namely, Bicompound, as refpe- 
(fting the Prefent for the Command, and the Future for the thmg 
' Commanded. Indeed there may be Commands of that Nature, 

as 



39^ ty* the ImferMtive Mood. 



«i to require a thmg to be done and Paftatfometimft^cOflM} of 
which this Author puts iome Cafes ; as, dints inn* baram e^us tfto 
"vi vtncH Junto^ uute Md^entmm mtHmy and Others. But then in thefe 
- .re is no colour that the Comnuind is siTcnof athtng Paft,as he 
i^mfs to think there is jin his former Inwmces : And in this cafe he 
oppoies no Body that I know of > it never having encred into the 
liead of any Grammarian to deny this. The only Qucftion thai 
is. Whether a thing Paft, as Paft, can be the Subjedl of a Com- 
tnand f At which his former Inlbances ieem to point ; and he con* 
icludes, ihey abfolutely determine it. Wherefore I ihaU examine 
them one by one, and endeavour to (hew the contrary. His iirft 
is of Tarro, j^^od ad tetnporum Lutina VocubuU attinet^ hn^enus fit fatis 

diStum, Now the Sub)e<S^ of the Requeft here (which is one ufe ol 
che Imperative Mood) is not to the thing that it wottk) have been 
laid (for that it was already, and no Command needed upoo that 
Account) but to the Reader that he would take it asftffficuwi, and 
therefore here is an Ellipiis of Mcceftum fit^ i. c. fit acceftmm mfait 
di^um. And this Refolution is equally applicable to two of his 
other Inf^anccs, Hdc di^afint patrifms^ i. e. accefta ut diSF^i, and Defth' 
trisy inter qucs ille edueahitttr huic ffei deftinutus^ idem^ i^mod de n tficdms 
astum fit^ i.e. acceftum ut dilfum. For he cannot be fuppos'd to de- 
fire here that the fame things have been faid, which were already 
iaid,but that they might be faid again in another cafe ; namelv, as 
concerning the Children, as well as the Nurfcs, or that it aught be 
taken as fo iaid, which both are new things, and none of them yee 
Paft:. In his other Inftance out of ricr/o, Sed fnmum fofitum /Fr, uof" 
met if Cos commendatos effe nobis j frimmmt^ue ex nuturSk biSufe hmtc apfe^ 
titionem^ ut conftryemus nofintt ipjcs, Tis plain, that by fofitum fit is 
demanded a thing to be done, not as already done, as will appear 
by the place which in my Book, is f . 22^. Or etfe Opknm ntay be 
under flrood in (bme Cafes, and foloor VUui in others. As, 2?^ ^ 
temporum vocahuU Ijttina attinet ; haS-enmt fit jatis diStum^ i. e* Opinvfy 
or, ut apinor fit fatis diff-mn. According to what cieero fays, M de 
inconftantia totius illarum fententia^ fi ulU Jtntentui cujufifutm efe fteH 
mihil apprahantisy fity ut opinor^ di£tumfatis^ A. Q. L. 2. p. 18. So H«r 
diEta pnt Patrihwy i. e. ydo or V6lm hac di^u finty and Voi^ fofiti,mfit$ 
in that of Cicerp^ VqIq di&um fit in that of j^«ifiit/fitfi. 



- ■ V 







'; 



I 



OfthePctenthlhML 29^ 



Of the Potential Mood. 

The Treffnt Tenfe. 

Akimapversion CXIL 



THore is imleed but one Modal Variation (tmkft die Ittfiai- 
tive Mood be taken for a Verb» which X do not allow) be* 
fide thofe already treated of. But then that one VariaticHi 
liaf leYerdl Powers or U&59 a$ I have ihcwn already, one of w)ifcli 
is cmll'd PQtefitial, not bccaul^ it Sonifies Potentiality only, bpt af 
it fj&ffCk happens in Grarnqguir) becaufe that is one part of itt Si^ 
niiication. In what f^p^) and for what reafon I ha^e allowM iIms 
to be a diftin(^ Mqo4) sn^y be feen before oimmad. CVl. I AaJl 
now treat of it as fuch, and £rA of the Prelent Tenfe. Tlie D^ 
icription the Qrammar gives of it is bv the Ej^ijb Si^s JtCt^otr Cmm, 
But this is no compleat direcftion for the life c^Tthis Tenfe. 

Firft, Becaufe it often has the Power of other Signs dian Jkffj or 
Can, 
Secondly, Becaufe it has not alway the Power of the Sign Ctm» 
And Firft, It has the ?pwer of other Signs than iiay or Cam^ m 
the Sentences following* 

Of the Prefent Potential having tit Pcwcr tf CouU 

er Might. 

,Vel bic famfhUm yndbat ^eties BaccbtM f 
QuamfanShty ut ^iinsfaciU poffit credere. Ter. Hcc. Ac I. 

Sc I. i. e, Mi^bt Beiievty or CimU Btiitife^ 
Q ego ne poflim tn!t$ feniire dolwrety 

Q»am yeltem in felidis m^tilmf efft ijfif^ TibnL l«» 2* 
■El. 4. i. e. m^ibt noiffti^ 

Of the Prefent Potential hdming the Pcwcr 4 Wguld 

er Were. 



^^pi* 



■^4l» fM funnnctre voces 



Evaluere fonum^ referttnt <f»^m n^^i^ |fif<<fr«? 
64^0mf^m mfjfvrfVUtS^ mmms. Hor. L. t. £p. u i* t. wmfd 
^Rt^ a^ if ilK Had b^wfHWufi apfverabip to what he 



2^8 Of the PotentUl Mood. 

Turn In leffo f^notiue videres^ 
Suidtre fecreta, divifos aure fufurros. Id. L* 2. Sat. 8. and 

L. I. Sat. 8. 
Tarn ttntor dono^ quam fi dimittar onuflus, L. I. Ep. 7. i. e. 
asifl wtrefent <vdmj^ 
Commendoque tibi ejus omma, nt^otia^ lihertos^ frocuratores^ fanulUm^ U 
frimiJuue ut^ qtu T,%Amf\m de ejus re decreverit^ e* comprobet, CicFam. 
L« I. £p. 3. i. e. That you vpould approve of, 

Jd oro te^ in commune ui confulas, Tcr. And. Ac. 3. Scj. i. e, vMdi 
provide for, 

Thais p'ji-ro inflarey us bomiitem invitet, Tcr. Eun. Ac. 4. Sc I. 
f. e, V0OU J. invite, 

Hubtmus iffum, Th. Vbi is eft ? P. Hrm adfiniflramy nomviJes? 
En, Th. yideo, P,Comprehendi)ube^ quantum potefl, 
Th. S^d illo facias ftulta \ p. ^uidfaciam ro^as ? Tcr, Eun* Ac. 5* 
Sc. I. I. c. vebat xtou^dyou do vnth him ? 

Haud iftu dicas, / cci^noris me^ vel amorem meamy Tcr. And. Ac. 4. 
Sc. I. i,e, you wou'd not fay, 

Neq\ a fr poftulem, nifi ipfa res moneat, Tcr.And. Ac.3. Sc«3. t. e, 
would not difare. And there is nothing more common than thofc 
kinds of Sentences in all Authors,as Nam me dies^vox Utera deficiant, 
Ji hoc nunc vociferari velim quam miferum^ indignumque fiiy Cic. in 
Ver. Or. 7, p. 28^. t. e, vpouldfud, S^dfi quia deus mibi lanuatlir> 
ut ex hoc atate refuerafcam^ & in cunis Vi^iam^ Valde recufcm, Cic de 
Sen. p. 212. t. e, t»ould refufe, Sj*od Ji nunc hoc whs invisfifima >o- 
cem emittat, non hoc faSto loquatur. Ad. Her. 1. 4. p. 37. t. c. 99tU 
it notfpcai{^? 

Dentque hercle Aufugmm potius quam redeam, fi eo mibi teietmdum 
fciam, Ter. Hec. Ac. 3. Sc. 4. t. e, rather than I voould return. 
Nee retinet lachrymaSy & fi modo Verba fuperfint 
Cret opemy nomenque fuum^ cafufq\ loqiUtur, Oy. Met. 1. I. p. 22. 
S. e, vpould tell, 

Ni faciat, marioy ae terraa^ cotlumque profundum 
iluippe ftrvit rapidi fecumy ycmntq} per our Ofy Virg. i£n. f • p. 95. 
t. f, would carryy would fi»eep9 • . . 

* • 

Of the Prefent Potential, having the Power of 

Should or Ought. 

Vnum excipio Cafonem, in quoy perfe^ijfimo StoLo fummam elo^tentim 
non defiderem. Cic. Brut. p. 55. i. r. lou^ht not to expe^y or retfttru 
Si tota mihi ex omnibw mctallis pecuniam proferas , omnem iflam cot^f 
riem non dignam putcm, qua frontem boni viri contrahaty Sen. dc Ira, 
1.2. C. 37. i, e, flyould not thinl^y which fhould contrary or ought to 
contrast, i^iid enim hoc negem ? Cic. ad At. 1. 9. Ep. 5. «• '• 
Aould I deny And lb frequently in thcfc Interrogative Exprcm- 

ons, as, . 

Ml n* moveat cimex Pantilwf ? out crucier quod 

Vcllicet ahfentem Demetrius ? Hor. 1. I. Sat.* lO. i. f. AouW 

move me ? /hould I be vexed ? , * 

^^^'^^ cur diflit^ere coner 
Tutus ah infers latronibtu ? Hor. 1. 2. Sat. I. i,e, ^ 
tkould I endeavour ? Quid enim nut mc oftentdn f .mt de aliorum iw 




Of the Potential Mood^ 2 99 

jmrUt tpufnar ? Cic. Fam. 1. i. £p. 4. ^0 autem quem pottm adoptem, 

4<a»# Imyocem, quam ilium y quo ! defendente vincerc didici .' t. e, JhwU I 

mdopt ? Jhould I call upon ? 

Turn fariu fudor^ oui me tarn lent pajfw eft animo ufqy adhuc^ 

0^4 meo cun<p^ animo libitum e^^facere : tine ego ut advoiier / TCT* 

And. Ac. I. Sc. 5, 1. r. That I Jhould oppofe him 1 . 

The Signs M<9 or Ctn therefore are not an adequate and com- 

Sleat Direction for the Ufe of this Tenfe, which is io oftco rehr 
red by other Signs, and cannot properly in Englifh be rendred 
by them in thefe Cafes. Let us now fee in the fecond place, whe- 
ther Can in Engliih, may always be rendred by this Tenfe in La- 
tin, One would think it might by this Grammar, which Alfigiis 
this Signification to this Tenle without limitation. But there are 
leTeraTCafes where it may hot *, nay, there are more where it may 
jioc, than where it may. For inftance, fortit autem dolorem fummum 
n$ai»m judicans^ aut temperans voluptatcm fummum bonum fiatueajy efy 
certe nullo modo poteft^ Cic. Off. hi* p. 3. Neque ulla ojjjini praceptk 
firnMy jUbiUa^ conjun^a nature trudi pojfunty nifi aut. ah its qui folam^ uut 
ab tit ^ n^axime honeflutem propter fe dicant expetindam^ Cic. Off. 1. l» 
p. 3« Itaque nihil mibi in menttfm venire potefty non modo quid fperem^ fid 
^id auieam Optare^ Cic. Fam. L. 4* £p« l* Turn agitatio mentis qu^ 
•nunqOam acquiefcity poteft nos in ftudiis cogitationis continere^ Cic. OfT* 
1. I« p. iO. Sed ut neque mediciy nee imperatores^ nee orutares^ quamvis 
40rfis pracefta pereeperint^ quicquam magna Uude dignum fine ufu 6* exer^ 
citatione confequi pojfunt^ Cic. Off. 1. I. p. 2^. Nullo tgttur modo fieri 
fotefi^ ut quifquam tanti aftimet aquitatem^ ut ejus eonfervanda eaufa nul^ 
iumfuppliciumrecufety nijiiis rebus ajjenfwfit^ qua fulfa ejj'e non poffunty 
Cic, A.. Q. I. 2. p. 1 6, Nee vera fatif eonftituere pojfum^ quod fit eorum 
confilitfm^ aut quid Velint^ Cic. A. Q. 1.2. p. iy« Ego vox ixhortari tan-- 
turn pojfum^ utamicitiam omntbiu rebus humanis anteponat ia^CicdcAmiCm 
p. I5I. nAd quern recuperandum^fine quo xAthena ejfe non pojj'unt^ cum p(H 
fulus armatuf concurrijfety Nep. Vit. Phoc. p. 109, 
I Nec qua rarione figuram 

Ferdiderinty potui feircy aut nunc dieere poffm^ Ov. Met. 1 3. 
V. 672, 

Nee ft forte rogeSy poffim tibi dieere quot finty Ov. Met* 13. 

v. 823. 
. Vunus promittere patris 

Nee voloy nee pojfumy Juv. Sat. 3. v» 44. 
■ ■ Non poffum ferre Qutrites 

Gracam urbemy Juv. Sat. 3. V. <^. 

' .T«*/?4 fericli 

Si ratio efty & honejluy timenty yavidoque gelantur 
Pe^orcy nee tremulis poffunt infiftere flantisy JUY. Sat. 6» V.ptf. 
Omnibus in terrisy qua funt a Gadibus ufoue 
nAuroramy 6" Gangemy fuuei dignofcere foffunt 
Vera bonay atq-y tllis multum diver fa^ Juv. Sat. Io« V. 2. 
Non foffis oeulo quantum difcernere Lyncetu, 
Non tamen ideirco contemnas lipptu inungiy Hor. L. I* £p. i. 
Non amo te Sabidiy nee poffum dieere quarey Mart. L. !• 

Ep. 33. 

By all thefe Sentences, and others without Number that might be 
mA^9 wherein Foffum cannot be varied by the Potential Mood , 

Qq2 it 



J 00 Cftbe Potentidl Mood. 

h n plain that tke ufe of this Tenle caniidt be kiunvli by tht §S^s 
Mn or Cak. Indeed the ufe of this Tenie is In intritiite fUJttd*. 
JEnn foil of dificttlty, and therefore the CrtoiAiarians have aM 
dtdm*d. meddling widi it,or but touched upon it : Howerer I ihall ' 
▼cntnre to lay Ibmethins more fuUy of it, at leafl to let others a 
thinidi^ fiirdier upon this Subjed, if I ^oiild be lb unhi^py my 
Icif, as to millake the matter. 

This Tenie then, or Modal Variatioii, belide the fig^dfication 
of Coflceffion, or Permiflion (which is general, and cannot be mr- 
Kaken) implys alio Ibmetimes the fignification of Deheo^ Peffmm^ 
and fbUi at leaft pra^ically, ib as to be equivalent to either of them 
^Bhd an Infinitive Mood : which becaufe the ufe of Authors has in 
a mannef confounded, I Ihali endeavour to be as diftuKft as may 
be upon thefe feveral Heads, that the Reader may have die fuller 
Pcolped, as well as the larger fcope to exercife his own Thotafacs, 
If he Ihafl not be fatisficd in what I advance in this matter. Mow 
tlie ofes of this Tenie, or Modal Variation, being €o many, it is 
neceHary that it be never ufed in any one of thele Significations^ 
hmt firft in general, when the Nature of the Senfe leads to this Sif' 
fiification ; and feoondly as to the form of the Sentence, if we wiH 
Ib&ow the ufe of Authors, it muft be one of thele following. 

Of tJjc Prefent Potential implying Debeo. 

CASE I. 

In a Sentence Interrogative. 

Jum veri quid eg9 de valvis iUim tem^li commemoreitt, ClC lA 
Vcr. 1. 6. Or, 9. p. 34.^. ^ 

i^ft^d fi nem^ refrebtndit fatrtm <ft$i h^c non ntgligtniMiM fi»ofli9 
fntet^ cur improbetur / quis ea. qua domi fus ri&9 faceret iufMam 
|p704fti^, QuintiL I. i. c. i. 

MfH* moveat cimex Pantilim ? uiut crucicr quod 

FitUcet 4hfentfm Demetrim^ Hor. 1. I. Sat. lo. 

Q/a'i eft ergo quod i»c impediat C4, <^um nubi frcbabiU^ vidtMtur 
fequi^ qujt, contra.^ imfr^bartf ? Cic. de Off. 1. 2. p. ^8. 

Quid cfl quU expecftetur io£fi dicuyus fenUHt'tA ? Cic Bmt. p. 161* 

Laudetur Verl hie imjferator^ out etium appelletur, dtti hoc uomiite 
Jignuf putetur ^ Cic. Parad. 5. 

Dr fuo cirtfniue quid ^0 difputcm, cum sotum foptum fit in ufi^sf 
Cic. in Ver. L. 4. Op. 7. p. 292. 

Nam quem in amicitis fferfjjiajum cognoveAs^ eum qaare pUtes in immi' 
cUtM cuihfidt hiibrre ffcffe ? ad Her. 1. 4. p. 27. 

Quid e^o nunc de meis fropriis meritis ptasditefil ? SI menumfiSf 
dhtuneUm^ fi chliti eftis^ &c, ad Her. !• 4. p« I3. 

%o diibitem ^»t m^tf laudem truncam iltifn & YeMrfidam Umc^ 
ffunutn^ quam cujujlibet fortij/imi falvam ? Sen. Ep. 66» 

^go autem quem fotius adoptem aut invocem, t^tn iUumj quo in* 
[t^nUnte vinceri; didici ? Cic. Fam. L. 5« £p* 9^ 



Of the Votentidl Mood. ;oi 

Cic in Ver« L $• or. 8. p. 301. 



Ktrnfinfihi bocfumpfit^ ut corri^at moret aiiorum^ ^, ..^,- 

hem<Ut^ «»» bmc ignolcat, fi tfuJi in rt if ft 4b rc/jgtoilc oJfcU declin4rii f 
'"ici in Ver« L <• or. 8. p. goi. 



Of the Prefcnt Potential implying Debeo. 

CASE II. 
In a Sentence Declarative. 

i2«M tZZiMfi fornuUA includit^ 6r certos quoj non exccdaf, ter9mmos$^ 
mit. Sen. Den. 1. 3. c. 7« 

■ Ex hoc <jo fattus ah illis 

Fermciem ^uACunquc ferunt ; meJUocribmy 6* quek 

Ignofcat yttiit teneor^ Hor. L. r* Sat. 4. 

Ne frsceptorem babeo cur vencrcr, fi me in grege itftifutorum &i- 
Wr, Sen. Ben. 1. tf. c. i^. 

Vnmm txcipio Catouem^ in qtto fetfeffiffimo Stoic^ frnmnum Wo^wmlv 
Mn non defiderem, Cic. Brut. p. 155. 

tAdfumma pervtnit qui fcit qu§d gaudeat, Sen. £p. 23* 

Pbilofopbi denique iffim^ qui de fuA vi ac fapientiA unm omnlt fro* 
fiietury eft tamen ^uMddm dejcriftioy ut is quiftmdeat omnium rerum di-- 
vimtrum aiff bumanarum vim^ naturamy caufajq^ fiojf^y ^ omnem bene 
Vivendi rattonem tenere & ferfequiy nomine hoc appelietur, Cic dc 
Or. 1. 1.^ p. 83. 

In utrdque autem re quicquid in controverfiam veniat^ in eo qudri 
folet 4iut fuS-umne fit^ aut fi eft fA^um^ quak fit^ inut etiam quo Jio- 
miiif vocetur, Cic. deOr. 1. 1, p. 55. 

Sin aut em ea qwt obfervatA funt in uyn ac ratione dvetndi^Htc ab bominibm 
caUidit ac feritis animadverfa ac notatu^ verbis defignatoy generibus iUufhra^ 
f4, fartibut diftributafunty id quod fieri potmjfe video : non inieliigo quam^ 
edrrem non^ fi mmm ilia fubtili definitioney at bac vuigari opimone ars effe 
videatur, Cic. de Or. 1. 1. p. 4.5. 

^t totam mibi ex omnibus metaUit ftc nmU m froferedy onrnem iftam cor^e» 
riem non djgnamfutemy quafirontem boni virt contrahat, Sen. Ira. 1. 2« 

c 37. 

Neqi eft quod exiftimes ilium vilemfibi fuiffey qui fretium /e fuifecit^ 
Sen. Ben. 1. 2. c 11. 

Certe nee formay nee atut 

Eft enea quam fugias, Ov. Met. L. 3. V. 455. 

Hac memorans animo nunc bucy nunc flu&ua$ iiltit 

%An fefe fnucrone ob ea$Uum dedecus omens 

Inditair) ^ crmdum |Hrr coftut czigat enfem^Yixg^Mn, €0. p. jto* 



cf 



J o 2 Of the Potential Mood. 

of the Prcfcnt Potential implying Poflum. . 

The ufe of this Tenfc in this fignification, is fomething more 
various, than in that of Z>c6ro, and therefore I /hall ht the more 
particular in putting down the feveral Cafes in which it may be 
ufed for FojfHm. 

CASE I. 
In a Sc7itencc Interrogatire. 

Qr*i/ ergo iftos ferat, qwt bos autores non probtnt ? Cic ad Brut. 
Or. p. 189. ^t*is enim putet, uut celeritatem ingemi, L. BrutO dtfu- 
ijfe^ qui de nuLtre^ fuuviunda ex oraculo %Afollinis tarn acute^ *irgute<j[j con- 
jecer'it ? aut^ &c, Cic. Brut. p. 1 50. Socii quo fugiant, cum adttms 
cuftodi fatrU fr^clufusfit ? Cic. Or, Ante iret in £xiliuni, p. 702. 
S^is enim rem turn veterem fro cirto afHrmet, Liv, L I. p. 3. 

- S^is t>d'ta fundo 

Myrmidonumy Dolofumvey aut duri miles VUffei 

Temperet k Uchrymis^ Virg, ALn. 2. p. 1 1^. 

S^uis diros cafus urbis^ Uudundaque motiftra. 

£t fidei panaSy & triiia futa piorum 

Temperet evolvens lachrymis ? Sil, 1. 2. p. 4x>. 

i^id faciat ^ yir aheft^ & adeft non rufticm bofpefy Ov. Art. 
Am. 1. 2. p. i^4« 

Heu quid agat ? quo nnnc reginum ambire furentam 

Audeat a^uy Virg. lEji, 4.. p. i^S. 

CASE II. 

In a Sentence pmfle Declarative, and not in the Claufe 

of the Relative Qui. 

The firft Cafe. 

Of this general Cafe there are feveral particular* of fpecial 
forts, which for diilindion fake I ihall put down ieverally. 

The firfb.of thefe Cafes is when. the Sentence contains fome 
ground of the poflii>ility depending either upon the contexture 
of the Difcourfe, or Nature of things, but not fo necelfarily) 
as that the contrary would imply a contradii^ion. As, 

Ita fine invidia invenias Uudenty & amicos pares, Tcr. Ac U SCt I. 
.1/4 i.e. nunquam fraponens fe aliisy aforegomg. 
It A pal quidem res eft ut dixti Lesbia, 

Videlem baud fermc mHlieri iaY^nii^ yilft^9 Tcr, And. Ac. 
3. Sc. I* 



Of the Fotentid Mood. j o j 



Njim contra flutes reperias 6* fuciles in excogitattdo^& ad difcendum prom^ 
ffos^ Quintil. 1. i. c. i. c. 4. c. 5. TrAter hac autem invenias multas 
res neceffitudinU^ ad (\uai Jimilii adjunff-io non accedit^ Cic de Inv. 1. 2. 
p. 75« lUt*d quidem minime verendum efty ne Uborem ftudwrum pueri dif- 
ficilius tolerent, neque enim ulU AtOA minus f^tigutur. Mirum fit for/:- 
ian^ fed experimentis deprehendas, Qiiint. I. i.e. 12. Frangas f:Vi«y 
tiuam corrigas 9«<e in pruvum induruerunt^ Qiiintil, 1. I. c. 3. Sc. ^. or 
Francos or Corrigat alone. 

To thefe may be added fuch as thofe ofTtfrence^ where the Claule 
of this Tcnfe fignifies either the caufe of fomething preceding j as, 
Neque tu iftum metuas^ neamct mulier : pellas facile ubi Vclts^ Or pellas 
alonCy Eun,oic, ^,Sc, 9. 

%Aut ft tantus amor fcribendi te rapit^ aude 

Cafaris invi^i res dtcere^ multa labor a m 

Pramia laturus : Cupidam pater op time vires 

Deficiuntf neque enim quivii horrentiu pilis ' 

tAgmina^ Vel fraSfa pereuntes cuff tie Gallos 

%Aut labentis equo defcribat v»/»fr<z Purthi, Kor. L.2. Sat i. 
Or theEffecft ; as, 

• Vidi^o fape re intelligere^ in loco 

Vereriy inter fe amare ; fare ejl liberum 

Ingenium atque animum : quovis illos tu die reducas. Ad. 
' Ac. ij. 5c. 3. 

The Second Cafe. 

Of the Second fort are thofe Sentences, where after a Defcriptioii 
of fomething extraordinary in its kind, the Perfedion is concluded 
with a Comparifbn after this manner \ as, 

Retiaque & laqueos^ qua lumina fuller e pojfinty 
Elimat ; nonillud opus tenuiffima Vincant 
Stamina^ nee fummo qua pendet aranea tigno, Qy, Met 4* 
p. 76. 
For which he ufes poffum upon another like occafion ; as. 
Non illud PalUsy non illud carper e livor 

Poffit Of us Met. 1. 1^. p. 1 1 5. 

Of like kind is that of Siliw^ 

JAartius huic fonipes campOf hinnitibus imp let : 

Huic juga cornipedes ere^i bellica raptant : 

Non Elem eat campo ferventior axis, L. I. p. i^. 

The Third Cafe. 

The Third fort is when an Adverfative Senfe, or fomething 
feemingly improbable precedes, either in the Subjed j as, 

Vafii quoque re^or Olympi 
£ui fera terribili jaculatur fulmina, dextra, 
Non agat bos currm^ & quid Jove majm habctur ? Ov. Met. 
L. 2. V. 62. 
Or in a former Enunciation; as, Illud quidem minime verendum efl^ ne 
laboremfludiorum pueri di ficilius toUrent^ neque enim'uUa atas mintu fati" 
gatur. Mirum fit forfitan , fed experimentis deprehendas. Quintil. 
1, i.ciai 

The 



304 Of the Fotemid Mood. 

The Fourth Cafe. 

The Fourth fort is, when a£ber fomething pronoanc'd «£ 9. Ge- 
neral, we conclude the fame with more force ; as, i nMjwt ^d mt- 
sfitf, or the fame in efifei^^ of fome particular cootain'd under it ; 

■ MorttdU f4^A ferihunt • 

Nedum ftrmonum ftet houos^ & gratU Wax* Hor. 4e Art* 
V. 69* 
That of Stncc€ is particular, but the Reader may obferre, that 
joffum going before, makes way for the underftanding Fo/r<vm in 
the Potential \ as, Ntc pojfttm dieere me nihil perderf^ Jed ^md ftrdam^ 
tr qitemadmodum dicam, rauf4i fuupert4itu mts reddam^ £p. !• where 
dicam and reddum cannot be fuppos'd to be the Future Indicative, 
becauie then a particular account of his H^ofs and Poverty mulb 
have foUow'd, which there does not, 

CASE in. 

Of the Prcfoit Potential implying Poffum in a Simple ani 
Declarative Senfcf the Tenfe fo implj/ifig being in the 
Claufe of the Relative. 

In this Cafe alio, the ground of the Polfibility mu& depend np- 
on the nature of fomething mentioned, but not fo immediacel]|f> 
and neceifarily, as that the contrary would imply a Contradiiltiom 
And of this Cafe alio there are feveral forts. 

The Firft Cafe. 

The Firft Cafe is when the Ctanfe of the Relatire contains Ibnie 
Quality or £ffe(^ of the Claufe Antecedent, or bodi ; as, Nw/f 
ftuius eft mutum ejfcy quim qtsod nemo intelligat diccrc ? Cic« Phil. 3. 
P* ^53* ^'*^ igitur vos inducitit iu em caftiottes <{um nunnpuim explicctis f 
Cic. Div. 1. 2. p. 227. P^M nmtitts tn legjUms mvi$A efft ffmteritA, tfM 
idcirco frstertta nemo arbitrctur, <iu»d ex csterk legibusy de 4}»tfcM/ /^^ 
turn fit^ intelli^i foffint, Cic. de Inv. 1. 2. p. 72. Vt utiUus fit «ccWrr 
fedffe fufpicionem, qusm bmjufmodi intendijfe orutionemy ^im redargn^UI, 
ad Her. 1. 4. p. 3. Nam debet effe fur't^nm fermo^ & qui varieuae gdS^ 
«m effugiat, & muttttiowibut (tnimum levet. Quint. 1. 4. c* 2* Sedfbh 
rimum ex bis valet animi fraliantia^ <^u4nn nee metv* frangat^ necmeX^mtf 
tio terreat, nee audiewtium autrntm ultra, debitam reveremtutm tardet^ 
Quintil. 1. 12* C^ 5. 2!*arunt autem quonam modofaif* vift qf^fiut^ta 
Dem eficere fofU frobabilut , qtia autem plane proxim^ ad verum aceedmty 
nan pojpt ? v^ fi ea 9^0^ f£>ty cur ea non fo0ty ^^ ferdigiin&ttr^ w* 
ternojcuntur tamem ? Cic A. Q*l« 2. p. ay. Sua ep Junt ftnlRora jfji' 
lofopbisy quo minws multa patent tn eorum vitij Qts fartumM ftriat| Cic« 
Off. 1. 1 • p. 3 1 . Commodiffimum effe quam laxijfimas hAtnas hjbere amk*"^ 

tia^ quas vel adducas, cum vclff^ vr/remittaS) Cic dc Ainu i%o vrr* 

fdfievtm 



(^ the Fiftmid Mood. 30$ 

#fii Him ma^inar'vo boner e vefborum exmrnare confliiui, feleoloco po- 
9U0 nulla perveniat injuria^ Sen. Quod in Sap. non Cad. in juru. 
be per deos in earn curatHy ac coi^ttutionem^ qus tibt fummam dt^mt*- 
iriloriam aicrat, Cic. Fam. L. lo. Ep. 3. 

Bde nefas quod miter igo invideantque firores, Stat; 

Theb. 8. y. (58. 
ScrAam mtfn' quod non unquam tua deleat MtM. Property 

L. 2. ^. 5* 
Kofn ^tid te dicam facere in regtone Tedani ? 
^cribere quod CaffiParmen/if opufiuU vincaC. Hor. I. I. £p*4« 
i lAt hie fi fltftra ducentoj 

Concurrantque foTfo tria funera. \ m^na fmudnt^ 
Coruuaquody vincatque /»^. Hor*X>. i* Sat. 6» 

The Second Cafe, 

le Steond Caft is, when the Clauie oi the Relative contain's. 
BMns by which lomething may foe etfeded by the Antece** 

Oraiionem fperat inveniffe fe qua difTerat te» Ter. And. 

Ac.3.Sc. I. 
Vacitey fif^ite^ invemte^ efficite qu$ detur tibi : 
£^0 id 4^dM mhiqui ne detur. Ter. And. Ac. 2« Sc i • 



m^na fuhfidia refpub, b^Aitj quibm fuhito impetUy ac latrocimo 
umttRStit, Fam.L.io. Plane. Cic. Sive ratio confUntia vir- 
ffemaritur ; aut bdc ars e/l, out nulla omninOy fer quant eat aflequa* 
I Cic Off* 1. 2. p« 67, Tamen ea faciatfty e quibui appareat, vo* 
tern vos^ nontjfictum fequi, Cic. Fin. 1. 2. p. IK^. idem unique 
JKhmty idem tenor vitay nihil ex^quo (entias duos ejjey. Piin. Paneg. 

Nunc opus eflfuccityper quos renovate, fene^m 

In fiorem xedcat — — — *Ov. Met. 1. 7. p. i j8. 

flon qua via captiofa folvantur, amb^^ua dlftinguantur 

oftendit, Cic. Fin. J. i. p. 104. 
f9oe vide quot modid refeilatur. Sen. Ben. 1. 6* c. 2i« 

The Third Cafe. 

*ht Third ^Ca& is, when the-Ckuife of the Relative contains 
End, UUf or tPui^ie- of the /Antecedent; as. Quid arguaswon 
§^ Cic. pro^Zt. Rofc. p.'.232. Non bakeo ne me quifdem ipfunij 
nm tarn tutdoEter communicem, <]i»4m te^ Cic.ad At. L.r2. £p.3^. 
mid ferierunty eft quod illorum flippleat locum^ vlrtiuy Sen. £p. 74* 
td quamvie nemo efiy niftwreferatur ad auresy Ov. Met» 1. 4. p* 180. 
tro bonum quod (cBtiam, non qjuod oftcndam, Sen. dc Vit. Beat. 
• 

Nil erit ulteriusy quod neflrit moribus add at 

iPdfimta S ' Juv. Sat. i. y. 147. 

MUkA^q^^^aa, Hor«L. uSat.^, 

R r The 



3o6 Of the FrtfentVotm'uh 

The Fourth Cafe. 

The Fourth Cife is, when the Antecedent Claufe is made Qt| of 
QuM, IncerrogAtive or Indefinite ) as, %Adiue nume auod bmc umusi^ 
nempe de ingrato in jus ducendo, omnU fora vix JuJ^denu Qf» en$ 
qui %cm agat T Qi**f'i ^»m qi*o wm a^atur f Sen. de Ben* 1. 3* c* 7. 

Ne^tH ijuifiiuam tfi qti CAufum quam nonJidUentj agat* Q|un- 
til. !• io« c. 7* 
And alfo when Quin is in the Claufe of the Poi(eiitial in,dii$ 
manner^ ?q/l tot exemfU nou duhium eft^ i^uiu bcnefUium Mlu^rtJo dominui 
s [ervo accipiat, Sen. Ben. 1. 3.c. i8« 

The Fifth Cafe. 

The Fifth Cafe is, when the Tenfe fo implying is in a Claufe 
Indefinite, equivalent to a Relative ; as, Ulud nonbeueficiuh ^'fcd 
feenusj circumjficere tAi oftimi ponas, »6i, L C. ^uq hco^ or locmm w futf, 
$^\\, Ben. 1. 4. c. 3. , / 

The Sixth Cafe, 

The Sixth Cafe is, when the Claufe of the Relative abounds, fo 
that the Sentence would be intelligible without it, which iort of 
Claufes are generally included in a Parenthefis, or between two 
Comn^a's ; as, Hujus de virtutibus fat it erit dxStum^Ji hoc uuum 4ufym3i' 
eroy (^uod Hfmo eat infieim^ Tbebas & ante Epaminondam tkttmm^ & fcjt 
e'mfdem interitumy perpetui alieno faruiffe imperio^ Nep. Vit« £p. 1% ^ 
ille esdftimdty quod facile appareat, cum me coUty atque ohjtrvety t'Jnquo^ 
^*e in eo fe factre ^rattjfimumy Cic. Fam. L. 4.. Ep. 13. 

Of the Prefent Potential, implyhg Poffum in a Com- 
plex Sentence, 

The Firft Cafe 

The Firflr of thefe Cafes is in a Conditional Sentence, with SH or 
^pfMH ; as, In oi»i fit/i (ut dicitur) dpertum feftus videeu tuumque tfieiidti, 
nihil fidum nioil cxplorutmn habeas* ne anuai qutdem^ atn awtan ptfiy 
cum id quam verefiat i^noresy Cic, de Am* p* 177. Nee fi ran^nem b* 
Jcrum i^ncrety f or#4f intclligat, Quintil. 1* i. c* 4* 

Necfi quafierit odium CyclopiSy amor ne 

%Acidi» in nobii fuerit prafentioYy edam ! 

far utrittquefmt .Ov. Met. 1. 1 3, ▼•75, 

In the two firft of which, the foundation of the Poffihility Ueiia 
the Condition, as in the Caufe of thefe £2c^ and in l^ latter 
injthat^which follows, fgr ittrinque ftnt. 

V9 



Of the trefent Potential, J07 

Tre libet pycul binCy fatriofjue rtlin({ueYe fines^ ' 

Dumfceliu efiTugiam Ov.'Met. lo. v. J42. 

Where the Pocencial SceU effugiam^ is the Condition oifatnojiptfrii 
iintiuere fines. 6r it may be taken alfo as the End. 

And to thefe may be added that of the Author to H^r»m»/^ tho* ' 
fomething different, as being Indefinite in the Claufe oi the Po- 
tential, Ifie ifuotiSe in fcrum medium tanQuamjubutm draco ferfity denti" 
bus aduncis^ affeStu bene mao, fpiritu rabidQy circumfpeStant hue & Uluc fi 
quern reperiJlt, cui^ ^c. L. 4^ p« 35. 

The Second Cafe. 

Th^ Second Cafe is,* when the Claufe of the Potential iigniAes 
the £nd or Intention with Z/r, JVc, or ^0 before it ; as, Deinde qui 
alt^um violaty ut ipfe uliquid commodi confequatur, &c, Cic, Off. 1. J. 
p. lo8. Cavendum erity ne non folum ^tmicitia depofita, fed inimicitis ett^ 
am fufcePtsy idenntur, Cic.de Am. P* i7i- Though here perhaps 
it may oe fufficient barely to underitand the Event of the Things 
Sed quo facUius fcrmo explicetur* ftdentcs^ fi videtuty i^nmusy Cic. BtUt* 
p. 149. 

The Third Cafe. 

The Third Cafe is, when the Claufe of the Potential figntfies 
the ££fe(ft, withZ/t Effedlive before it ; as. Ego commitumy ut ea^qus 
fro fidute omnium geffiy cafumagpt & felicitate a meyOuam virtute & con-* 
filiogtfia e(fe videantur ? Cic pro SyJl. p. 491. Though here al(b it 
may be the Effed of the Thing, rather thaii the Poffibility, may be 
intended. But yet in this, as well as the Inftance aforegoing, the' 
Potential may be refolved by Pojfum and the InfinitiYe Mood. 

The Fourth Cafe. 

The Fourth Cafe is, when in the Anteceding Claufe thefe is i 
Note of Intenfion, as Tcm, Jta, anfwered by Vty in the Claufe of 
the Poteiitial ; as, Non ita iJbundo it^enioy ut te conibler, Cic. Fam. 
L. 4. £p. 8.^ Quamt^em nee ita claudenda eft res familiarU^ ut eam benig* 
mtM aperire non poffity nee ita referanda^ ut pateat omnibuSy Cic. On* 
I/. 2. p. 8^. ipfit iU* canciones ita multas habent obfcuras^ abditafque fen" 
tentiaty vix ut intelligantur, Cic. ad Brut. Or. p. 175. 



-Q^«*f iniqud 



Turn fattens Vrbisy tarn f<rreu$ ut teiieat fe. JuV. Sat. t« 
V. 31. 

So if the fame Senfe be exprefs'd with a ReUtive inftead of Vt ; 
as, Kec uUam tarn immanfuetum Animal efty quod non cura itlitiget, & 
in amorem fui vertat. Sen. Ben. 1. 1. c. 3. And when the Intention 
is fignified by Tantuu there is an Example of it in Cie, in the firfl: 
Claufe ; aa^eque uUa res tanta exifkity pdiceSyiut foffii vim mUfi majorem 

•dmer€mctf*iqu4mfidff^ Cic. pro Sext, Role. p. 231, 

Rt % The 



joS Of the Prifeat FotentisL 

The Fifth Cafe. 

The Fifth Cafe is in Compacatlve Sentencet, in eke lail: Mem- 
Ber of the Compariibn ; as, %Aiunt nos lo^majwi^ ^itmfi»4 hmmutU 
futura. fuftineat, Sen. £p. 104. The Fifth Caie ift with VtitHm be-' 
fore the Ciaufe of the Potential ; as, De ^ mtm^m 4ufi^Mdo ucnm 
Joquar, Cic ad At. L. 8. £p« 2. Unlefs the EYCttC odIj be here 
figniiicd ; but it ieems to imply P.offum rather Miftcdsiig to out 
Language, I rvijh I couUfpeJ^mthjou, 

. There has been a great deal Uid upon this Point already, and, 
yet to make fure, it nuv be nece^ary to add fonie Inftances where' 
fojum cannot be imply'd by this Mood, in which the Reader will 
fee the' Neceflity of the Limitation aboYe mentioned ; namely, 
that the ground of the Poffibility depends uponibmethin^ menti- 
oned, or the Contexture of the Difcourie, and yet not (b immedi- 
ately, as that the contrary would imply a CohtradiAion, Foff" 
>vhere there is no ground of the PofUhility, or that lb immfdiare? 
ly depending upon the Nature of the Thing, that the contrary 
would imply a Contradidion, in that C^e Poffum cannot be im^' 
ply'd by the Potential Mood. 

Examples of PoJJum^ not commutable with the Potential 
Mpodj where there is no ground of the Poffibilky 
cxpreiG'd. 



'Kom foffum ftne QmriUt 



GrAcam urh e m JuvTSat. 3.^. tfo»' 

Omnilms in terrk, ^us funt a G4dibuj fffy^te 
%Auroramy 6* Gan^enty fauci dignofctre fwjfunf 
VeTA 601M attp^ Uli6 mtdsum Jiverf4U Id. Sat. I o» 

M quern recufframdtm$y fine quo iAibtns ejfe mm fojfuuty ^mnm fofuhk' 
drnutus coHcurriffety &c» Nep. Vit. Phoc. 



'Kec nuA ratione fi^ram 



PerdUerinty fotm fcircy <ut nunc iicture fofim. On MK* 

1. 3. p. 672. 

Vuuus from'ittere fatrit 
Ncc vohy ntc foffu m Juv. Sat. J. V. 44* 

fQm rumfere quondam 
VerrcA non pojjunt vcterum Aecreta fororumy 
Signal tamen luStus Jknt baud incerta futuri. Ot« Met. L I5« 

V. 781. 
Vt nihil ad te dem literarum facsre non foffum* CiC ad Ati 

L. 8. £p« I4« 
So Bicrrr non^Foffmm qjuin^ 6c, Jd. 



Simpb 



Of the Prefect PoUntid. jc> 

Examples of Tojfum^ not commutablc with the Potential' 
Mood^ where the ground of the Poffibility is lb iromc* 
diately neccflary, that the contrary Would imply a 
Contradidion. 

Vortis auiem ddorem fummum malum judicans^ aut temperant votitft^t'- 
ten^ fummum bonumftatuens^ ejfe ctrte nuUo modo fotejl^ Cic. Off. J. i . 
p« 3* Here to fay, Vortf6 autem dolorem fummum mtdum judicuns potc^ 
ejft^ would imply a Contradi^ion. For fummum malum judicans efi, 
moUify which is contrary to Portis^ and fo in e£fe(5l Fortij and uon For- 
nix And £6 in the other Claule^the Cafe is the fame between Tem^ 
ftramf^ said VoluptaXcm fummumhonumfUtutns, Itot Voluftutem fummum 
jUtuenty is iMxuriofus^ which is alike contrary to Temper uns^ So 
agaiO) Neiute ulU officii prdcepta firmu^ ftubiUay conjun£fa natum tradv 
fojfunty nifi aut ah its qui folam^ aut ab iif out maximi honeftatem proptew 
fe dicant exptttndamy Id. Ib« Et <{**od fatfum efty id pcrcipi non potefi^ 
Xd« A, Q. L.^^2.p. I4« 

Of the Prefent Potential implying Volo. 

Of this alfb there are Averal Cafes-, and in all of them ther^ 
jbulb be fuch way made for this Signification by the Contexture of 
the Difcourfe, that it may plainly appear, that Volo is imply'd ^ 
dtherwife, this Modal Variation having fo many Ufes, the Reader 
will be entangled fh an ambiguous Seme, and left in the IXirij: ta' 
Extricate himfelf, 

Te firft Cafe. 

The iirfl: Cafe is, when the Claufe fb Implying, is put as the 
tiling conditioned before a Claufe conditional ^ as. 

Sunt his ulii multum difpareSy ftmplices & aptrti^ qui mhil ex orcultHy ni'" 
hit ex infidiis agendum putanty vtritatis cultoreSy fraudis inimici, Jtemq^. 
aliiy qui quidvis perpetiaiiUir, cuivis defcrviant, dum quod velint conjc^ 
^uantuTy Cic. Off. 1. 1, p. 4.5* And this fometimes is preceded by 
a KotjC of Inteniion, vi\. ItUy Tamy Tuntmy &c, as Nee vtro crimim' 
hmfulfis in odium quemquam vocabit^ ommHO<i'f itajt^itia honefiatifq) adh^t- 
refcttty ut dum earn conj^rvety quemvis ^raynter offendat, mortemque op- 
getat, potius ijf^km deferat ilUy qusdixiy Cic. Off. 1. 1. p. 3<5. 2uotuf- 

quifque invenietur tantJt virtute viry qui optimam quamque Caufam reipub^ 
amplecftatur, qui bonis viris deierviat, qutfolidam laudem veramque qux--- 
rat i cumfciat ilia duo reipub, pent fata Gtdimum & Pifonemy alttrum hau* 
rire quotidieex pUcaiiJfimk atq^oppulentifftmis Syria ^a^s innumerabde pon- 
dm auri : alterum^&c^Cicoro Sext. p*557. It may be thought poflibly, 
that in thefe inftances, tne bare event of a Future thing is only fig- 
nified, and therefore they ihould have been brought under the Fu- 
ture ufe of this Tenfe: Butbefide that the Reafonins would not be- 
good) iltJM bare event only were fig^ified^ becaule the verity of 



5 16 Of iht Prefent htentid}. 

it coniifts wholly in the Will ; I fay befide this, tho' the event were 
only fignified) yet that event being of a Perfon, the Potential max 
be refoiv'd by l^oloy and therefore the Signification of that ii im- • 
ply'd in it, as 

%Atq\ uttMAfn out verm furor ille^ out creditms ejfet^ 

Nee comes bic PbrygtM unf{inim vewffet nd forces 

Hortator fcelerum : Nonte Pauntia proles 

Expofxtum Ixmnos ncftro cum crimine bahereU 
And foon after, as another coniequence, he fays, 

yjlet 6- infelix FaUmedes eU'e reliStm : 

ViVcrtt^ uut cevte letum fine crimine hjhettt^ Ov. Met, 13, p. 
263, 2(54.. 
Whereby VtlLt efft relief m is not imply'd the will of PaUmedes, which ' 
was abfblute doubtlefs, to have rcmain'd to that day, and not up-^ 
on condition that Vljffes had never come to Troy^ but the bare e* 
vent that he would have remained alive, ur that it would have hap 
pen*d that he would have been alive. There is indeed in the twd 
laft Examples, a Futurity imply'd by the Preftnt PotenttMly but 
not a barel'uturity^ but a confent of the will along with it;and thii 
is a common thing in this fort of conditional Sentences, wherein 
IS declared what one would do, upon fuppo(ition that (bmethin^ 
were, which is not, and in which therefore the Prefent Potential may 
be varied by the Vuture indicative or Pottntiai^ or what is common- 
ly caird the Prcterimperfelf Potential 'j which alio (bmetimcs fignifies 
Futurely, as /hall appear at large when I come to fpeak of it. But 
I am here reprcfcnting the Modal fignification of this Variation 6f 
the Verb, and fhall rcferve the reiped it has to time, till I come 
to coniider it as a Tenfe. 

i^uod fi qi^it deut mihi lar^iatuTj ut ex has state repuerafcam^ ^ in cu^ 
nis vagiam valde recufem, Cic. de Sen. p. 212. S^odf nunc hoe urhs 
inviclijfima vocem emxttat^ non hoc patto loquatur f Ad. Her. 1. 4. pw 
37* S^*od fi nunc L, tile Brutm revivifcatf & bic ante pedes Veftros adfity 
non hoc utatur oratione ? Id. lb. In my Book it is utttur^ but Grc»o- 
viiM has pu bli fli 'd Vtatur. 

Si fie alits Marhisfiat^ mimu bic Mitcborum fiet^ magis metuant 
Mtnitf has rts ftudeant, Plaut.Mil.Ac.5. Si ire occipiam vetes,Plant. 
Trin. Ac. 2. Sc. ^ Tufi bicfis aliter fentias. Ne<^^ poftulem, mfi ipfu 
res moneatj Ter. And. Ac. 3. Sc. 3. 

— — — . Et Idem 

Si (juis aA iJU demfubito te agat^ uff^ recufes, Hor. l.a. Sat.;'* 

Ni faciat^ maria^ ac terras cctU*m<\ue profundum^ 

S^Mppe ferant rrf;'i//i/ft-i#m,verrantque fer auraSy\iT^,]Exi.U 

P- 95- 
— — — - Et fi modo verba fuperfint^ 

Oret opem^nomenque f$tum^ cafufque loquatur, Ov.Met. h U 
p. 22. 
So when the Condition is not expreG'd by fi^ but impty'd i ai, 

^id facias talem ft.rtitus Pontice fervum^ JuV. Sat. 8* V.I7^ 
And indeed nothing is more common than this way of Expreffing 
a Future Conditional in all Authors. The only Queftion which 
can arife, is, whether there muft always be the fame Tenie in thC 
condition, and the thing conditioned *, or whether one mar be <hd 
Prefent, and the other the Preterhnperfe^, for that beiUr theft 
Prefent Tenfcs may be changM into thp FstVaimfetMy is paft 




Qftle Prefent Potential. j i j 

dlirpute. I have known fome Perfons of great Ingenuity, and ex- 
traordinary Judgment in thefe matters, who would not allow one 
Tenfc to be chang'd without the other. For inftaiice, in/lead 
ofTufi hicfisaliter fenUM, Tufi bic tj[ts aliter fentires^they approv'd of. 
But Tt*fi hie ft f aliter ftntiresy thcy fuppofed could not be iaid with 
any Authority. But tho' it muft be own'd that Examples of this 
kind are but rare, yet there are enough to bear out any Writer 
that-ihould fo exprefs himfelf, as 

Mittit uibyHtnm^ quum mallet ferre fJutem^ 

Si cadat ira marisy fe(ia puelU tibij Ov. Leand. Her. 
Two others there are« in which though \will be not imply'd, the 
5ubie<f^ not bein^ a thing which has a Will, yet as to the commu- 
tablenefs of thefe two^Tenfes, which is deny'd likewife, they are 
all one ; as, 

CanSnt 6* 9 CQilo lanam deducere tentat : 

£/ faceret Ji non my* lefulfu fonent, Tibul. L. i, EL 8. 
, Nam fi yiir^tlio pucr 6r tolerMe defit, 

Hcffitium^ caderent omnts a crtnibtH hydri, Juv, Sat. 7. v. 104, 
But of this I ihall fay more when I come to (peak of the commu* 
tability of thefe two Tenfes. 

This fignificatfou alfo of this, Tenfe is found in a Conditional 
Sentence, when the Verb in the Condition is the Prefent Indica- 
tive ', as, 

■ £2*od fi mea numxn* non funt 

hUgnu fdtijj dubitem baud e^idem implorare t^uod ufquum efty 
Virg. .^, 7. p. 241. 
AUb when one would 00 fomething, unlefs hind red by fomc^ 
thing Prefent, reprefented by the Subjunctive Prefent, and nt, nif^ 
^vfi noH\ as, 

Continul fugnas ineant & fralia tentent 

Ni rofcus ftjjos jam gurgitt Pha:bm Ibero 

Ti^at tquoi^ no&tmque die labtnte rcducat ^ Virg.iEn, II, 

P..3S3- So 
Et indoSta comes tenues fine corfore vitas 
%Admoneat volitare cava fub imagine forma 
Jmiat, & tenuis ferro diverberet unArras^ Virg.^n.5. p. ai4. 

The Second Cafe. 

The fecond Cafe is, when the latter Claufe is conne<5ted con- 
jun^ively with J>/t> in the former ; as, 

Hoc Ithacm vetit^ & magno mercCTitur tAsriday Virg, JEn. 2. 
p. III. 
But in this Cafe iikc a Condition, ^is underflood, namely,/ fojfmt, 
i.e. mercentur ft poffinty and fo it will come under the former. 
There feems alfo to be a tacit Condition in that of ciccro^ 
Nee periculum efl ullum ^uod pro libertate ref ugiam aut deprccer, i.'e. 
/ f€>fm deprecari^ Poll. Cic Fanu 1. 10. 



The 



|I2 <^th Frtfent Fotemid. 

The Third Cafe. 

TThe Third Cafe is in an Interrogative; at, 

JIji cgQ^ ^iM iivkm incedo^ rt^tnu Jcvifi^ 
Et foror^ & cot^uxy unA cum fente tot annoi 
BelU^erOy ir <\uiJ<{UAm Junonis numen aAortt 
Frsterea^ 4iut Juf^t'Ux oris imfonat honorem^ Virg, JEn: t« p. ^ 
jUnlefs by adoret be meant poffh adorare^ which is equivalenc, becaufe 
what can't be done, won't be done. And upon this Account fbme 
4>f thefe Expreliious, as well as many which I ihall have otcafion tp 
ipeak of hereafter, have lb many handles, that 'tis poffible every 
body win not agree to take them by the fame as I do *, which maket 
me give fuch a plenty of Exaxnples, that the Reader, who ihatt 
<iitfer from memmattcr of Aflortment, may have enough of all 
lunds ifor his imitation , let him reduce them to what heads 
lie pleafes. 

P. Comprebendi ')tAe tfuantum fetfft, 

Th. Quid ttlo facias liulta^ i. e. Vuc'uu fi comfirebtttdiimr^ 
Ter. Eun. Ac. 5. Sc. i« 

The Fourth Cafe. 

The Fourth Cafe is in a Claufe fignifying tJie nutter of a 
requeft, with ut ot'ne before it/, as, Pef a v^s ut tmttmm ^^tmrn 
mes concedatis, Cic. pro Sext. p. 545. Quod ut facias, mmm mtf^ 
<tUm rc^o. Cic. ad At. L. i2. ]^p. 6. and fo he eliewhon^ ud 
others frequently. 

The Fifth Cafe. 

The fifth Cafe is in a Claufe fignifying the matter of ones fear 

mithNe before it ; as, lUud quidcm minime vcrendum rH, sf Uborm 
ftudiorum fuen dificiliuj toltrent, Quintil.l. x, c. 12. Or if tolnent 
here be to be underflood for tderare fojfnt^ that of CicerQ at leaft 
will be an Example. Credo erit verendum mibij ne non boc fotins omues 
honi ferius m wr, qukm <iuifquam crudtlius fa^um e(fe dicat, Le. dicere VtUt, 

Far that which was to be feared was, that they would lay fii^ and 
not that they could only, unlefs th^ would alio. 

The Sixth Cafe. 
The Sixth Cafe it, when the Claufe of the Potential depends 

upon noH dMum quiu ; as, 

Haud dubium eft^ quin Cbremes 

Ttbi non dct fnutam u e. Hon vilijt diort, Tcr.And* Ax.a.'Sc^. 

I have now done with this Variation of the Verb, as a Mood or 

Mode of Predication; it remains now to confider it as a Tenie, or 

in what time it Predicates of in thefe feveral Modes of Prediotif- 

OB, which have been ihewn to be imply'd in the Potential Mood. 

ft' 



X)f the Potentul Mood. 3 1 j 

•0/ the Time of the Prefent Tenfe Potential. 

This Tenfe, as it is cali'd, has feveral things retnarkabU in it, 
and neceilary to be known, in order to rightly underftand what 
we read, or to write €o as to be diftincftly undcrftood by others ; 
And yet this Grammar is fo iliort in the Notice it takes of them, 
that the Reader, who has no better help, mufl be at a great lofs 
many times, efpccially how to ufe it in Writing. And they that 
have undertaken to fupply the defetfts of it by way of Notes, have 
been filent altogether in this Matter, whether as thinking it of no 
J4oment, er overlooking it, I know not. Neither has any body 
vthac I know of, endeavoured to ftatethe full extent and ufe of it ; 
I ihali therefore endeavour to ^ive the Reader fuch light into it, 
as mav be, if not fuflficient of it felf, lyet enough to light his own 
Candid by, and fee further. Lxnactr and others make it often to 
have the iignification of the Future, and fofar they are in the 
right in iome Senfe, for as much as it is often variable by it 5 as, 
JamVero quid ego de valvu illius tempii commcmorttn? or Commemoruho, 
^is rem tarn yetercm fro certo affirmct \ or ajjirmabit. 
Nil erit ulrerim quod noftris moribas adda£ 
PofteritM, or addtt, or addiderit. 
But then they do not fay in what Cafes it fo figniiies, much lefs do 
they fct forth the Ratio of that Signification, or variation rather; 
for want of which, the Reader muft needs be at a lofs many times, 
whether he may ufe it or not, when the forms of Expremon ap- 
pear othervvife in Unglifh in point of Time, namely, when the Ex- 
preflion in Bngliflj is by the Future. I take it then that this Tenfe, 
when it implys Debeo or Poffnm^ always fignifies the Prefent Time, 
and that it is fo frequently variable by fome Future Tenfe, either 
Indicative or Subjun(flive, as the conftrucfiion will admit, arifes 
from the equivalence of tlie Senfe^not from the Identity of the fig- 
nification in fuch Cafes. 

For the matter of Duty and Poffibility, being things of a per- 
manent Nature, they are always Prefent in thefe Cafes, and io fre- 
quently reprefented by theLatins by thisTenfe: but the Execution 
of thele things beine Future,;ffom hence it arifes that it is equiva- 
lent in point of Senie^^to r^prdfent tkem by the Future ; as. 

Jam yero quid ego valvi^ ilUus ternpH commemorera ? i.e. S^*id tgo jam 
debeo deiucefs jnidicare \ or quid fr^dicabo I J^uit iftos ferat qui hos autorvt 
non frobent ? i. e. j^»» ifios j^m poteft ferre ? or Quit ferret cum frit 
ut ftrri fe poftulent, or the like. 

The only Cafe that feems difficult in this matter, is, when the 
>Clau(e of the Potential depends upon a Verb of the Future 
Tenfe; as, 

Scribam igitur quod non unquam tua, deleat tttoi 
Nil erit ulterim quod nojtris moribus addat 
Po?ieritM», 
^avendum erity ne non folum amtciti^t depofitdy fed intmidtid etium fuf- 
etpt* e//r«i»videantur. But the two firft of thefe Cafes at leaft, are 
folvable by this fuppofltion,; natncly, that the pulfibility of deleat 
and addat is Prefent, t. e, talt nt jam non pojjfibile fit^ ut tua atas dtleaty 
44e ut jm^impojfhilc fit^Ut foJlt/it4is Mat, And for thelaft, ne imi- 

Sf cisis 



^14 Of the PotentUl Mood. 

An* fufcepu fjfe videantur, it is the Subjecf^ of c^ofenium erit^ and h 
Prcknc iii the Mind of him that gives the Caution, or Prefent with 
zh^ Future, which may be a particular Solution, and a Rule for 
(he ufe of it in fuch Cafes. 

Of the Time of the Prefent Potential imf lying Volo. 

Tn this Cafe alfo the Will is fignified as Preient generally, and 
the execution as Future, and therefore the thing fo reprc^ted 
^ay be exprcfs'd by the Prefent Potential, or the IPnture Indica- 
tive, or Subjundive, as the Conftni(ftion will admit ; af, Itenuftc 
alii qui </m</v(jperpetiantur,&C. i. e, (juidvk velint ptrpeti^ or quiivisfer' 
fetientur cum opm tritium res poflulakttfir the like. So in Tftji bicfis du 
ter frtitias^ and other like Conditionals, the Potential implying 
Volo is plainly Prefent, t. e, fuppofcd Prefent, namely uliter feutiMy 
■with Ji hie fis. There being nothing more intended in theie Ex- 
preflions than a co^xiflence in point of Time,- which is theReaibn 
why both Members of the Sentence have generally the iame Tenfe, 
yi\. both Prefent, both Preterimperfecft, or both Future. In ro- 
^0 ut facias. Teio ut concedatis, and the like, the Performance of the 
thing requefted, mufb follow the requeft^ and Co ftricftly fpeaking, 
be Future, namely Future to the time ot fpeaking of this Matter, 
but then this Futurity follows fo immediately m the defire of the 
Requefter, that it fcems as if for that reafon the Latins confider'd 
it as in a manner Prefent, and exprefs'd it by the Freient Tcnfe. 
This Tenfe is uied alfo when the Claufe depends upon a Fatnre 
Verb preceding; as, Quotufquifque inveuittur untX vhrtuie ^viry fu, 

2timain qftamque caufnm rt>i/>i«b. am plecflatur, 9/4 1 hemis viris deferYiat,fttt 
lidam Uuddtn veramque quasrat i Cumjciat^ Scc. where it may be va- 
ried by the Future Indicative or Subjundtive ; but yet that does 
not hinder, but that it may be confidered as Prefent, m it regards 
the Will and Difpolition of the Perfon at prefent. F<Mr I take the 
Senfe of it to be. Hov rare is that Perfon to be founJ^ ttho mbem be !i;mw 
Sec, umliiHg, &c. 

Tliis, with what has been faid already in the feveral Caiesef the 
ModalSignifications of chisTenfe (which being all ufed widi refpeS 
to fome Time, will help to difcover the uie of the Time under mt 
of the Mood) will I hope be fufficient, if not to fatisfie the Reader 
in the Ratio of the thing, yet to inilrucfi him in the ufe of the 
Tenfe, and what Future expreflions in our Language he may ren- 
der by it, which is enough fbr his purpofe. 



Of 



Of the Poteatid Mood^ 315 



Of the Preterimperfe6t, Poten- 
tial, implying Debeo, Poffum 
and Volo. 



A 



Grammar Eng. p. 19. 

Mar cm I might, would, could, (hould, or ought 
Love. 



Animadversion CXIIL 

THis variation of the Verb differs not from that of the Pre- 
fcnt Tenle, as to its Modal Signification , but only in 
point of time. Not that poflibly it is acfnially found in 
all the feveral Cafes with the Prefent, but that it is 16 in many, 
and Grammarians in general have allow'd it the fame Power hi 
the reft, and write accordingly, which liberty of Analogy be- 
ing fettled upon good Reafon , I Aall not endeavour to vio- 
late. And therefore I have nothing to objccfl again ft the Pow- 



er 

VP 




fcem to admit of a precariou. ^, j, 

Examples of each kind, as are at hand, and that ^ lb much the 
rather, becaufe from thence he may fee the reafonablcnefs of al« 
lowing the reft. 

Examples cf the Pretcrimperfe<£l Potential 
implying Debeo. 

Mirabar au'td mc^.t deoi tAnuarilli vocares, 
Af . Tityrui hific aherat ( ipfd te Tityre pintu^ 
lift te fonteSy if fa, hdc arbu/ia vocabanf, 
T. Quid facercm ? neqt*e me fervitio exire licebat, 

Nec^ turn prdfentes alibi coguofcere Aivos^ ^^^%' Eccl. l, t. f. 
Quid debtrem facere^ or it may be Quid folfem fuserr, 
C. Qu$ faffud efl id fieri ? S. Quid faceret ? C Rogaa 

illiquid rcperirct, fingeret faUud^ 8cc. Tcr. Hcau. Ac. 3. 
Sc. 2. t. r. Deberet fucerej Debrret referirey 3cc* 

S f % D, Ebo 



3 1 6 Of the FotentUf Moo£ 

P. Rho iHtptA nefcM quid fit aHum, M. Jj."/ fc'tam 
D* Hie Joctfr ejly alio pA^fo baud poterat fieri ^ 

Vt farct h*'^ qu4 vdumus, M. Htm pracdiceres. Tcr. AiicJT 
Ac. 4.. Sc. 5, 

So Sentca. having told the Storv of the Soldier, who put C4tfj:r in 
mind of what he liad done for him in SpAin^ that in Kequital he' 
might give Judgment for him, fays, ^^uid cr^o ? Non rcpcteretfcf- 
fttficium ah imperatore cujus memorium nmlfitudo rtrum ccnftsdtrai .' Ben. 
1. 5. C. 25. Nihil tihi dcheo^ fi J'ervafH^ utbubereSy quern oftcndercs. J^o- 
uf(jue me circumducts ^ Quoufque Mvifci fortune me4 noM fink f Scmel 
in triumpho ducltu eilem, Sen. Ben. 1. 2. c. xl, Contr* rem fu^m vemjt 
tne aliquun.io tjueftns efl, %An ego non venirem contra ulienum pto fumi' 
liuri <9 necelfurto mco .' Non vcnircm contra gratiam i Non venirem 
contra injuriam 5* Cic. Phil. 2. P. tf^S* ^uanquam fi me tamtig laboribm 
pro communi jalute perfutiifum efferret aliquando ad ^loriam in refutandis 
maleditHs improhorum hominum animi quidam dolor^ quit non ignofceret f 
Cic. de Har. Refp. p. 525. 

Haud procul inie cita lAetium in diverfa quadriga 
DUlulerant (uf tu di^is %Albane maneres.) Virg* JEtu 8. 
p. 274. 

ItAtiue cum r« Cafar iUi duccnta donaret^ ridens rejecity ne dj^nam quidem' 
jummum jujicansy qua non acceptd gloriarctur, Sen. Ben. 1. 7, c« ii.- 
Nam quid me f^cere conveniret cum a tunta multitudine GaUorum circum 

fcderer ? ^An dimicarem \ %At ■ — %An fcderem in caftrU ? Ad Her* 

1. 4. p. 29. Socrates having refufed to receive a Benefit firom %Alex^ 
andtr^ j'^nrra in Vindication of him, fays, Timuit fortaffe^ nee cohere" 
tur ofcipere qu4 nolUt, Timuit ne quid indigniim Socrate accipereU To- 
which he fi^ppofesfome body* to object thus, Dicer tdiqpii : Kegaret 
fi nolUf^ Ben. 1. j. c. d« 

Examples of the PretcrimpcrfeEl Potential^ implyUlg. 

PoJJum. 

Putares ne unqudm accidere foffe^ ut miht verba, deeffent ? Cic. Fanif 
L. 2. £p. 1 1 . Nam tpiibm commeatibm invito iUo per iUius frovimcijtm 
legiones ducercm ? Poll. Cic. Fam. L. 10. Vt caver ety ne wtid efct" 
yet imprudenSy quod offenderet animos bominumy out quicqttam 9 quo ori- 
rctur aliquii dolor y Cic. Fin. L* 2. p. 1 57. *Antea mijiffem ad te literety 
fi genus jcriben4i invcnircm, Cic. Fam. L.^. Ep.xo. Nunquamem copw 
Rex Deiotarm habuit ciuibus infetre bellum pop, Rom. poflet, fed quibusfi' 
Hvs fuos ah excurftonibuf boftium tueretur, Cic. pro Deidl. p. 631. Vlfi 
fcdem poneret non bJbebaty Cic. Fin. 4. p. 243. .%Ad te rariut fcripfiy 
qftod non h.tberem idoneum cut darem, Cic. ad At. L. !• Epl l6* 



Sed & ilia propago 



Contemvtrix fuperumy jfavaque arAdiJfima c^iity 

Et Violenta fuit 'yfcires e Sanguine n'utam, Ov«Met. L.I«P'?« 

Inntedib'clajfes'aratM'y nAtfiabella 

Can reerafy totumquexnfiruSto murte Videres 

^ery^e J^ticateH ■ Virg* iEn. 8. pt 275. 

Exatopks 



Of the Fotential Mood. f 17 

Examples of the PretcrimperfcSl Potential^ implying 

Volo. 

E^one ifiuc facerem ? Tcr, And. Ac. 3. Sc. 4. i. c. Te deluderem ? 
Ego forte dutum offenderem, ut et'iam ittquireret in euniy qutm reiiquif- 
jrm ? Cic, ad At. L. 6, Ep. 6. 2s*id uis ? C^farem nunc defendit Curio f 
^it hoc pucaret frdttr me ? Nantj ita. v/vtfwi, futavi^ Cic. Fam. L. 2^ 
Ep. 13. 2^td facercS/'TO homine innocente & proplncjuoy cum frofter ho— 
minem perdi/tjfimum attjue aliemjfimum de ojjicio ac dignitate decedut f Ci^, 
in Ver. L. 2. p. 2^8. 2^4ihus ego fi ijuam medicinum tnvtnirem^ tibi 
quoque eaniem traderem, Cic. Fam. L. ^. Ep. 12. Habes augurium 
7ftr»m, f«o, fi quid addubiturem^ nonmagui uccrcr, r/wiw, 6^, Cic. Fam. 
L. 6. Ep. 6, Jgitur nunc quoque f atria careres, ne eu qua nolU-s viderts f 
Non inquies. Ego enim ivfe tenerem ofes (^ Dignitatem mcam^ Cic. Fam, 
L. 4. Ep. 9. Hunc ego fi in {.'rafeifif habuifftm, quern tu me homimm pu- 
tares, Cic, ad At L. 6, Ep. 3. Deinie fi 'sredidijfcm^ nunquum id fine 
nliquk jufta caufa cxiftimarcm te feciffe, Cic. Fam. L. 11. Ep. 27. 
j^ttM autem fcena ejus moverctur, qui id commifirrat^ Sen. Ken. L.4. c.37. 
Redderes enim & depofitum^ quod a fiipiente *iccepijfes^ & etiam malo 
redderes creditum, ^id eft cur non & bentficium ? Sen. B^n. 1. 7. c. i6* 
Tiberio etiam in rebus quas non occulerer, feu natura^ p\c adf etudine^ 
fi^ffinfa. femfer^ & obfcura verba^ Tac. An. i. p. 21. 

Sluii dMt btftcricoy quantum darec aff^a legenti ? JuY. Sat^ 7» 
V. ia%, 

6f the fitne of the Prcterim perfect Potential. 

Thii Tcnic is very itn properly called the Prctcrimpcrfccft Tenfi^ 
as this Grammar defines Preterimperf'ed, either to (ignilie the 
Time imperfetftly Paft, as in the Englift)^ or the A<ftion to be im- 
perfc^, as in the Lutin Gramitaar. And- he that coniiders the In- 
{lances above cited for the Mood of it, by which the Tenfe alfo it 
diicoverable, wiil Hnd nothing imperfecfl in the whole Matter, but 
the Definitions. For what imperfedion either of Time Paft, or 
Aif^ion, is to be found in Putares ne unquum acctdere poffe ut mibi verba, 
deeffent i Or in Vbi pedem pontret non habehat, Effem enim qui effe debe^ 
am. Ego jortt dktum offinderem ? 

QuU dabit hifhsricOy quantum daret aff-a legenti I 

Or any of the reft. All that I can fee peculiar in this Verbal Va- 
riation is, that being indifferent a»^ to Time, it is ac<ommodable 
unto any^ either Paft, Prefent, or Future, as the Nature of the 
Conftrudion, where it may be us'd, requires. It may poflibly 
ftartle the Reader to hear of Indifferent Time in Verbs, there be- 
ing no part of the Verb, but what is affign'd by all the Gramma- 
rians to fome particular Time, and the Verb it felf being Defined 
by fome of them, and Ixnacer in particular, to be ?ars orationis, qu^ 
modis 6* temporihus injiexa^ out effe. aut agere^ aut pati fignrficat^ cum 
^irti temporis diffirtnti/i. But if he looks back upon what I have 



5 1 8 Of the Potential Mood. 

faid of the Definition of a Verb, he will find the adfignification of 
Time no way eficntial to it,much lefs that any one part of it ihouki 
be confin'd to the fignification of one Time only, which will alfo 
further appear, by confidering the Inftances aforecited of the Mo- 
dal life ofthis Tcnfe, with refpecl to Time, in which it is plain, 
that this Tenfc is of it felf indifferent to all Time. For it is ufed 
iu the Paft Time in thefe Examples, Quid facerfm ? i.e. Tum facercm^ 
ctmhinc abirem ? In that of yir^il. Hem prdAictres^ i.e. turn friidicerefy 
ante tjuam me ro^ares cujus puer effet^ in that of Terence, %Antea. mifif» 
fern ad te liter as, fi ^cnus Jcribendt invenirem^ i. C. fi antea invemrem. 
Nam <iuibus commeatibus invito illo per illius provincium legiones ducerem f 
It is us'd in the Prcfcnt in that of Cicero^ l^itur nunc t^uw\»e patrii 
careres, ne ea ijua nolles viderei non inquief. E^o enim ipfe tenerem opes 
^ di^nitstem meam^ i. e. Nunc tenerem^ as nunc carerej before. It i$ 
us'd in the Future in that o£ Juvenal : 

Quis dahit bijlorico^ quantum daret acta le^enti f 

This Grammar is ihort therefore in this refpccfl alfo. in the account 
it gives of this Tenfe, when it afligns it to the Time Paft only, 
without taking any notice of the Prefent or the Future. Neither 
would this Intimation alone have been fufficient, unlefs we had al- 
fo been told, upon what Occafions it might have been apply'd to 
each of thefe Times. And becaufe this Point has been hitherto un- 
touched by all the Grammarians, I ihall endeavour to give the 
deader the beft Satisfadion J. can in it. But before I proceed fur- 
ther, I muft deiire him to confidcr along with me, the following 
* Divifion of Verbs and Time, as that which will make much for 
the clearing of this Matter. Verbs then may be confidered cither 
as Abfolute or Dcpendingv And Time, either as Definite, or In- 
definite. And in Verbs Depending the Dependance, as to the point 
in hand, may be confiderea as threefold. Hither 

Firftj Of the Subject upon the Verb, as in Hem pradicerei^ i. c, 
Oportuit ut pradiceref. Or, 

Secondly, Of the Relative upon the Antecedent^ as, Quod non 

hgberein idoneum^ cut darem. Or, 

Thirdly, Of the Condition upon the Thing Conditioned •, as. 
Si invenirem^ traderem. 

Now Time is either Definite, i* e, Determin'd to one, eithet 
Paft, Prefent, or Future ; or Indefinite, i. e. Indifferent to eithet* 
Paft, Prefent, or Future. If the Time be Definite, i. e. Deter-* 
niin*d to either Paft, Prefent, or Future, it muft be exprefs'd by a 
Tenfe peculiai^ to that Time ; and fuch is this Prctcrimpcrfccft 
Tenfe, as 'tis caird, to a Time formerly Prefent ; as, Quibus com^ 
meatibus invito illo per iUius proifinciam le^iones ducerem i Tiberto etiam in 
rebus^ q'tas non occuhret^ feu ^nafffri, five adfuetudine^ I**fpf^I* fimper 
& obfcuru verba. If the Time be Indefinite to all parts of Time, 
/'. e, not Determined by the Nature of the Senfe to any one part, it 
may be exprcfs'd by any one of thefe Tenfes, either Paft, Pre(ent, 
or Future, bat fo as that the form of the ConftruAion muft gene* 
rally Determine which. This happens when the Potential is de- 
pending upon another Verb, either firft as the Subject matter off 
that Verb j as, 

S. %o 



Of the Fotentid Mood. j 1 9 

S« "Ego Audum noH nil veritus fum ahs te Duvtf nefaceres idem^ 
Quod Volgus fervorum facere folet^ dolts ut me dtluderes^ 
Piropterea quod amat filiuj, D. Ego ne ifluc facercm ? i. c. 
Turn fttctremy cum tu veritus es ne facerem \ 

Or becaufe the main thing here intended ig, that he would not do 
it at any Time. ESoneiftuc feciffemy facijm^ or fecero^ according to 
what is underftood ; namely, Verendum erat ne Ego facerem, or fecif" 
fem^ l^erendum eil ne ego faciam^ or ne ego fecero ? Or Verendum erit ne 
ego feeeroy or facUm \ Or Secondly, When the Potential being the 
Thing conditioned, depends upon another Verb as its Condition 
in Sentences, where we undertalce to fay what would be upon Con- 
dition fomething were, which is not. For the main thing here in- 
tended, bein^ to represent thefe two Things as coexiitent, or at 
leaft immediately confcquent one upon another, 'tis indifferent as 
to Time, by what Tenfes they are io reprefented, £o they be both 
the fame ; as, Tu fi hie fis^ fitter feniiasy or, T« fi bic efjes aliter fen^ 
tires ; or, Tu Ji bic fuiffes^ aliter Jenfiffes ; or, Tu fi bic fuerit^ aliur 
Jenft:ris, But This Rule hath fome Exceptions : As 

Firft, the Condition may be the Preterimperfecf^^, and the Thing 
Conditioned the Preterpluperfedl, as, tjinte^i mifijfem ad te literasy fi 
genus fcribendi invenirem \ where by invenirem^ I take it, he means 
both the Time Paft, and Prefent, or that he could not find even 
to that Time. 

Secondly, The Condition may be the Precerpluperfcffl, and the 
Thins Conditioned, the Preterimperfe(ft 5 as, Hunc ego fi in pr^fe* 
ff^is hjouijfemy quern tu me bomisum fut^res^ or futaffeSt l[>einie fi ete^ 
didijfemy nunquum id fine aliau4 jujfa caufk ffct/limarem U ftciffe^ i. e. 
Exifiimarem nunc, or emflimajfitm. 

Thirdly, The Condition may be the Prefent Tenfe, and the 
Thing Conditioned the Preterimperfe<f^ ; as, 

Mittit %Ahydt;nuSy Mtam mallet ferre falutem 
Si cadat ira MariSy SejUpuMuy tibi. 

Fourthly, The Condition maybe the Prcterimperfc<fl Potential, 
and the Thing Conditioned the Preterimperf(}<ft Indicative ; as, 
Non Comcfdum in pronunciandoy necfaltatorem in geftu facie : i^u^fi omnia, 
exigeremjupfeditahat tamen temtm^ Quintil. 1. i, c. I2. But this is a 
rare Inftance. This Tenfe alfo may be us'd, when the Condition 
is underftood ; as, Putarefue unquam accidere poffe ut mihi verb4 decf- 
fenu i. e. Si futandum effetl fi accideret ut dt ek re cogitures, or the 

like. ^ ^ 

The Reader may remark from what has been faid already, that 
this Tenfe is a Tri-compound Tenfe, as having the Power of fig^ 
nifying three feveral Times upon feveral Occafions. It may m 
fome oenCc alfo be faid to be Bi-compound upon one and the fame 
Occasion, but in two Refped^s ; as, Vt caveret ne quid ejjkeret^ quad 
offendcret animps bominum^ out quicquam e quo oriretur aliquia dolor, i.e. 
Quod ^ffenderet ante hoc temput^ poft effictret ; and fo oi'criretur. But 
here if we reckon for the Time offpeaking, which is the Term 
from whence Paft, and Prefent muft he reckoned, there is nothing 
vz^raordinaty. in this u(e of this Tenfe^ becaufe in refpe^ to that 

it 



;3 20 Of the PoteHtidi MooL 

H is a Pafl: Tenfe. Bat I thou{{ht fit to observe this Diftindijj^ 
bogaufe there has been fome Dilpute about the Time of this Tenfc 
in iuch Cafes. And this is all that I know obfervable of thi;^ 
Tenfe. 



Of the Preterperfedt Potential. 



A 



Gramwar^ Eng. p. ig< 

Mavsnnt^ I might, would, {hould(, ^f anglit to 
have Loved. 



Animadversion CXI V; 

THEfe Signs are apply'd to this Tenfe, without a fufficient 
Diftinaion, there being no Proof from any of theft Aiv 
thors, of Expredions equivalent to them aJl. It is indeed 
Sometimes ufed Potentially in tne Salification of Pojjufk and Kt^. 
but not fo as tobe rendtcd by tiiefe 9ighs, but by My or Ccn,' in the 
Signification of Poffum^ and t»ouU, not tvouli bave^ in the iienjfia- 
tion of Volo, Turn Brutm ifta veri^ inquit^ ^Mfn necefftria fttertnty wm 
facile dixerim^ Cic. Brut. p. 150. / cannot fxy. So again, Nom ratm' 
facile quern dtxerim plus fiudii^ qusm {llnm^ 6* ad dictnium^ & ad Omnet 
honor um return difciflinoA adhihmjftt^ Cic. Brut, p. 1 58. And this is a 
common ufe of it. So where we fay, as / may fay^ as I may fo f^y 
nothing is more familiar with the Latins than to ufe this Tenfe iiv 
Head of the Prefcnt, Thus i^*intiUan^ whereas he fays in one pl^ 
Sanlfitas eerie ^ tsr ut fic dicam^ Virilitas jt> bis fetenda.^ 1. X. C 8« pp in 
Others, ^a ita efi agiUs & velox^ fie in omnem partem^ ut ita diacerim^fie^ 
ifaty L. I.e. 12. Vetera Majeftas nuadtm^ <V ut fie dixerim^ reij^ioetm" 
meniaty L. I . c 6, and Others. 1 confefs, by thefe may be fuppoled 
to be underftood the Time Pafl, forafmuch as in thefe Ca!fbs, what 
a Man may be allow'd to fay now, he may be allowed to hate faid 
before, and fo it is equivalent in the main, to r&ider theft Pall*- 
ges, as I may fay, or as I have faid, but then this is peculiar to this 
ibrt of Expreflfions, and not to may bave in general, as wontd ap* 
<pear by the account this Grammar gives of the matter, by affixing 
the Sign mig}}t bave to this Tenfe, without any Limitation. For by 
this it would appear, that Viderts^ fi affueris^ you mizbt baVf feem^bimf 
if you bad or bave been prefent^ were Latm^ whcrcas theft Authors ne- 
ver exprefs this Scnfe fo, but Vidijfes^ fi affuiffes. This Tcnft indeed 
Sometimes has the Power of may have ; as, i^tamttbrem ne ftmihd b^ 
tales viri venerifa^ te a^qttando Oasf'-atdiamrtfj Cic d^ Of, 1. 2. p. I 53^ 

i.'C* 



Of the Potential Mood. j zi 

i. e. May have come^ or have bafpetwd to comcy or fltottld bd»e come ) 
but then it feexns to be meerly Subjun<^ive, rather th^ui Potential^ 
the Event ot the Thing beine here mainly re{pe<5^ed) as in that, 
S^^fgo ne fruftra fubierimvalde laborOy Lent. Cic. ram. L. 12. £p.l4.». 
and that of Ov. Hypf. Jaf. Et qud nefciertm melius, it e. 2uM mjctf' 
fem^ fhould bave^ but not Jhould in the Senie of ongbt. That of l^arro 
comes dofer to the Point, iVir^Me yillicm lonvius exierit injuju domini 
^am ut eoJem die redierity R.K. l.i. c.i^. There are Other inilances 
m great number,where theieExpreflfions may be rendrcd by c^n^but 
then they may be rend red by Will alfo, becaufe of the Confequence 
between Can, and If^ill in fuch Cafes. Thus Cicero^ Sed ueaue Verbis 
aptiorem cito alium dixerim^ Brut. p. 167, Hoc veri fine ulU JubitatioMt 
confirmaverim^ Jive ilUy i e. Eloquentia, fariatur aliquA^ five exercitor^ 
tione quadanty five nuturay rem unam ajfe omnium dijficilitmamy Id. tb« 
p. 148. Nee ideo tamen eos prt^Mvrrimy qui fcribendum quoque provtmium 
noviffime putanty Quintil. 1. 3. C. 9. Sed quodcunquf ex bis vitium mugif 
tulerimy quam quo nunc maitime Itiboratur, Keque enim accefferim Celfoy 
qui unam quandam buic parti f^mum dedity Id. 1. 9« C* 4. And this is 
frequent with all Writers, where they declare their own Sentiments 
in matters of Opinion, to ufe this Tenfe inftead of the Prefent, or 
at leaft where the Prefent might as well be ufed, as, De Menandrolo-' 
quoTy nee tamen excluferim aliosy Quintil. 1. 1. c. 8. Virmit autem judiciisj 
jamque extra periculum pofitisy fuajerim & antiquos ie^ere^ Id. 1. 2. C. 5. 
^uofdam vere etiam quos totos imitari op art eat y 6* fuiffe nuper^ & nunc ejje 
qmdcmy lihenter non modo concefferimy Verum etiam contenderimy Id. Id« 
It does indeed fometimes imply l^oloy as appears by feme of the for- 
mer InAances, but not in all the Significations of the Sign vould 
havey as by this Sign in general afHx'd, {o it would appear. As 
Ibr Example, Egone iftucfacerem ? Would I tben do if, may be chang'd 
jn Englifl), by toould I bave dom it ? And in iurin, by Ego ne iftuc fecif- 
fem ? But not by Ego ne iftuc fecerim ? There is indeed m fome Co- 
pies a Pafiage in riVrro,that v/ould feem to countenance this j SL$.Kon 
tft enim in bumana Virtusy neque immanUy neque fuperba ; qua etiam popu-* 
los univerfos tueriy eifque optime confulerefoleat : ^uod non fecerit profe~ 
^0. fi a caritate vulgi ahhorrerety Cic. Off. de Am. p. 1^3. But Other 
£aitors, and particularly i.4m&ifiM and GronovimresLdfacerety and(b 
publiih it, which pleafes me alfb better, not only for their Autho- 
rity, though much for that, but alfo as being more Analogous to 
the Ufe ofthe Latin Tongue. So ^id facer es pro bomine innocente & 
frofinquoy cum propter bomtnem ' perditijfimum atque alienijfimum de officio 
jc dignitate decedis ? May he EngUPjedy i»hat vfouU yoi* bave doney be- 
cauie tbnc Difpofition ot Mind may be fuppofed to have reach'd to 
the Paft Time alio ; but then this is not the exad rendering of /*- 
ceresy but one equivalent by confequence, and the Time Prefent is 
here intended, or the Time Future, or Prefent with Refpecft to the 
V^ and Future with refpctft to the Execution. However, in latin 
this Tenfe will not reprefent the Time Paft. For Example, If 
' wc mean the Time Palt} Co as to fay. What v»ouldyou bave done ? Wc 
cannot fay, ^uid feceris ? But Siuid fecijfes ? Now as here is a Power 
ia(flig|iiMi to this Tenfe, which it has not, fo there is another omit- 
ted which it has, and that in the beft Authors. This is when it is 
put to fignifie a Difpofition of Mind to do a thing upon Suppofiti*- 
on thatibmetbing were^ which is not ; as, zn D, Brutumaf/icerr 
tS^fin^ >ii c»jm cofnplexulibcnier frj^hnmn ffiritftm Miimpt Cic PML 



J22 Oftlu^titimM^^ 

19. p. ^. wWm itupMaUidto tJm KfiVrMtOtylMiGtipa/. 

b« vwiod ky auku. n^ he <f«il|i lp<K« ol a PKftnt PjTma^wi Qf 
Mini to (to thii, wlu« orai&^ l^ouU olCtc, a^ d that nUj: U ex- 
pnli'il by one ot t'othct. Aocl vf tlu Uffie %! i^ thafi 0W>: 9f iM 
ame Author, QMafwjii(aHSe^ti4,iibni4»/4wwi*Mf,/ )qftti/ii|iir 
4^^ mtt baUti, tAlttr*»Adfnmt %it*m.»ligu*m t*r>rm txtui^tTim tit 
f K/, Fatn. L. ;. £ik 14. £ t4M •)#■ n;pn7""^f^ i«>»r(Jiiiiii ii(yviUfmtt. 
mfftn-nmm. Sen. fip. Fv i.e. <dEc*(>h or ^vu/m. Fgr the la^er 
at leaft it may be, ifappofiiv t&t to,^ V>acHlood wicjt ritfnmcii^. 
And evta thaugh/r be undcrflwof) in thf C^o^cion, u 104; be an- 
fweredbydffi;iur«BintbBThiiig condittppcdj ai Ihzve Aeivn.bc- 
toK.M»u3v.Cli\U. Afiw alio hai die fanieuA of it, tKlicre he 
inafcei HfinMiitiii/ lay to ..S^mwij, 



— Ario M t4Ji» * (>4, 



Cinyp&iatf gfthtt iMurim armmferr turmit, C- 5- p. 7S. 
1. e. A w> ylr, ot fi/^rj fs^nf. 

For he wat not To then, I mean not /kin c4Mi, fur K^tftimii wa) 
not then endued in Slaughter, but fayi vhat be woujd do if he 
were nich luchaCompaniQn aij£4»«ti«. 

Anfwerable to what Horaii Citft in the fame forin of CppftrmSi- 
•n, namely, in a Conditional, whue d)c Condition » ezprefect 
by an Ablative Abioluce, at 'tit cajled> 

Domtrem fUS*"*, paumu .hmumx^m, 

Dtiurrm hiftJm, frtmu fmiiarn 

Guierum i H/^ l" ftffint niMMTvp 

Rrrri, Mvaf "•» fiilUet nflium, 

QrMitu Pt'rb^frufntulil^tKt SfafM. I,.^ Odl S. 

And that AtCe tvo Teolei mm thus anfwer ooe another, it £u^ 
dier countenanEtid, ai I have Cud, by the Subjundive ufe of them^ 
where the meer event it fi^--*-^ 



Et farrtt, Ji matmnrtfwlftfetnt. 

It itnoFccrtain whtthet hy.flmAiot ei^biitLtiitleviJ, affisedtcf 
thii Tenfe by thii Grammar, we are to unijerftand two feveral' 
SiBM ; the lirft fignifyinc the bare Event of a Thing, the laft ■■ 
Duty i or whethecthe laft bs cxflan»tivf of the firft, Co that by 
/b<»Uherei«mcanta*inuch.4»oi-j'«. This ought to have been ex- 
pUined, becaufe there ve no waJPPlet given to clear it. For 
jSiiJJhaving two Significatiooj, oneoTabare Event, the other uf 
a Duty, there is no way to know by thii Rule, whether in cife of 
reprcfeiiting a bare Event, we may exprefs the I'ower of jhot4A b»vr 
by thii Tenfe. And yet fixx^ m this Tenfe, is only reprefented 
by it i a^ QtMBwbrtt ne. fr^f V tJti ti viri vtsn-jjif, ti aliijifaiiAti 



KJf Hit ^PmmUl Ua6A, s H 

■trim vaUe UAorOy ai before cited, Quippe non verew in amore ne moAum 
excefferim^ Plin. 1. 8. Epift. 24. But for JJ)(aUd or Jkould bavcy figni* 
lying as much as ot^bK or ought to /mv^, it is never exprefTed by thif 
TcnSc, but the Frttcrmpcrfea, or Prelcrplup^rlgia ; IS, HWH jwh 
AicereSy Or fr^dixijfes, oit tu di^is %Jbxne manerts^ or MAnfiJfes, 

Jmue re^nquf^^ quod id0k fecere fod^Sf ^ 

" ^; Hjiis m urbt^ tale. Oy.t^ift.. l-J. f •««<• 



Tuilit^^i^ 



Of the Preterpluperfed Po- 
tential. 



A 



GfHrmnOrf Etig. f. I9« 

^luv^em^ I mightf wouU> (hould^ (ht ou|^ to 
inrt Loved. 



Animadversion CXV. 

THis Tenfe indeed has the Power of the Evi^rtjh Signs affixed 
to it, but it had been convenient to have Remarked its 
Commutability with the PreterimperfeA Tcnfe of the 
(ame Mood ; as. Hem vrsdiceifesy or pr^iixijfif, %At tu diStis otlbant 
nutneres^ or ManfiffcSf which the Reader will £nd a commofii 
thing. * 



T t 3 0/ 






'}24 9f *^' PotetnUl Mood. 



Of the Future Potential, as this 

Grammar calls it* 

Grammar J Eng. p» 19. 
Jl^j^Mdvero^ I may or can Love hereafter. 

Animadversion CX VI. 



I Cannot imagine what came into this Author's Head to aiCgn 
the Power of thefe Signs, or any manner of Potentiality to 
this Tenfe. I have never met with any fuch Example of ity 
and would adviie the Reader not to ufe it fb, till he finds better 
Authority than that of ^his Grammar. 



•mm 



Of 



Q/r the Subjtuf^ive Moo A. j 2 5 



Of the Subjun(3:ive Mood. 

Grammar^ £^g* ^•14- 

THe Subjunftive Mood hath evermore Ibme Con- 
junftion joyned with him ; as, Cum amAremy H^cu 
I Loved. And ic is called the Subjun£bive Mood, becaufe 
it dependeth upon another Verb in the (ame Sentence, ei- 
ther going before or coming after ^ as, Cum amaremy eram. 
mifery when I Lovedf I wot a IVretch. 

Graninuiry Lat. /•43- 

SVbjunRivuSf qui niji alteri fubjicintur orationi^ vel al- 
teram Jibi fubjeciam orationem hahcaP per fe fententiam 
non dbfolvit j ut^ 

Si fuerifarlsxy multos numerabn amicof : 
Temfora Ji fuerint nubilay folus eris. 

Animadversion CX VII. 

« 

BY thefe Definitions of this Mood, it would feem that it 
could ne^r;be.ured in Simple Sentences, but in Complex 
only, or wtere there are two Propofitions at lead to make 
np the Sexue, and thpfe aintieifted with a Conjunction. But this is 
contrary to the ufe of Authors ; as« Non mebercUy inqmr^ tibi re^ 



IhAet extremumm Quis hoc non dederis f Cic. de uiv. 1. 2. p. 253. For 
which he fays fbon after, Si Mi funt^ benifid in homines funt. Quit hoe 
Vtbii dJbii f Id. lb. Namfaffum ejus modeftum effe nemo dixerit : fortaffe 
Ufjit tutum o6fxnfbir, Quintil. 1. 4. C. i2«' lAoleJim certe ei fuero^ atquc 
ammo morem gejferoy Ter. Ac. 4. Sc. I. iVi iflu bercle m^nQ j<im conatu 
n^^lgnm m*z^ dixerit^ Ter. Heau. Ac. 4. S^. i^ 



"Ow ne^e nttlitaris 



pan d^udps fonitet ? Hor. L, i. Od, 9. 

'^ii 



)t6 Of the SwijmrSive Mdolk 

Mi diotiitt imftrium tmuennt, nemo ttm fottitir rrtif wcnr, TaC. Hiff, 



Jectttfint, QuintU. 1. 3. C. d. _ , .___ 

of the Relative, is f.«qiiently of thii Mood, when there i: 
^erSubjuuiSionchanorchcClaufeof the Relative to that of the 
Antecedint, v;hich will not come undtr the ltinitation'or«he£H- 
glilb Grammar, And is not [4MA)t Inttklid hf tht ImUh. Bkt be- 
aafe tfiii is nutter of Conftru^ion, Imi thi* Grammar ttcau of 
the life of the Mood as fuch, I fhalfrefetre the fiirther Confide- 
xation of it, tiil I come to Sjaitx ; only giving an Example or two 
Iiere, to fatisfic the Reader, that there are fuch Conftrudions. 
trimkm igitur Wdrrmm funodJMoJHn dudmauf cui/jm (r>iffdii oftrtent, 
<J U.P I f, n ,c .C^.i .«- .» j:f..ir^^ ..;_: i rorpart rmarttm tjft 



ad Her. I. 2.V. 6. Sunt cmm ijai di/crffHM viimi i cor 
fuitaty Ci<.T.Ct;l> up. joi. JV4Mra ifttginu^v* 
muHdum. eamque tualnr, Cic. N. D.l. I. p. 6l, Qf 
JifoM, tr firfiA debtut * Cic. Fin. I. 4. p. 227, Si' ( 



QH>i ifi fi«J -A c. 



Of the Prefent Tenle Sub- 
jundive. 



(Jf, 



Grammar, Eng.^. 19. 
'm Amarm, when I Loved. 



AN1MADVER.81011 CXVIII. 



T Mb is a very irfip«rfeia account of thij "tenfe. For whete« 
it frequently fignifies Fucurcly, or at Icaft what in our 
Laiiguage we eiprefs Futurely, htreis no ntJCice takca oF 
tliat, (or want of which, the Reader mull needs be at a lofi to 
Icnow the feveral Occaiion* in which he may ufe it. I ihaH tfiere- 
fort endeavour to help bim in this M»tttr. And that I may do it 
the more effuflually, I iliall dii;clt the Occaiions in which it may 
befonfed, inlofeveMl Cales, " 

TheF1rftC*ftr 

The Firft Cafe ii, «}IVA ttttr CldOft b^ the ftelAtiW 1* iifiiil 
mterly to exprefi th? Qualitj «f Ibe AMtmtakt }- m» 



(^tkt^fffyuiStkift Mood. $$| 

ta^wum credo ut habea5 q»icum c^^tites^ Ter. A^d. Ac ^ 
Sc 7. 

Vtident annis 

^ffinh fisns^ qiiiims ofn^w 

itincula rerum Uxet, & in^ens , 

£4ft4t tgUf^ 'Qphiff/Hf n9f»U. 

Dttegat crhes^ nee fit terris 

Namque cjfeinfutis reminifcitur affore temfuf^ 

Qm I^f^rty ff^o ttlim^ €M^ept^que r^U call 

%^deut^ & Mundi molas ofenjit Uhortt. Qv. MeC, 1. I. p,JS^< 

VAciet^ hie facivt dies 
Q^W nullus unt^dmtacettff Sen. Med. Ac. 3. Sc. i. 

Vifniitque pariftth nomine duftor 
Qui nijmc fervatof everUtf funditns arces, Sil,..!. 17- p. I73* 
Hnfeetur fiulebra Trojunuf orifine Ckftr 
Imferium oceanp^ fumum^ qut tcrmihet aftris, Vifg. JEn. i» 

p. lot. 
Vcnient <\ui fine offcnflj fint^atik judicent. Sen. Ep. 79. 

And leftft we fliould think that this is peculiar to the Poets, evert 
Cteero hiltt^lf has, Erunt ^wi t» eo quoque auduciam ejus reyehendant^ itl 
Ver, 1. 3. Or. 6, p. 262. Habcbis qus tuam fene^utem ohUffeiy Ter, 

Phor. Ac.!2. Sc. 3. 

The Second' Cafe> 

The Second Cafe is, when the Claufc iigni£es the Subjed of 
what any thing is faid to Sufged, Fear, Hope, Doubt, Confider, 
Care, Beware, Defire, Perlwade, Obtain, Forbid, Command^ 
Ezpeqt, Epdpavour, oi: Hinder V ^s, Maxime fciliett Confi>Utur Jfes^ 
quiibviildtf^fpiew frre utinfnn9ats*r baminum improh^tM^^sf eonfiliis ami* 
corum^ ^ ipfa die^ Cic. Faoi* L« l* £p« 4. Deinde enim canfidofore ut 
4iU»genere Itterarum utamau Id. ad At. L. id, Cic. Plane. Turn amtem 
hoe timcty ne dtferoA /c, Tct. Ac. I. Sc. ^, Mitnento euraqe ut annus 
nofier maneaty ClC ad At. L. 5. Epi^* E^o ifth^e reSfe utfiant videroy 
Ter. And. Ac. 2. Sc. 6, Cave ne tUMbeSy Mundatique frangoiy Hor. 
L. I. Ep, 13. Tandem venias prtfcamury Id. L. I. Od. 2. Edicit ne vir 
quifqkam ad earn adeaty Ter. Eun. Ac 3, Sc. 4. 

D«mMm modi ihoy ut aff^arentur dieam, Ter. And. Ac. 3« 

Sc. 4. 
Jube nunc jam- dinunuret lift BaJ^o Yt^inti minaSm Tcr. ad 

Ac. 5. Sc. 7. 
Dum expecto quamm^x Ytmati Tcr. Ad. Ac. I. Sc, 3. 
Diijoftram-utvulem^ Cic. At, L. 16, Clcr Plane, 



The 



J 2S (if the SubjunSive Mood. 

The Third Cafe. 

The Third Cafe is, when the Claufe fignifies the End of fome 
former Verb ; as, 

hU infenfm ftrvai, ne tjuam fuci^m in mtftiis falUciam, Ter. 

And* Ac. i.Sc. 3. 
KenunciJfQ ut fro hoc mtUo mibi det nudum. Id. And. Ac. 2w 
Sc. )• 
^U6d fi erit fa&urm^ velim mibi ferdm^ ut t^i^ fi nUo modofotero^ ad te 
advolcm, Cic. Fam. L« 9« £p. 9» 

The Fourth Calc. 

The Fourth Cafe is when the Claufe is the Effe<ft of fome for* 
mer Verb', is^tMterumfadamy ui offends <iomt, PUut. Amph. Ac.2. 
Sc. I. 2l*^d fi eo mea fortune nunc redeant^ Thunium^ abs te ut diftrahtor^ 
Tcr. Phor. Ac. i . Sc. 4. 

j KVenerit 
oiliqi^m caufam quamobrem ^icittt offida. Ter. And. Ac. 2« 
Sc. 3* 

The Fifth Cafe. 

The Fifth Cafe is, when the Claufe i% Indefinite ; as, ^0 it* 
fum animo faratm^ ut Vil frovinciam tutri^ vel ire quo reffub, vocet^ non 
recufemj Cic. Fam. L. 10. £p. 8. i. e. j^ vocaverit. 

The Sixth Cafe. 

The Sixth Cafe is, when the Claufe fignifies a probable Confe- 
^uence of a Preceding Future Condition ; as. 

Nam fi altera ilia ma^is infiabtt^ forfitan nos rejiciatt Tet^ 

Phor. Ac. 4. Sc. ^. 

The Seventh Cafe. 

The Seventh Cafe is in a Comparative Sentence ; as, 

Potim quam te inimicum babeam^ faciam uijufferis^ Ter. £un» 

Ac. I. Sc 2. 
Eripiet quivit oculoscitus mibiy quam te 
Contemptum caffa nuce fauperet^ Hor. L» 2. Sat. 5. 
%Ante fererratii amborum fimhm exul 
tAut Cdrarim farthus bibetyAUt Germanla Tigtiup 
^am noftro itlius ttd>atur peSore vultuj^ Virg. £cl. !• 

' Sed friuj %Apfulis 

Jungentur eaprea lupis 

Qnkm turpi Fboloe peccet adultjro^ Hon L !► Od. 33. 



Of ihe SuhjunSive Mood. fid 

^ttupte frivttbo ilium ftthtsdcUso teftimomo^ qtiim U cumtitifa Uitie coftp* 
municem^ Cic, A. Q. I, 2. p. 4.. And I t\\x:.k that ofTertnce may as 
well be added to thefe as a Comparativ.^ as to make another Cafe 
of it; 

Nunquam dices tarn rommodi^ ut tergum meum 
Tuam in ftdtm commit tarn, Hec. Ac. i. Sc. 2. 
Now though fome of thefe Inftances are of free Agents, which 
having a Will, that may be fuppofed to he refpctf^ed, and fo the 
Tenfc be fuppoled to be Prefcnt, with refpecft to the Will, as Yyzt 
been fkid before in the Potential Mood, yet fince fomeof them^ %% 
plain, figni£e no more than a bare Event \ they alfo may be fu^'^ 
poi'd u> be fo intended . 

The Eighth Caft. 

The Highth Cafe is, when the Claufc fignifics the Buration o£ 
the Verb upon which it depends; SLSyEijuitum Cto Ci^ Tii^fift^' 
^fundum e^ad fomfeius veniut^ Cic. ad At. L . <<. E^. x, ^Vi ^uQAd viv^" 
fngulis trihuhuf dfbeat^ Id. ad At. L. T . Ep. 16. 

tAdeo exorHat'utn dabo^ 
%Adeo defexumy ut^ dum vtv.*?, meminerit femftr roti; TerV 

Heau. Ac. i. Sc. i. 

The Ninth CaCr. 

The Ninth Cafe is, when the Claufe depending if connected to 
^hat wtudi it depends upon with j^i» ; as, 

Num qua CM4ft efi^ quin fi tile hue wm redtaty viginti minag- 
^ibi det pro il h n * Plaut. Capt. Ac. 2. Sc; 2. 
Uri^tntum non morabor quin feras. Id. A(in. Ac. '^. Sc. ^« 
Ifonftretqmn vapulet. Id. Amph. Ac. i, Sc, i. 

The Tenth Cafe. 

The Tenth Cafe, is in a Claufe Conjuniftive Copulative, when 
a Future precedes ; as, 

Ind< eras t promptuaria cellk depromar ad /7*>^»m9 

Ntc caufam liceat dicers mibiy neque in hero quidqtntm awrf/ti-. 

fifty 
Kec qmdquam fity quip me omnes d^i^num deputenU Plaut* 
Amph. A^. X • Sc. i. 
There are bende theft other Cafes, in which the Subjundive 
Freient ieems to be us'd Futurely, but then the Subied beinga free 
Agent, they may be taken Potentially, and fo be cooiidertd as Pre- 
tot^with refped to the Will, Duty, or Poffibility ; however fince 
lief comn^dnly appear in the Future Drefs in our Language, I 
ihall give Eiamples of them, that the Keadermay fee What Li- 
l)ertyli€ Im^ in iuch Cafes, 

* ' . JVff tt Mrfvoritu yhr^o 

Itrd^ercait ^ M anil. L 1 . p. 2 5^ 



I JO Of the SubjunBive Moo^ 

Kee U pr^ereMtm^ cUufas ^m cutmine fmmmo 

Tajcerta)KS ^auies Vtneru. Id. 1. 5. p. 1 52. 

jsidrfol n4t illic fulcrum frMdam a^at^ ft t^i UUm w¥eneri$ 

%AuUm oni^lam *ur i Plaut.Aul. Ac, 4. Sc. 2, 

2uUagam ? %Ade£ik^ am maneam ? PlaUt.Aul. Ac. 4, Sc 9, 

^uU ergo facUm ? %A Mgdr ? E*crueiimne mt ? Cic. 

Fam. L. 9. £p. 26. 
Quid tumc remmcum iAs te reffonfum Cbreme i Ter* HeaHl. 

ACt 4* vC* 7* 
XnA fo hcand others frequently ufe (hefe Dubitatives or Inter* 
llgatiYes, and that even though they depend upon a Fnture ; as, 
2s^ii'ifi non vemUt I hUneimne upiue ud vefferum^ Ter* Hec. 

Ac.3.Sc4« 
£f mtnc id oper4tm ioy ut vera chjurgandi CMUpi fity Ji denegaK 

Id. And. Ac* I. Sc. I. 
%An potius bsc f^ttri aquum eft fieriy ut a me ludafur doUs f 
guod qtarefcierint culpent' Ter. Eun. Ac 2. S. 3. 

ItLtfpomdikm igiiur I^nnlconi non definere fmntere nu belli : Neque dtfturum 
€Mte itnnffum ntftrum tMtperatcrem iucuf^e^ qudm finitum ^li^Ji toUrabUi 
fomdiiioMebelletm viderp^ I^V. Ded* 3. L. 3. 

It i$ ofed alio as the Preient Potential in Conditional Senten- 
ces ; as, 

a^od im opere fiuiundo ^fff^ coufumis tu4^ 

St fumm i» HUs exercendij, pius 4^«/, Ter. Heau. Aci. Sex 

Kow upon whatfbever account all the feveral Ufes of this Tenie 
were taken up by the Jbaimty whether with re{be<ft to the Indifie* 
rence of Time in fome Cafes, or its being fumciently a(ceitained 
by the Context in others, or looking upon it as co-prelenr with 
the Verb that it depends upon in fome again ; 1 fay however' diis 
were, they run all naturally into the Notion of Futurity, exc^ 
that laft of the Conditional Ufe, which^may alio be conndered as 
Fu^re, as well as Prdfent, and this Confideration called for a fur* 
ther Explanation of the Ule of this Tenfe, than whit we find iii 
|his Grammar. 



e 



Of 



t)fthe SttbjunHive Moodi j | f 



Of the Preterimperfedi 
Subjunftive. 



Crammart Eng. f. 10. 



.-I '. • 

C 



iVm anutremt when I lavea, 

Akimadversion CXIX. 

^nrtHeufe of this Tenfe alfo is but imperfecflly defcribed by 
I this Grammar. 

For whereas it is here aifllign'd to the paft Time only, and 
yet reafly fignifies other Time alio, the Reader can never know the 
fuU extent of the life of it, by this Defcription. Firft then, iit 
OpUtive.S^Ateitces, which I have proved benxre to be meerly Sub- 
jun<ftive, it frequently reprefents the Prefent Time, and therefore 
IS commutable with the Prefent Tenfe. Thus whereas Cictro fays, 

Q»i utimmjum ajejfety Fam. Lt XI. Ep. 25. 
Ttrtnce fays, 

Vtinam id fies. And. Ac. 5. Sc. 4. 
And this indifferent ufe of this Tenle in this Cafe, is a common 
thing with all Authors'. 

In Conditional Sentences, where the Coexifrence of one thing 
with another, or the immediate Confecution of one thing upon, 
another is mainly intended, the Time of the Claufe in fuch Cafe 
is indifferent, as has been faid, and it may be expre^'d by this 
Tenfe, as well as the Prefent, as, 

^xrutc viir^neo conceptas fc^ore flammafy 

Si fotes^ inftlix^ Si foffcm^ fanior effemy Ov. Met. 7. V. 8k i.e. 
Nuitc ejfemy fi pojfem nunc, ointt efftm^ punie pofem, Poft vel dehinc 
efem^ fi pofi fojfem. And fo this feems to be a Tricompound Tenfe. 
having the Capacity of fignifying all the three Times^Pafl, Pre* 
iifent, and Future, upon feveral occafions. 
Of this Nature are thefe Sentences which follow, 

Ttmebam ' 



OfibeSubjuniiive Mood. 






Tim^^m fwim i»^ tifenirent ea^ qus accUerunty Cic. Fam, L« ^, Ep. 
51. TrehAtium co^itaram quocun<\ue ixirtm mecum^ duccr^^ Cic, Fam. 
1-. ?• Ep. 5, Quod t'thi fuferionhus lit tris promifcmm fore^ ut ofus exta* 
ga bujm per^ritutionU, ClC ad At. L. 2. £p. 6. in<iutbm erat Lucul* 
iusy 6* P. Scifio^ & Mj ^f/rm futubant ma^iftrum fort^ fi honu Ventrent^Cic, 

i<J At, L. I. Ep. I. Id vdUm lit ipfe udejfet^ Cic. ad At. L. 12. Ep. 
14. lUutne ratio movitj ut te ex nofiris eventif commumbus aimonendum 
ftitiuem^ uf conMerares in omni rcliqua vitd t^uibw credtres^ <p*os caVereSy 
Cic. Fanr. l^. I. £p. 7, tHctbat ifie^ mfi cuin muiiere deciJfrdfury fe in 
folftffionem Ire juffurum^ Cic. ill Vcr. L. 3. or 6. p. 275. famen cer^ 
^j^fton ma^is di^noj babuerit im qtioj tants UbertAte verborum incurrcret^ 

Cic. Fam. L. 12. £p* i^» 

£uoA nos dmbo maximo cpere dabamus operoMy ut fieret^ Ter. 

Phor. Ac. 5. Sc. I. 
Pele^ifti quos Koma relin^ueres^ tfttos tecum educereSy Cic« inCat. 

Or. I. 
Velttui dum veU darentj fi forte dediffenty Vir« JEn* 2* 
Ipfe deus fitituit quid menftri^ luna moneret^ 
Quo fi^tfCMderent Aufiriy Virg. Geor. i. 
frc^eniemftd enim Trojuno a fun^uine duct 
. «y^ttr«<r, TjriM oUm qus verteret arces^ Id. JEn* I. 
Cptaverut iuufietas ut ^^^m tardtffimi fucaderes fttm^ Plki« 

Paneg. 
Jylirabar hoc fi fie abiret^ Tcr. And. Ac. I. Sc 2. 

Evenity e^o ut quodfim naStm mali 
fruiS refcif ceres tUy quam e^o tibi quod evenit bomif Tcr, Aad. 

Ac. 5» Sc. 6, 
Hie tAttieufy dixeramy iuqmty a frincifioy ut de repuh, fieretuTy 

Cic. Brut. p. 1 58. ' 

FrobatA conditio efiy fed ita^ ut tUedeiis oppidUy ^ ixttn fro- 

vinciamfuam occupa¥iJfet^ frufidU deducerety ClC« ad j|tii. L« 

7. Ep. 14. 

I muft defire the Reader to take Notice, That whdi I iay tkit 
Tenfe always depends upon a former Verb, I mean there by a Verb 
what this Grammar caUs fb, and compriie under k the Infinitive 
>4ood ; for if the Claufe depend upon an Infinitive Mood of a Paft 
Time, or of a Future govem'd of a Paft, the Conftru^on muft 
be the fame as to this Tenfe ; as, Dicet eu te monuijfe^fuafiffe q^dftr 
ceremy Cic. ad At. L. 4. Ep. 5. Quodjcribity tibi manenlU cduftttt fu^ 
ijfey ut me cotrvenvres^ Q\c, Fam. L. 3. Ep. 4. Nihil pfms mttn facun-- 
dum putaviy quam ut tibi prdfenti de reditu nojiro gratularery Gic. ad 
At. L. 1^. Dixijfe Socratet traditury nolle fedd eumvemrey kquo uccv 
feret bi'neficiay cum redd,nte lUi pdria non fojet^ Sen. Ben. L. $• C. 6» 

And indeeed as often as a Futurity is implyM by the manner in 
which one Claufe depends upon another, this Tenie may repreient 
luch Futurity, provided the Verb it depends U]^) aruin reibe^ 
Co which it is Future, be the fame Time, or diepa^ Time, which 
is the difference between this, and the Prefciit Tenfe. Foe where-* 
as both thefe Tenfes may reprefent a Futurity implyed by the de- 
pendence of the Claufe^ if the Verb depended on be the Prefent 

or 



Offki SubjunBivt Mood. j j | 

or ckf Future, tkc Futurity of the Claufe depending muft be ex* 
wM<i by t^ Prefcnt Tenie, if P^fV, by the PreteFimperfed, as 
it is here eaUol. 

For JEximple^ whereas Ttrence fays, T»in aittem hoc timet ne dcft^ 

r^fiy as heme m the Prcfent Teafe, ^ he fays likewife, 

McttnlH^ fi nunc de tuo jure concejjfljfes faululum 

v^ipe adoUfcenti ejfes morigerAtus^ hominum homo fiultijfimey 

Ne non tibi ifihuc f^nerarety Tcr. Ad. Ac. 2. Sc. 2. 

So whereas the iame Author fays, 

Ba$feStQ quim max recifiat hue fc Gcta^ Phor. Ac. 4. Sc. 3. 

\icero fays, 

Nq» exfe^avi dum mib't a te liter m rudderentur^ Ad. At. L. 9«' 
Cic. Cn. M. 

But becAufe this Parallel cannot be run throughout by Inftances 
from Claflick Authors, at leafl I have not enow Colleded to do 
it ; I iliaii however fl:ore the Reader with fuch plenty of Exam* 
pies of the ufe of this Tenfc, that he may confide in the ufe of* 
this Rule, where there is the like Analogy, upon all occafions. 

Qu^^vtt ix eo fUcertt*ne rt, )udices m tr^tort Ugi^ quo conjilto idtm 
Prstor uter^tur ^Cic, ad«At. L« !• £p* 14* Si omnesy ut erat nquum^ 
f^verenty tumen non minus ejftt frobunda medicinA^ qudfanartt vitiofus par^ 
tes reif, qi^nm quA exftcartt, Cic. ad At.L 2. £p. 4. Nee me Tbejfalomci. 
coaMMfn^ M ejfe fiatueram^ quo^ aliquid ad me eo fcrihrfos^ Cic. ad At* 
L. 3* £p. I). De muro im^eravi J'hilotimOy ne impediretf quo minus 
id fitret^ Qic* At. 1« Ep. 4. Cum frimum Kowum Veni , futtque cui 
re&€ ad te liters darem^ nihil frim faciendum putavi^ quam ut tibi alfentt 
de reditu noftro grattUarer^ ClC. ad At. L. 4. £p. I. putubam fore ut 
fcirem yun quid Brundifi u£tum effet^ Cic. ad At. L. 9. £p. i. Et 
tamen fpes Qusdam obtentahut fore^ ut alicjuid conveniret potius^ quam aut 
kic taut¥mjceleris,^u*t ille tantum fU^itit admittcrety Cic. ad At. L. 9» 
£p* l€i* ^^* duhitabamy quin ^ S. G & lex^ & Confulum decretum^ ac 
Uteris apud te plurimum autoritatis haberent^ Cic. ad Plac. i^uem con- 
Allatum ii^^ffifi ^t diti^entiam 4dmirarentur omner^ inj^enium cognofce^ 
r$mt^ Cic. A. Q; 1. a. p. 3. Necfe tenuity quin contra fuum do^orem 
l^btfum ftiam ederet^ Cic. A. Q. 1. 2. p. 9. Dedi %Antiocho operam di^ 
lifewrim^ «t caufam •x #0 t9tam ccj^nofctrem^ Cic* A. Q^ 1. 2. p. 9. Sed 
a eij 4IU4 contra dicerentur diet oportere putabunt^ ne qui faUerentttr^ 
Cic. A. Q. 1. 2. p. 12. Hoc ^itur modojotius erat ah bit pofiuUn' 
dmmt ut hoc unum faltemj pfrcipi nihil poffe^ perceptum effe dieerent^ 
Cic A. Q. 1. 2. p. itf. CiMpit hortart ut fententia defferenky Cic. A.Q. 
1- 3» P» 54- Monuitj ut qAVeres^ ne quis trtbunus aripperet fc, Cic. A. 
Q. U 2. p. 34. // curavit^ quod argumentum ex Dionyfio ipfe fumpjiffet^ 
ex to cateri fumerent^ Cic. A. Q; 1* 2. p. 38. Quafivit de Ztfnone quid 
f{^«rum effety Cic. A* Q. 1* 2> p* 40. Incubuit autem ine4J difputationes 
ut docerety <src, Cic. A. Q. 1. 2. p. 40. 

. Thcfc laft Ten Examples are indeed of a different Nature to 
the former, as rcprefenting the time paft, with refpe<fl to the 
Time of fpeaking, which is the common Term from whence wo 
Meafure Paft and Future, but then thev imply a Futurit;y alfo. 
n^ith refpedl to the preceding Verb, which they depend upon ; anci 
• it is not plain from this Grammar, that this Tenfe can reprefent 
(his Compound Time. iThis is the general Conflruiflion oT this 

Tenfc, 



Tcn'fc, when a Futurity is implyM by the Nature of the de^rl^ 
dance, But in this Cafe alfo, the ufe of Authors is not fo uniform,' 
but that there arc fome exceptions. As £rft in con<litional Senten- 
ces, the thing conditioned is found in the Preterperfed Indicative^ 
though the Condition be expreifed by this Preterimperfe^ Sub- 
juncftive ; as, ^*dji omnUexi^cremfuppedit'xhat tamen tem^ufy Quintil. 
1. I. C. 12. 

The condition is alfo in the Preftnt Indicative, though the 
thing conditioned be in the Preterimperfecft Subjunctive , as, 
O filiu mea^ mearum me abfent miferuirum commones 
TrinM qus fcriit mibi UuU effet^ fi vJvff, Plaut. Rud. Ac. 3. 
Sc.4.* 
The Condition Is alfo found in the Subjundivc Prefentinone 
member of a Comparative Sentence, and in the Pretetiifaperfed of 
the fame Mood in another ; as, Hunc i^itur ipfum anwdum p baheat j*' 
ficns nihilo plus put et Jibi liccre peccare-t quamft non haberct^ Cic. Off. I.3. 
p. 13. Non modo fi mihi ttintum effet of«, quantum eft tibi^ Verinn etUm 
Ji tarn breves EpifloUs velim mitterey quam tufoleSj facile tefuperarem^ & 
in jcripto multo ejfem frequentior qukin tUy Cic. ad At. L. I. Ep. 19, 
j^<e fi qui* invefti^are Vetle^^ quartam elementorum literam commt^ety Suet, 
Vit. Jul. c. *,6. Plinfsme of it is fomething extraordinary in this 
Cafe, Nee opima. defueranty fi quis regam in manus Vi-nire audeaty Pen« 

P. 4I5» 
Secondly in the other manners of dependence, this general Rule 

is fometimes broke in upon by the beft Authors. For firtt thisTenle 

is fometimes found to depend upon a Prefent Tenie ; as, Ita contra- 

if- a. res cfty ^ addtt^a in an^t*ftumy t. e, amicitia »t omni's caritat^ uut inter 

duos^ aut inter paucoi juf^eretur y Cic. de Am, p. 1 52. 

^od cum falute ejus fiat ^ itafe defati^aret velim 

Vt triduo hoc perpetuo e leSf» prorfus nequeat fur^erey Tcr. ad 

Ac. 5. Sc. 3. 

Though fome Editions have defxtigarit for defatigaret, Jd autem quid 

dubitM quinetiam in rernp, frdclare caderety Cic. ad At. Lt6- Ep. I4« 

Sed nihil minus fero quam feveritatem otioforum : 6* qt^o quo modi je res 

haberety ma^is illot vereory qui in bello occiderunty qu^m bos curOy qmbus 

non fatiffacimuSy quia vivimuSy Cic. Fam. L. p. £p«5* Nonfuto te expe» 

clare quibus eum tibi verbis commenduremy Cic. ram. I,. 12. Ep. 2y* 

Whereas in another Place he ufes the Prefent upon the like occafi- 
on ; as, Nihil jam opus eft expeHare tCy quibus eum tm verbis commendem^ 
Cic. Fam. L. 13. Ep, ^3. In recitals of things paft, the Prefent In- 
dicative is often ufed for the Paft time , Authors frequently; 
i'peaking of fuch things as Prefent, and in this Cafe the Verb in 
the depending Claufe is found fometimes in the Prefent, lome* 
times in the Preterimperftcft Tenft; as. lUe continu* irafdy neq-y 

Negtare audere, Thais porro inftare ut homintm invitet^ Ter. Eun. Ac, 
4. Sc. 1. lUe pofteoy fi comitia, fua non fierenty minuriy i. e. cigpit, Cic. 
ad At. L. 4.. Ep. 3. Cum exponendam do illiy de digito annulum, 

Detrahoy & eum dicOy ut una. cum pudU exponerety Ter. Heau. Ac.4. 
Sc, I. Poftquam facinuf facinoriffj caufam audirity~ . rogitat qm vir ef- 
fcty Liv. Dec, I. 1. X. The Prefent Tcnfe is alfo found to depend 
upon this Preterimperfecft Tenfe ; as fir ft, when the fame State of 
the thing remains, Ita ujfimulavit fe quafi %Amphitruo fiety Plant. Amph. 
Prol. f . f . qt*'*fi fjfcty cumaffimuUvit^ tfnuncfict^ So 



Of the Stthjmn&WB Mood. j j ^ 

Vel hie PamfhHn* quotii^f jurahut Bacchi-li 

Tarn fanSte^ ut quivis facile foffit credere^ Tcr. Hcc. Ac I. Sc. I. 

i>uc me adeam^ quando hue veniy ut vidtam^ Ter. And. Ac. 4. 

Sc. 6. 
t. e, as defigning it when I fct out, ut viderem, or now alio, 

viieam, 
Decrevi tantifpt r ' me, minw injurid^ 
Chreme^ meo gmtto' facefcy dum fiam mifer^ Tcr. Hcau. Ac. I* 

Sc. I. 

lUui vebementer miror non firipfije te mVA^ manendo in provincial an 
ducendo exercitum in Italiam^ reipub, mugpt futisfactre pofflm^ Cic. Fam. 
ly» lO. Ep. 31. ^^d tamen ne me totum sgritudini deddm , fumji quafdam 
quafi Cic. ad At. L. 9. £p. 4. 

It is more fbrange in the Second Cafe, when it is a Bicompound 
Tcnfc, coniifting of the Time Paft , in refped of the Time 
fpeaking, and the Future with refpecfl to the Verb it depends up- 
on ; as, Summonuit me Parmenoy ut veflem cum illo mutem^ Ter. Eun. 

Ac. 3. Sc« 3. 

■ ■ Interdum rapt a vicinis montibus alno 

fUtmineam texit qua tranfvehut ttgmina cUjfm, Sil. 1. 4. p. 6$, Quihui 
fnlatify Lfuedofnone qttejiioni res diu fuit^ qu»d ncque fcriptum aiiquid 
yUtrunty nee frufhra miffus fufpicahuntur : untoq-y rem majorem^ iiuunto 
fit occmUiw^ putabanty Juft. 1. 2. p. 33. Or when it exprefTes the ef- 
^e^ of the Preterimperfe<fl Potential, or a Future Indefinite ; as, 

Tunt autemy Syrum impulforemy vahy quibut ilium lucerarem modjis! 
Sublimem medium arriperemy capite primitm in terram ftatuerem^ 
pt cerelrro difpergat viamy Ter. Ad. Ac. 3, Sc. 2. 

lA m«(l« enfuit., coinofcenjum foUbac de iU, qui lihelUts, *ut carmiiui 
in itifMmMn cujuffium fitb tditm nonant tddut , Sub. Vit. Aug. 

if. 55. •• ^ 



Of 



1^6 Oftkt StdfuiC^t MihtL 



Of the Preterperfe6l 
Subjundbive. 



Grtanmarj £ng« f,io» 



c 



V M JkfMvcrfmy when I have Lovcrf. 

Animadversion CXX^ 

THis Tenfe has other Ufef than that fingle one h«rt ad^'d, 
or than any to- be colledled from this Grammar. As firft 
it is ufed in ConcelTions ; as, 
^am mtdta iUe contYa fenfus^ t^uam mult a contra omnia^ qum in con* 
fuctiKiine frohantur^ dijohit \ Iditn mxhi muidemnon vidc'Sur, StA diffol" 
vrritfane^ A. Q. 1. I. p. 4. Porta fit ^ceunUy^mriteSyDceminris tanta^ 
quanta fit \n tvrrir ; mbit fretermjum : fed fitnncs urhcs^ 4^1, i'<'£>m 
^eniquc^ poftrcm9 veffi^alia ytftru vanitriut^ acccjprint in cummium manuhia 
■vcftr9rum tm^era-toruvn^ Cic.de Leg. Agr. ad prop. 431* Utm yentant 
acctdant, Sedfaennt intftnufta liter* dona^ nunc veto quam hahtre amSori- 
txum^ out quamfidcm pogunt ? Cic. pro Flac. p. 472. Thcfe ExpTCf^ 
iions may indeed be refolv'd by an Bllipfis of EftOy or the like, and 
fo reduced to the regular ufe of this Teofe ; but here is no notice 
taken of that neither, and fo it cannot be known from thence, that 
it may be ufed without Eflo exprefTed. It has alfo a Future fieni- 
£cation (not of neccfTity in that of Evander") which is aliedgedby 
fome for this purpole, 

Nee vos arp^im Teucri, Virg. TEn. ix . p. 3 3^* 
becaufe it may be \vetl enough fuppofcd to mean tne Pail Time 
there, |« e,l have not reproached you in what I have faid, bnt in xhc 
following Sentences. Injuffu ti*o inqi*ity impcrator nuntmam />i»gfMVfrtm, 
mon fi certam vifforium videam^ Liv. Dec. I. 1.7. id <{tahus yirtuiibuj in^' 
duSti ita judicavtrint^ fie ut froditum memoria a frimis temporum iUorum 
fcriptoribuSy ut libens tradiderim, ita meas opiniones conie&ando rem yetu* 
jLite obrutamy non interponum^ Liv. Dec. 3. L. 9. and then goes on to 
tell the Story. It alfo fignifies the Future exa<ft, as diey call it, or 
a Time which ihall be PafI: ; as, i)f f mo autemfilio yerewfi mtbU nd tc 
fcripfcrimy debitum ejus virtuti tefiimomum non videar cepijfe : Jfi amtem om- 
ma qua fentio perfcripferim^ ne refricem wteis Uteris defiderimm «c dolorem 
tuum^ Cic. Fam. L. 5. £p. 17. It is ufed alfo for the Preterpluper- 
fed of the lame Mood ; as, 

Jmpntayit etiam quid non Uqiff9 ftrMlnltUm m Qtmmm Jbjectrit^ Suet» 
Tic Tib. C, 53, ur. Ji^eciffeu Of 



r 



■*ap 



QT rJbf Preterpluperfed 
SubjuniSive. 



C 



Grammar Eng« ^. XQ* 
|T;M Amavijfem when I had Loved. 



ANIMADVERSION CXXL 

THis Tenie has, befide the iignifications here alTign'S it, thd 
Power alfo ofReprefentin^ a Compound Time, namely an 
t . BVcftt that fhQuld h^ve had been Paft *, as, Decrevit idem /r* 
iutms frtfaentifnf^y ifn mea.m domuM violalfety contra rempl^bn efftfalfu* 
fwntj Cic.de Har. Reip. p. 525. Dixijfe, aMnium ex fenatuf confulto 
prnttciitm. IkAeret^ l^e Ccri^kA tmferimm banturum^ quoad in uthtm inf- 
trmfa^ Cic. irani. L. i • ^. 9. Dikit armit decernendtim ejf^ babem 
4L$fmftt-€'tmfurHttum fn^im dti dcdtffmty Lix. Dec. 3. 1. io« i^intms 
MvtmGUU^ iffojifffm ex to tktrcUu quum ?. MUw Cof. babuifit^ ut trntf- 
^ fiMiMf^ fmtlt4 ft^endia baberety Uj^erty donvc & iffc quintptt 9inUu jhci^ 
MMh ^ ti»mmt hiHm tffec^t^ Liv« Dec. 4.. h i. Et entrt Da6mm fer* 
m^fmn^ iHyfiresfcftulaffety auxiliaabfoci'ts^ ne fupra quinque m^Umm ad' 
ciftret^ Liv. Dec. 4. 1. 6, it is vkitdt alfo in ConceOions after this 
manntir ; as, yerum anceps fugna fueratfortunay fuijfety Virg. ^n. 4. 
P. 1-77* B«t this may be reduced to the regular life of this Tenfe, 
by fupppfing an Ellipju of Efto *, as. Mo ut fu^eu However it re« 
Qiiued « remark, that it might be uKd without it. In depending 
Sentences it is aniwered fometimes by the Prefent, as iia the Condi^ 

I . ■ Carmfui ni finty 

• Mojis ex hmmero k^ nituiffet ebury L. I < El. 4.. 

And ^7. theiameTenre of the Indicative inftead of th& SubjuH'* 
dive » as, 

Etfif4i^ deuMy fi mens non Uva fu'tffety 
. . biJp^erat ferro ^Artolicat foedare UtebraSy Virg. /En. a. p. 1 1 7. 
InAead oitffent in the firft Cafe/and impuUjfet in the fecond, which 
is the uAiaTway* And fometioies by the Preterlmberfed^ Subjun* 
AiVi i is, 

lllayeHntaSfdfegetkferfumnidvoldr/t 
QirdmitU^ mc tenerM cmju Uliff^t ariftM. 

% it. V4 



jjS ^f ^^^^ Subjuniiive Mood. 

Fel nure per medium flttff a fufpenfu tumentl ^ 

ferret iter^ cfUrei, nee tin^eret dq$*ore fluutatj Virg. JEfi/ 7J» 
p. 255. 
Yhacorthc lame Author is more extraordinary, where he An- 
fwers it by the Preterperte<S Indicative *, a^, 

Ncc veni^ mfi fitU (oetm^ fidemqi dediffentj Vi'rg. J£lU lU 
f. 331. 



Of the Future Subjundite. 



c 



Grammar J Eng. f, lo. 
VM Amavcroj when I (hall or will Lov€. 



Animadversion CXXII. 

OF this Tenfe I have not much to fay, yet ibmething is omit 
ted here like\vife. For it is ufed often Indicativelv, with- 
out any Conjuncflion ; as, ^uodfinitum eft^ inquity bJbet extre- 
i9iMm. gnu hoc non dederit ? Cic. dc Div. 1. 2. p. 253. For which 
he fayj juit below. Si dii funt^ henefici in homines funt^ ^ig hoc vobis 
dabii i Sed hoc quoque modo duo vrrb« uni opfofita nc verfum qn'tdem deem" 
erint, ^jQuintil. 1. 8. c. 6. 

Moltflut cert* eifuero^ atq'yonimo morem gejferOy TcT. And, Ac. 

4. Sc« I. 
JHum vitta qnifugerit-y omnia fere vttitt vitavtrity 'Cic« £d BrUt. 

Or. p. 191- 
j^u tAntQmum opfrejferify it bellum <onfccerity Cic. Faih. 1. 10. 

£p. 13. 
Dixerit fortaffe quiffUm^ quid me ijla Uduhty Cic pro Leg. 
Agr. ad Pop. p. 4.28, 
Namfunit fene riAictUum^ malle fermonem^ quo loeuti fimt bomineSy 
quam quo loqt*atitur^ Quintil. 1. I. C. 6, Numfu£h*m ejus moehftum ejfe 
nemo dtxerit^fortujfeut fit tutum obtinchit^ Quintil. 1. 4. c. 2. 

Secondly it is ufed iu Subjundive Sentences, in the firft 
f^laufe ; a^^Fox me citius difecerttyquam nomina^ Cic. in Ver. L, 6, Or, 
?• P- 358- -^'^y '^^^^ ""^ L^ed^monti at que fAtbenienfes m^^is moverint^ 
quam populus KomanuSy Quincil. L 2. C. l6» Nihil tdmen aqu* dhU&a." 
vent ayiimum^ quam amicitiu fnidis^ Sen. dc Tranqu. C. 7. But of the 

ufe of it in Subjuii(ftive Sentences, I fhali Tay more in Syntax. It 
is ufed alfo by way of Command,, or Dirc<ftion, as has been iaid 
111 the Imperative Mood, of which, for further Inftances, take 
t hefc which follow, Xt*nqn4ip crtdidcris fcl'uem qticnquam ex felicitate' 

fuffenfnm 



Of the Suhju9j£iive Mood. JJ9 

Sjf*fptnfum^ Sen.£p.^S. Sec f^'traveri* fine defperationej nee dvfperaveris 

fi^effty $€P. Ep. 104. 

• Leni prdCorAiu mulfo 

Prolueris meliuty — - Hor. L. 2. Sat. 4. 
L^ly, It is (bmetimes a Bicom{>oiihd Teufc, asiignifying the 
l='uture Time, with rcfpetfl to the Time of fpeaking, and a Piv; 
Time with rcfpecf^ to fometliing Future when that is Paft/>rwhiciL 
this Grammar gives an} JExample, though as Printed in feme 
Books, neither Senfe^ nor Latin, namely, £ro enim fecurior dum le- 
^4m, ftAtimq:^ timeo quum I'egerb. For it is not Scnie to (ay, <inA />/<- 
jentlj I am i^uid whin ijhall buve read iV, Nor do the Latii^ ever ufc 
this Tenfe with the Prefent in this manner ; nor indeed could they 
by the Nature of Time, which is plainly repugnant to any fuch 
u(e. It muft be therefore, as it is in other Books, and in Pliny^ 
from whom it is taken, Ero enim fecurior dum le^um^ ftatim(j'f timebo 
<p*t*m l^eroy L. 6* £p. 4. Plin. Calphurni^e, not Vrfoj as Ixnacer 
quotes it. 'Tis in this ufe that Grammarians call it t]ie Future 
Exjufl, or Perfecfl, and fo far they arc right, and there is no dis- 
pute about it. But then whether by this Tenfe in ro be ever figni- 
fied a bare Future, or what they call Futurum infe^umi there is a 
great Qifpupe' (though the matter is fo plain there need be none) 
me ftjtte (^i^iphControVerfie I /hall give the Reader out o^FoJfim 
in bis' own words, together with his Opinion of the matter, Sed 
frdnripfffi^ctntroverfia efi He tempore in Ki^jtJ Ro, Num Rim v«fe« prate- 
riti^ JjlO futuri ejfe dicunt, ^Ac metuo\ ne fi al'iq'nm e trivio ^udia/t Jibilo 
txcipjfaLip DM qui i^noret, Kimirum banc fupientiam necdum didicerant ve~ 
teres ilfji do^q\ Romam, quos^ uticx <Jlgt,Uio fupr4 audiimus^ nan puduit 
difceftttjfe^ utrum ilia in Kim Prater iti f.nt ttmporis^ anpotiw fufurt. iJt 
vet* omnif h*c controverfia mefiiis inteUigatur^ diftinEte aliaua confiderare 
ofcrtet. frimum illudy ut^ qua in Ro dcfinunt^ nunq^am de fraurito u* 
furfenfur. ^/ts enim dicit, fi heri fuero Romar, pro fuerim. %AItc^ 
rmn ejhj ne quidcm fignari eo untfuum futu/um tnfictum. Nam aliud tft^ 
f^um Romam perrcptabo : aliud^ cum Rom am perreptavero : quia 

tilic conjideratur rts fimpUcitur^ut futura^ hicin fimul^ ut peraifa, Quare 
liquet^ ^Uu in Ro habvrt J^nificationcm ex pratvito futuro coalitam : & ea» 
f rafter i Varrone vocatut futNrum exaffum^ ut fuperiuf dicehdmu6» Difpar 
veri eft ratio illorum^iiua in Rim definunt. Nam eft cum hac defignunt fimr- 
^iciter rtm omnino prateritam : efl item cum eanitm habent figmjirationtyn 
ac futura exacta. Thus this Great Man, fomcthing more Trium 
pnantly than his Cuftom is, furely more than the thing wiJI bear. 
For tho' it muft be granted, that this Tenfe in Ro, and that in 
Rim, have both the Power of iignifying a Future, which will be 
Paft bcjfbre fo me other thing wiH be, which is what he mcans*by 
hit Future Exact, which appears of that in Ko by the inftancc a- 
bove cited out of ?/iwj, and others ; and of that in Kim by that of 
T^ence^ Andr. Ac. i. Sc 2. 

J^erberibus cafum te in piftrinum^ Dave^ dedam ufqNe ai necem ; 

Bakge atq'f omtnr, ut ft inde te exnntrim^ ego fro te molam^ and others ; 

yc;^ it is certain that neither of thefe two Tenfcs are confiii'd to this 

fignification only. For they are bothufcd to iignify a thing {Imply 

Future, and not only what will have been Paft, before fome oth:r 

-chiog will be. For wha^ other figniiication can ferltrim have in 
i,\idXo£Terencf9 

Vbi 



j40 Of th$ SuijUftltive Mppd. 

7/bifijdululum fMdltftHitefugmiyegn perierim, HeftU* Ac, 2, Sc. ^, 
And oriike Nature are thofe inftances before altedg'd fbt the Fu*-. 
cure ufe of thisTeiife, %AnimMdverfion 120. iV»ii^iii pugnaveriin x^. 
Wiu tttUiderim. As for the Tenfe in Ro, there is nothing more 
certain than that it may be ufed of a Time to comje, with- 
out anj refped to its being Paft, before anf other thing to 
come, tot it is plainly ufed fo in thefe Inftances, 

* Multg in^tram multoj asque aliquis dicdty nihil promoTerit* 

Multum ; moUftm certi tt fuero, attfue animo fnorem g^lTcfO) 
Ten And. Ac. 4. Sc, i. 

JVif Tftice^ ne vererig ; crede^ inquam^ mihi, 

tAut confoUndo^ d»t confilio^atit re juvcro^Ter.HeiU, Ac.l .SCl • 
Sedfi te dqu6 animo ferre aecifiet^ ntf^li^intem feccris. Id. And, Ac,2« 
Sc I. where uccivia is fignified to be Paft before fec^rk^ and yet 
r^refented by the Indicative Mood, contrary to the jP>o^rme 
ot this Writer, and feceris to fbUow accifiet^ not to gd befbre, 
as what will be Paft firft. Of like fort is thit of dcvro, Per^ 
gratum mihi feceris fi difputabis, d€ Amic. p. 15c. where diffth- 
titbit is in order of Time the preceding Future , and in »e 
Indicative ; and feceris the fubfec^uent, and in the Subfu^dlive. 
So S^uod fi erit faitum^ ^ ''*'»*/'• divino hehefim afieceris, ir ipp 4- 
ternam ^loriam confequere, Cic. Fam^ L. 10. £p. 14. where there 
are two fubfeouent Futures, one in the Indicative^ the other 
in the Subjunaive, which ihews them to be of indifferent uft 
in this rcipe^ and wholly overthrows this Writer's Do<flrine 
about the ufe of thefe Tenfes, iince whether jecerk snA affece^ 
f» be iuppofed to come from fecerim^ or Vecero^ ytjfece^ht^^ or 
Ufkcero-^ It is all one as to this matter,, .helu^vkg <{eiiiedthi$ 
Uie of either Tenfe. :^. . . \ 



Of 



( ?4' ) 






Of the Infinitive Mood. 

Grammar £ng. p. io« 

* H ^HE Infinitive Mood figniBeth to do, to fuffer, or 
JL to l3e,'' and hath neither Humbert 'nor Perfon, nor 
Nominative -Caie before him ; and is known commonly 
PJ this fign toj as Awkre to Lcvd And much to iht iame 
piirpofe m the Latin 'Grammar, cnily lb much the worlb, 
as not mentioning that'it'fignifies to be alio. 

Infinitivusj qui agere quideniy dut fati fignificaty Ht citrA 
certan^ puineri (3 ferfona'dijfercntJamf p. 44, 

* 

Animadversion CXXlIL 

BY both thefeDeiinltioiis thctnfinitive Mood is madi aYetb^lnrt 
for what reafon I cannot fee, anlefs becanfe it lignifieB Time^ 
which it eil^ntial to a Vcrb^ it is d^fin'd b^ this Grammar. 
But if that be fuflicient to maice a Verb^ the Participk muft bt 4 
Vietb too, becaufe it fifinifici Time alfo, which jet for all that i» 
nude a diftin<ft Part of Speech by thisGrammar.But theE/Tence of 
fhe Verb confining in Predication, which is peculiar to it, and uir- 
^ommunicable to all other Parts of Speeth,and thefe Infinitires np- 
trer Predicating, they canhot be Verbs : Again, the EfTence of 4 
Koiinlcon^fting in its fofubfifting In the Underftanding^as that it 
inay be the fubjea of Predication, and thei^ Inlirtltiv'd^ being alt 
Capibfe of fo fubllfting, they miift ofnetefllty be Nouns, nothing 
bat a thing being. capable fo to fubfift in the underftanding« and 
i^thitaj; but the naihe^6f a thing, which h a Noun, being capabfe fo 
t6 fubfift in DiicoMrfe. • This IS undoubtedly the true l^otionof 
thitfe words, and thu» 'tis plain the Latins uhd^rftood them, their 
firlbGrammarians,whobeft underftood the K.6h\'ah hbtion of them^ 
calling them Nomen CrJ^^mma^Feyhias PrifcUn tells US. And with thi$ 
Kotion agrees exa^ly the ufe of Ai|th6rs, by which this Infinitive 
Mood is frequently made the firlt SUbjedt or a Verb, of which, ii) 
this Grammar there are feveral Examples^ as, Ditucuto furgerej^ 
luhenimum tft, Prsfi^tf per virtuttm emoriy quam fer deJecus vivrre^ OCC, 
Secondly it is found fi'equently with ah Adjecf^ive joyn'd with it, 
which is another fure fign that the Latins lo6k'd upon it as a Sub- 
Ibantive) and fo Hiould this Grammar have loolrd upon it too, 
Whi^ owns that an AdjeAive cannot ftand in $peecfa, without a 
. . ^. Swbftan^ 



J 4^ ^f ^^^ I»fiffifive Mood. 

Subftantive. Kou* nothing but an Infinitive Mood can be the Si^t^^ 
ftantive to the Adjedive in the Sentences following. Std ipfum Lu- 
tine loqui^ ejl illud quidcm in nij^na iuude fontndunty Cic. Inv. 1. 2. p. 
157, Ipfitm ijuidem iU»d fcicarcy i^uoijuo te vcrteris^ unumt:fty Cic.Parad. 
3. p. 2i9« Thirdly it is found to have a Prcpoiition fet before it, 
another fure fign of a Subftantive ; as, Ille nihil fntur lotjyi^ & iffum 
nuledice^ & mmlttne didicity Liw 1. 45; p. 838. Jit Ji quisfibi benifici- 
umd-tt^ nihil inteyeft inter darcy '& accipercy Sen. dcBen. L'5. c. 10. 
Fourthly it is found to Govern a Genitive Cafe like other Sub- 
ibantives, 2S'^d eji hujus viverc ? Diu mori^ Sen. Ep. loi. Fabiui M^x- 
imusy citjus non dimicare fuit vincere^ Vat. Max. 1. 7. C. 3. It were 
eafy to add other inftances of all thefe forts, and of fonie of them 
a great many y but thefe are fufRcient to fatisHe the Reader, that 
the Latins iook'd upon this Infinitive Mood as a meer Noun Sub- 
ftantive, and to give him fom^ uAe of the uie of it *, the reft I 
ihall defer till i come to Syntax, which if God be pleafed to (pare 
me Life and Health to finiih., I fhall there ilicw the feveral Rela- 
tions thefe words fupply, of which I had thought to have given 
him fome tafte here, but that this firft part is rather like to ex- 
ceed, than come iliort of the Bounds fet in the Propofals. I can* 
not conceive what can be faid againft this Notion, but that which 
fome Learned Men, who allow of it in thefe Cafes, have objecfled, 
namely, that when it has an Accufative Cafe before it ; as in Gau- 
deo te venilftf incolumemy and the like ; It muft needs be a Verb, be- 
caufe it is as much as Gat^eo qnid tu vcnifti incohmh. Wherefore hav« 
ing the force of a Verb, they fay vo^es vJent J^nificutione.ixid it muft 
be a Verb. But if this Argument be fufficient, then the Par^ciple 
is alfo a Verb many times. For fuppoft I (hbuld Uy\A»dito te yt^ 
taffe m coLumcm ^audehdm. tAudito may be chang*d by cum a$iAiebam^ 
toli^htm Mu^vi or MMjUveram^ and yet I think |t never entred into any 
Man's head, to make audita a Verb in that Cafe. Kay further, if 
this Argument will do, ^his myft be a yer^ flexible part of Speech; 
for if it muft needs be a Verb, becaufe it is refolvable by a Verb, 
it muft alio needs be a Noun, bec;aure it is alfo refolvable by a 
Koim ; as, Gaudeo advent u tuo incolttmi. It remains thelrelofe^ 
that Equivalence of Signification as to the main of the Senfe is liof 
fu£Scient to malce a word the fame part of Speech with tthat to 
v^hick it is fo Equivalent ; but the Sentence mui^ aMp be formally 
the fame to make any two words the fame parp of Sp^ch. K^r /;ao 
J fee any reafon why they who own the Infinitive ]^ood,tP be a 
meer Noun in tkeinftances firft brought, fhould make it any other 
part of SpeecTi in the latter, and the like to it, fince there is no 
more Predication in te ifenijfey than in adventu rno, and without 
Predication there can be no Verb, as has beeii faid before* And 
thus all Sentences of this kind ma)' be refolved where ^erc is a cog* 
nate Noun to refolve them by *, and though in fome, this way of 
refolution may ftem harfh and unnatural, as not agreeable to the 
Roman Langu^e ; yet fince thefe Infinitives arc allow'd Subftan* 
tives upon other occafions, I cannot fee any Reaibn to take them 
for Verbs here, fince the whole Complexion of words in this Cale 
Predicates nothing taken aloi\c, which is peculiar to a Verb, and 
may be the Subjccfl of a Verb, which is peculiar to a Noiin, or 
name of a thing, and alfo adm'it of an attribute by an Adjc<ftive, 
or Pi^rticiplc, v. hich is but an AdjeAivc. Nay, tJu> wSpl* Com- 

plcti^ 



Of the Infinitive Mood. j^V 

ttexiqn, was look'd upon by the Latins as one thing, notwith- 
ftahding they had not one word to exj»refs it by upon all occaiion«, 
nrhich appears by their joyning Ad jc<ftives fingular with it, though 
the words in the Complexion be many ; as, 

Te fiihil txaifoy nifi nos feccujfe fatentem^ 

Sfontefua ftttASy officiumtiut juvut^ Ov. de jf^ont. L. 2. EI. j. 

But whatever may be thought of this fpeculation upon other Ac- 
counts, the Notion is readier for Praftice, and renders this fort of 
Conftrucftions more agreeable to the general Analogy of the Latin 
Tongue, as I ihall fliew in Syntax, when I come to treat of the 
the Conftru(flion of thefe Infinitives. 

But here is a further Queftion concerning this \tood, and that 
if, Wh'fther the fcveral Tenfes of it fignilie levcral diftin<ft Tifties, 
or xftay each of them be indifferently ufed, in rcipecft ot Timi. 
SanSfim is of Opinion that there is *no diftin<rtion of Time in thofti 
Voices, which this Grammar calls Prel'cnt and Preterimperfcift, 
and Preterplupcrfed A^ftive, and Prcfent and Preterimperfccft Paf- 
five, vi\, Jimnrt^ yimavijje^ idmarl and the like. The better to 
back this, He brings in the Autfhorit'y of tAccurpm^ and tonfenfius 
Komanus^ to the. latter of which, he confcfTes himfeif beiiolding for 
this l3ocftrine, Minerv, I, i, r, 14. And when in the latter end of 
the iame Chapter, he is forced to confefs that m lomc C'afcs thefe 
T<nies reprefent different Times, bethinks to folve all by making 
tbeift diftmif^ Verbs under one and the fame Voice. But bemg not 
welfiitisfied himfclf with this come off,at laft he fays,5f^ quidfi re- 
fpoffdekm^ ejff Aliquas orutiones^ qus £um itfdem verbM enuntientur ^ fenfn 
t»tmen difiinguuntur. And then ibon after, Sic in extmflit citati* funt 
Mlt^ita^ qu* dH^inguunt ea. duo tunfora, qu/t ahfq\ illui promifcue pitcrani 
affoni i ut illud^ Magnae curas fore, Sc tfCc jam : in reluiuum iAfivi*\ 
ytrbi temfom conMaJunt^ tf a verba ferfonali temporis fi^nificutiokem >nr«- 
ttutntur^ ut cupio legere, feu legifTe p-dfenti^ eft ; cu^ivi legere, fed 
legifTe, jnrdtertti\ cupiam legere, feu.legiile, "Butun, Jn yajfiva ve-^ 
ro tAmariy /f^i, audire fine difcnmine omnibus deftryiunt. And in this 
laft lies the whole Il:refs of his Argument, namely, that either of 
thefe Voices may depend upon a Perfonal Verb ot any Tcnfe. But 
fure this is a very weak Foundation to build a Pocf^rine upon, con- 
trary to the general confcnt of Grammarians ; and, among other 
things, is one inftancc that this great Man, to whom the Learned 
Wond is fo much beholden for many ufeful Difcovcries in Gram- 
matical Learning, was lead with too eager a deiire of contradi(f^ing 
Qthers into fome ftrange Errors. For what can be plainer than 
that there is a notorious difference between the Terminations >r 
^d ^e in the Aiftivc Voice of this Mood ? Let that of Terence be 
a Proof of it, 

Vmlt medltatus alicunde tx folo loco : 
Orationem fperat inveniffe fey 
Jlua. differat te^ And. Ac. 2. Sc. 4. 

Who is there that fees not that by invenijfc is meant the Time Paft, 
though joyn'd with jj?rr4t of the Prcfent Time, and tliat no other 
Teniecould hive been ufed without altering the Time ? Nonv by 



J44 Of the Infittitive Mo$d. 

this oae Example all this Dpcflrine is deftroyed, and the wholt. 
Argunieiit Anfwered, it being plain from hence, tlut t^ Titofi 
of xht infinitive does not depend upon the Time of the Verb it i$ 
joyn'd with. Neither is the Infimtive Termination ige ever tife4 
to figniiie the Prefent or Future Time, as Sunnius imasins, but 
only when the Senfe is fucb, that i^ is equal which of thde Times 
arc fuppofcd* there this Terniination may have its place among 
the relt,for that r^afon^^d not as not diflering fro^ them in point 
of Time, which it always does. This will appear by the feveral 
inftances of SattSHus^ which follow ^ 

Jjtfus trat i^cm conmAit hUtre tfdd ; 
Zufus 6* immeritos exfeat^e nutres, 

whereby eifecuilfe is not meant the Prefent Time, as he imagins. 
but the Time Paft ; it beinff wdl enough to.be fuppofed that 
they delighted in the having done it, as well as in the doing of it. 
The next is, 

• * .' ' ' ' 

Vix ta^ente yfigos fevro refecare CMfillos 

Do^uSf & birfut4is excolti^e ^etus, 

» . ► . ' .• ■ . . . ' . 

viXxctthy e^cclmlfe again- is not meant the Prefent Tim^ but the 
Time Pafl ', the. skill here mentioned being as mUch fhewn in ha- 
ving done it, as in doing it. Thejifnext is, Ccgniti Caftr c4ufA re^ 
ftrit 4 Sums auxilja mijfu effe. Where befide that reftru may as 
well be fuppofed tQ be the Prete'rperfeA Tenfe, as the Prefent, it 
being ufual in thcfe tecitals, to make ufe either of the Prefent 
or PreterperfeCt, an^d this Verb boing^ the fame in both; I(ay be- 
fide this, even fuppofing it to be. the Piefent Tenfe, it will not 
follow that mrffa effe mpftb^fo tfiu unlefs a.M4n cannot be fup- 
pos'd to find at Prefent, thaj a thing ha$ b^en dpiie, which ^ 
fuppofe this Author would never have faid. The nekt is, 

"Bewtur Prometbehs adJere frincift 

XimQ coa^us forticvUm undiijue 

DefeStttm: Et inftni leoms 

yimftomtcbo afyofifijfe noflro, Hor* 

v4rhtter fugn^ fofuijje nu(lQ, 
Sstltpedf ]^iifput*n 

Verfur^ & IcHtrecreareyento 

Sf4rf»m Qdonais hunferutncafiUis, Hor« 

• • •' . ■ ' • - • , 
But here is nothing extraordinary in^ififofinfft iiithe firfb, nor po^ 
fMJfe'm the lafl ; and, I confeis, in his Title to thifefe Examples, he 
piys no more than. Nunc acdpe tfjiimonia. dh frdterifo in tuo illo frufenti 
infinitivi. By this one would think that he means addere and rear tare 
are here us'd of the Paft Tiine, to which I fhall fpeak by and by ; 
but having faid in the beginning of this Chapter, that thefe Infini* 
tive Terminations ^vere mditferent as to Time, and concluding in 
the end, that Cupio U^erey feu i^^» pr«fentis eft, Cufivl Itgere^feu U^ 
^^> praeteriti \ cufUm Ugtre/jfeu It^jjt^ futuri \ it was reiubna- 
ble enough to fuppofe tlwut thefe Examples were ddign'd to prove, 
nbat rhf Time or the IxiSs^yii igt depeads tspon nii; Verb it is 

pyned 



Of the infmtive Mood. ^4^ 

lofned with, and to endeavour to difprove it. For the ufe of thi^ 
Tenfe in the Future, his intention feems to be more plain ; for ha- 
ving Prefaced his Examples, which he takes to be of that kind,with 
Mxefi^U de futuro^ there are feveral of them, which have no othef 
Infinitive, but that in iffe. As firft, %Mjicit mirucuU aun indicajfe 
c^ntpenUt, Now what Futurity is here to be found in Micaffe^ none 
that I can fee. All that is to be obferv'd here is, that indicajfe is the 
Subje^ of the Verb convenUt^ and inay as well be ib as tWiV«r^,fince 
Wlutt if now convenient to do in this cafe, is convenient like wife tb 
have done. The next four are of a fort, Ke quid emijfe velit in fit" 
tnte JomimOy neuauid dominum ceUviffe velit, Cbald*orum ne quern confu* 
imffe ytlit ; which are both Cato% (peaking of what Qualities Hiould 
be in a Husbandman's Servant. 

Ne quit bumajfe Velit iAjucem tAtrida. VetdS ci4r ? 
■ yigrum nec noSte faratum 

PtoirMt^ qui me volet incitrvdjfe quereU, 

All that I can fee peculiar in thefe Sentences is, that the Infinitive^ 
are eath of them the Objed); of the fame Verb, namely yolo^ and 
that may be a thing Pafl:, as well as Prefent, or to come, and it is 
the iame thing as to the main intention of the Speaker in all theie 
Inlkancet, whether we fuppofe the Will to be to do a thing, or to 
have done it hereafter ; fbraimuch as what a Man does, he may 
immediately be faid to have done, and what in iio time to come he 
can never be faid to have done, he can never be fuppos'd to do; 
Here is indeed a Futurity imply'd, naniely, that the tnihg ihould 
have been done fome time hereafter, but that is rather reprefented 
hy the Nature of the Dependance of the Infinitive Mood, than by 
the Termination iffe^ which being in all other Cafes peculiar to the 
Paft Time, there is no need to fuppofe it reprefcnts any Futurity 
here, which is plainly enough hinted by the Nature of its I^epeu- 
dance. At the mofl all that can be faid is, that when the Depen- 
dance of the Infinitive is fuch, that a Futurity is imply'd by it, to- 
gether with fomething Paft at that Future Time, 'tis'fufHcient to 
ufe this Termination to exprefs that Conception, which if we will 
alfb take to repf efent that Futurity, 'tis not however a bare Future, 
bu^ a Bicompound Tenfe made up of the Paft and the Future, or 
the Paft in the Futiife, as the PrcterplupcrfeA Subjunctive does 
Ibmetimes, firom whence it is form'd, or which it rather forms t 
which is very different from its being applicable to all times, as 
this Author fancies. His other Inflances are either not to the pur- 
fofcy or are all fdlvable by the fame way, namely, the Equivalence 
in ^int of Senfe, which are thefe that follow. Omnes yerehamur ni* 
mit iracufkUm futuram fuijfe vi^oriam, Sed abunde erit ex iit diH> Exem*i 
fUrettdiffe, 

'""^^liceat fcriptilfe^ Catonii 



"hiwfi 



cut- 



VU^no fi feSfore poffit 



Bxcujfiffe deuin' 

Condere viEturM tentem per fecula. chartaij 

St nomen flammii eripuijfe meum, 
xAnte odes non feciffe erit meliu* hie convitium^ 
Ihf9rdic9 m exfuliife extra *des tuerum velit. 

- "^ y y A$ 



^^6 Of the Ifi^MStive Mood. 

As for the Voice of Prcicnt and Preterimperfecf^ Infinitive, it is 
indeed capable of teprefenting the Time to come, as well as tlxat 
Paft or Prefent^but yet not indifferent to all Time, as SauQim ima- 
gines fince it Can nevet be ufed for the Preterpluperfe^. For 
jExample in this Sentence, Nihil « te dudum litcrarum uccef't^ quanquam 
diets te multi:s fcripfilfe, Scripfijfe cannot be varied by Scribere, So in 
ferunt Cdfarem Pompeium vidjjlt, Viciffe cannot be varied by vincrre. 

For by luch a Change, the Senie would be chang'd, as muH: needs 
appear to the mcaneft Reader. The next thing that were to be ob- 
ferved of this Tenfe, were its Future Signification (for this Gram- 
mar allows it the Prefent, and Preterimperfe^) were it not for an 
Opinion of Ko^, who excludes it the Precerimperft^, For L, 3. 
dt yAnulogiAy thus he fays, Supertfi Infimtivm^ cujm triplex item tern- 
fm 'y prdfens, prdtiritum^ & futurum, Sed prdteritum imp^eStum mule 
futurunt voce idem ejfe ac prdfens* Nam fro gaudeb qUod amas, re£le 
dicitur gaudeo te amare. xAt pro illoygaudeo quod jam tum amabdSy noa 
item dicere liceat gaudeo te jam tum amare, fed amaffe. I confefs, 
when the preceding Verb is the Prefent Tenfe, as in this Example, 
the Prcterpluperfe<fl Tenfe is more ufulil, if not perpetual ; but this 
is far from proving, that this Termination can never be ufed Pre^ 
terimperfciftiy. For Tertmcey who fays, 

Ohflupui, Cenfen ullum me verhnm potuiffe fro lofku And. 

Ac. I. Sc. 5. fays alfo, 
, Item alio die 

^tanbdm : comferiebam nihil ad Pampbilum 
QuidquAm attinere. And. Ac. I. Sc. I. i. e. JaM turn «#ft- 

nerej And, 
E^o »'^*"'* ^'<^* virginem ; Vortha bona 
Aft^mim videre. And. Ac.2. Sc.5. i.e. Jam $um vidtrt» And, 

Fcfiquam ante oftium 
A/r audivitftarej approptrat. And. Ac. 3. Sc I. L e. Jam 

tumjlare. 

For the Future ufe of it, of which neither he, nor this Grammar, 

take any notice, there are feveral Authorities. 



^Orabo gnato uxorem^ id fi impetrOy 



j^/ti alias malim^ quam hodie hm fieri nuptiat^ Ter. And. 

Ac. 3. Sc. 2. 
x^iqt40t me adietCy ex te anditum qui Mehant^ hodii fiHam 
Mcdm nubere Uio gnato. Id. And. Ac. 3. Sc« 3. 
. Crede hoc mihi^ inquamy P4mpoile 

Kunquum hodie tecum commutaturum fatrem 
Vnum effe Ferbumy Ji te dvies ducere* Id. And. Ac. 2. Sc. 4. 

Kihd dtftiti eum litern hortariy neque ille inttrmifit affirmare^ fe fine mor^ 
renncy Cic. Fam. L. 10. Hp. 24. .The fame Author mcs alfo the 
Paflive in like manner, £ua ne ab w quidem fieri folerenty qui brevi tenv- 
fore fibi fuccedi putarenty Fam, L. J. £p. 6. i. e. Sncceffum iri. Upon 
the whole ma-ter therefore, I think it is plain, that thefe Infini- 
tives, though they have a Time conjun({^ with the Verb, which 
they depend upon, have yet another of their own, t, r« of the thing 
Sgnifiej by them. For Exan^lC) In 6^1*409 cottpiluifflt fmemy con- 

y^uijfe 



Of the Infinitive Mood. J47 

vdmjfe may be coniidered as Prefent vfith gaudeo^SA the fubjecf^ Mat- 
ter of the joy) butasPaft in itfelf, the Prefent coniideration of 
which, as P.a(l> is the caufe of the prefent Joy. And this Tenfe is 
ftri^ly determined to this iignification, I mean as ftricftly as other 
Tenies are to theirs, in which aifo, where no Ambiguity can arife. 
Authors, and cfpecially Poets, take the liberty of receding from 
the ftateid ufe. And though the Termination r*-, and the Paffiyc 
which anfwers it, have a greater Latitude, yet tl-at is not unlimi- 
ted, nor yet {o determined by tlie Time of the Verb it depends up- 
on, as not to have one proper co it felf, when the Nature of the 
Sentence it fuch, that it requires a particular regard to Time : Up- 
on other Occalions it is not fo properly indifferent to all Time, as 
of none at all ; as, Pent procari ft utet^ Sen. N. Q: L* 4* p* ^69* Si^ 
quod fraprwm balxt terru^ ferdidit ft'trtr. Id. lb. L. 6. C l« 



»Seu purior uxh 



oimofumque nefity & rarum infiflere terris 

Vera doccnt Stat. Theb. 1. j. p. X04. 

Datur ordo jeneQit 
vAdmelOj ftrumque mor'u Stat. Theb. 6. p. 213. 

Ni futa Vetent, & ftamine primo 
oiblatum tellurt mor'u Id. Theb. I. 9. p. 314, 
Pojfe Idfiui eribitur. Ov. Met. 1. 2. p. 39. 
NfMe iu cauja efty non pojfe pnttinditur. Sen. Ep. 1 1 7. 

But that thefe Tenfes had a power of reprefenting fome time of 
their own, when the Senfe required it, was certainly ihe Notion 
the iMtHj had of them, as appears by SL**intilian, a better Judge 
ttutn. StM&iut in this matter; who fays as follows. }Joc genu* fer 
tmnia ttfmpora perptndi foUt, Nam coijfe tarn cum VzVo, ijU/t pepirit^ quod 
tji prstgnti : Et fiu^m ejjg cum magnx vii venti in mure ittLulmit^ quod i-(l 
conjunct: Et eum mori, cujm cor eft vulneratuniy quod futuri^ ni\'elj]f efl^ 
1 5. C y. 

Of the Future Infinitive. 

There is nothing further obfervabic of this Mood, but concern* 
ing the Future Tenfe. This it formerly had in one Voice, and that 
double i one in ffere ufed by PUutm^but hardly Hnce ; the other in urmm 
as «y^^/te teftifics, bringing Credo inimicot meos hoc dkSturum out of 
Qr4iccbm ; and,H4ȣ- rem fperant fibi prdfidio futurum out of Cicero^ for a 
proof of it. Befide which, l^ojfim brings feveral others, but as 
quoted by Grammarians only out of Authors not now extant. 
And that of Cicero being now rcsidfuturam^ it is generally conclu- 
ded, that this Voice in this Signification, is not now to be ufed. 
However it is ftill remaining in Plautw, 

Dejurav'a occifurum eum hoc notfe^ tf*icum cuharet, Caf. Ac.3« 
Sc. 5* i« e. Cafinu dejuravit fe occifurum^ not oecifuramm 
So again a little below. 
njiltgro t€ occifurum ait^ 
%4ltero vUlicum. 



Y y 2 But 



/ 



^4^ Of the Inpnitive Mood. 

But this growing out of ufe, this Defed^ is iupply'd by a ctrcum- 
locution in both Voices, in the A^ive, by the Participle in urus\ 
and effe^ or fore^ and in the Paffive, by the Supine and iru Which ii 
no more than neceflary, fince the Prefent, by which the Future is 
Sometimes rejprefented, has aifo two other Significations, and there* 
fore cannot (ignifie the Future, but when the Circnmftances of the 
Senfe are fufHcient to determine it to that Signification ; which not 
always happening, there was a neceflity of fome Voice* or Voices of 
this Mood, to iignifie the future only, which are, as has been faid, 
the Participle of the Future in umty and effe or fore for the A<ftive, 
and the firft Supine and in for the Panive. But whereas this 
Grammar makes this laft Tenfe double, viz. tAmatimt iriy or ot- 
mandum ejfe^ this is what the ufe of A uthors will by no means coun- 
tenance, who never exprefs a bare Future Paffive, by thePrticipIe 
in dw and ejfe. Indeed San^im^ smd Vitre^ or MefHeurs de Port Royal, 




more at large than he does, that the Reader may the better judge 
of it, Cdfar in earn fpem venerat, ft fine fu^nA, fSr fine vulnere Juorum 
rem conficere pcffe^ qu^d re frumentaria adverftrios interclufffeU Cur eti" 
am fecundo pr^Uo aliquos exfuit amitterit ? Cur vulnerari pateretur of time 
4f fe meritos milites ? Cur demque fortunam fericlitaretur \ pTdfertim cum 
pon minus effct imferatorisy confiho fuperare^ quam gUdio, Movebutur eti" 
am mifericordia avium^ quos interficiendos videbat, Subaudi efle or fore. 



f'ls amare : VU fotiri : Vis^ quod des iUi^ ejfid, 
Tuum effe in fotiundo ferieulum non vis, H*ud ftulte Upis 
Siquidem id fapere eft, Velle te idy quod non fotefi conttt^ere, 
%Aut bdc cumiUii funt habenduy aut ilia cum his amittenda funt^ 
Ter. Heau. Ac. 2. Sc. 3. 

Id ne Vohis diutlus faciendum /»/, atque ut in ferpetuA pace ejTe poffitif^ 
provideboy Cic. in Cat. Or. 3. Hoc autem tempore res fefe ficbJbet^ ut 
tiifi exercitum tantum^ quantum ad maximum bellum mittere foletii^ matur^ 
in bos jrovincioi miferttis, fmnmum pericuUtm fit^ ne amittenda fint omnes 
ha provincial quibus veS^igaHa populi Komani continentur^ Cic,Fam.L.l5. 
Ep. I. i. e. N'e necejfe fo ut amittenda fint. And that this was Cicero's 
meaning by amittenda^ and that of Cafar by interficiendos^ I am in- 
duced to believe, becaufe both thefe Authors, as well as all others, 
as far as I have obferved. conftantly ufe the fir ft Supine with in. 




longiHs ..-, . -, — , ,- -_, „_ 

fius bellum du^ urn iriexifiimdrenty Cari.Bell. Civ. L. 3. Sed eum pofiero 
Jie fimiU, ratione agffftdittiTy quid bis obtentis duobuSy wnutm, navigiorum 
fxcurfitmy tr repentina Lttrdcinia fubUtum iri videbatury Bell. Alex. L. 4. 
^uncad ea^ quk t^arisdeC, Catone, Lege Juma^ tr iJciniA fins abfolu^ 
turn, Vufia ego ttbi nuncio ^folutum trt, Cic. ad At. L. 4* £p. 16, ^s 
hfm tapum mdtram huic belh 4djtinS^tm iri puftret^ Cic, Fam. L* 1 5* 
^ • • • • • JE{», 



a. 



Of the Infinitive Mood. ^^g 

«w. 1 5* Multo etiam rem furfiwrem, 6^ initiuhrem vifum in inteftigebanK 
jdlC. ill Vcr. L. 4« Or. 7. p. 284- Sj*^^ fcnhis directum irl te ^ tuts, J 
is abejfety Cic, ad Q. Fr. L. I . Ep. I . ^*od iJibuj & foftriiie fuerat di^ 
tefPf, de affo CampanQ uffum iri^ non tfi Alfum^ Id. ad Q, Fr.L.2,Ep.7, 
J^MT^ etiam legationes yejeffum iri puto^ Cic. ad At, L. iTlEp. 1 8. Afldl 
fo he conftantly, and frequently. And as he, fo others alfo. Mihi 
maier cecinity tibi.aram hie dicutum tn, Li v. Dec. i. L. I. Jatiatum in 
condittonibus ne quicqiunn dc Tarquiniis in re^num reftittiendify maps qui* 
idnegareifftntquiver'uTarqmmisy tjuam i^uod ntgatum irtfthi ah Romanis 
ignararety Id. Dec. I. L. 2. Tncredibilia multir vifum iri baud dubitOy 
Plin. N. H. L. 7. c. i. But of this enough, fince this Grammar 
owns this ufe, and it is not qucftioncd by any Body that I know 
bf. There arc fome though, who are ftagger'd at the Syntax, as 
not comprehending how Utrocini* fubUtum tVi, cMm rem duUum iriy 
i^iOiones re'yeStum iriy and the like^ can have any Analogy to the £;c* 
nend Rules o^ Latin Syntax. The Reafon of this Hefitation^is, 
that they take the Word in um^ in thefe Cafes, for a Participle, 
which is really a Supine, and that fo plain, that I wonder ViJJitu 
could ever think otnerwife. This matter has been cleared long 
fince, and the Kauo of this Conftruc^ion rendred agreeable to th< 
general Analogy of the Latin TonRue, namely, byYuppoHng the 
Word in um^ to be a Supine governed of iVt, and the Patient to 5<. 
the Accufative ^overn'd of the Supine, and the Refolutioii to bd 

this for, Example, Legationes reje^um iri tuto, i. c. Puto viam iri ab. ht>- 
ininibufy vel rebus quibuflibety ai reje^um hgationes, by which though 
ho more be ftridly faid,than that an attempt will be made towards 
a thin^ being dqne, yet in common acceptation, it was taken, that 
the thing would be done, by what means foever, or for what rea- 
son fbever it came to have this acceptation. And thus in Point of 
Conftrudionall is Regular, the only Irregularity is, that what, ac- 
cording to the form of Words, means no more, than an attempt to 
'(^o a thing,fliould in acceptation pafs as a thing that would be done. 
$ut this is no more than what will ever be in ail Languages, the 
Vwlgar having fo great a ihare in them, who being {6 much the 
greater Number, ;he more knowing are forced often to come into 
them in this matter, and fpeak as they do : and it is long iince be^ 
tome a Maxim, Loqucndum cum vulgo. Another Inftance of this, is 
a form of Expreffion like the former, but differing in this, that it 
Is Irre^lar in point of Conftru<flion, whereas the former arc Re^ 
gular mthat refped. Of this fort is that ofCato, quoted by v^gtl* 
VUSy L.IO. C. 14.. %Atque tfvcnit itay Sj^iriteSy uti in hac contupreliJiy qu4 
vmbifer bujufce fetuUntiam fa^um itury rei quoque publico rnediuf fidius 
nnferear. And tnat of J^inri/itfn, L. 9. c. 2. Reus purricidii^ quid frw 
ifrem occidijfet^ damnttum iri videbatur. In both which, the SubjccfT of 
itur and iV/, is fuch a thing as cannot be the Objed of Eo Adive, 
For the XanW could not fay, Eo contumellim or Uo reum. There is a 
Pailage alfo in PUutusy which has feem'd to fome to be of this fort, 
|tW« ok, 4. Sc, !• 

Mihi ifthsc videtur pr/tdu pradatum trier, 

3ut Scioppiuj has corrected this Reading into, 
Mihi ifihkc yidfturpradi pntdutum irier. 



J 50 Of the Infiniihe Mood. 

And I cannot but approve of it. For thus read, it lia» nothing 
contrary to the common COnftru^ion, i. e. %Ai> bAc prsd* trier prJ^ 
Jatum, And the Senfe is agreeable to the Context, which is, that 
Dsmones Having foimd a Treafure, was perfwaded by Gripts to keep 
it, but inclin'd in himfelf out of Confcience to reftore jit to ^he 
right Owner, for which he gives this Reafon, 

Grifej Gripe ! In dtate bomimum flurims 

Wium tranfennfj ubi decifiuniur doUs : 

nAtque sdefol in eas fUrumque efc€ imfomtar^ 

j^Mtn fi qms ttPtdus fafcit efcam ti\>anttr^ 

Deeifiiur in tranfenna aviaritutfua : 

Ule ^ coftfulfCy doitiy 4$que afiute caVet 

JDiutine ei uti licet fdrtum bene, 

Mibi iflbuc videtur prsda frsdatum irieTy 

Vt chm majore dote obeAty quam advenerit. 

As who ihould fay Tbis Frey villgo dnd tal^e Prey^ if 1 refiore it ; i. e. 
Jbe Interefi 4Md Cot^cience ef a. Good tASHon^ and Jo he loft with greater 
tjUvantage than it could be ijept, I ihould next confider the Paradigm 
or Draught of the feveral Formations of Verbs, but the Englijh 
Grammar, havine put down Gerunds and Supines before it, as be^ 
longing to the Infiiutive Mood, I /hall take them as they ftand 
there. 



Of 



Of Gtrunis, 351 



Of Gerunds. 

Grammar^ ^t\g, p* 14. 

THere be moreover belonging to the Infinitive Mood 
of Verbs, certain Voices called Gerunds, ending 
in di^ do^ and dum ; which have both Aftive and Paf- 
(ive fignification ^ as, Amandi, 0/ lo-y/wg, or being Loved: 
Amando, in Loving or being Loved : Amandum, to Love^ 
or to be Loved, 

Grammar J Lat. p, yS. 

GBrundia porro voces participiales vocari pojjuntj quod fi-- 
milia Participiis Junt ; Jicut proverbialia dicimusj quit 
funt Jimilia froverbiis* 

Proinde quia parum videbamw convenirc inter Grammati^ 
C0S9 utrum ad verba, an ad Participia propiui pcrtincant^hic 
in confinio utriufque partis relinquimus, ut utri velint Jefe reg- 
no addicant. 

Porro a nomine cafum, h verbo agendi vol patiendl, vei 
neutrius, Jignificationem recipiunt. 

Et quia tcmporum nee difcrimen difcretis vocibm rccipiunt^ 
fiecjue numeros aut pcrfonas admittunt, idefi necjufia verba effe 
pojfunt, nee Participia. 

Animadversion CXXI V. 

THit Grammar having determined, that there are but eight 
Parts of Speech , one would think it ihould not treat of any 
Word without reducing it to one of them, and not leave 
both them and the Reader to choofe for themfelves. It was this 
ftirt of Pcfirition? which made ^<Wigfrfay, Nihil infelicws defifutore 



^^i OfQeriiHdsi 

0/4tmmatico, There is indeed, as the Latin Granunai* fayi. a great 
Controvcrfy among the Grammarians, concerning which of the 
Parts of Speech thefe words are to be reduc'd to ', hut I think, 
without any great Reafbn, as will ajppear by the Arguments they 
bring for their feveral Opinions, to him who will look into Fof, 
%AnaS>g, /. 3, c, 9. and de Conftru^. f. 50, Sciopp, Parad, Ut, Ep. 2» 
Sanlf, /. I. c. 15. /. 3« <'«8. and Feri^puim in his Learned Notes 
upon both places, whither I ihali refer the Reader, as being 
too long to find room here. The fumm of all this Diipute 
is that fome make 'em Participles, agreeing with the Iilfinuive 
Mood underftod, others as Peri\onim with Nc^otium^ or fome Cafe 
of it. Others will have them to be Participles governing as the 
Adive Verb of the Paflivc which they come from ; as, yitrg^ or 
Mejfiturs He Part Rojm/, whom I follow along with the Annoeators« 
That which induces me to be of this Opinion is, not that I think 
with Prrt^onitw, that tenendum eft Icgcre is durum attfy abfonum^ nulUufq^ 
frnfusy or can fay with the Annotators, Num quod dicunt intelligi in- 
finitivumy a quoy tanquam nomine Verbalc^ (verhali rather) genitiyus Vel 
accufutivus rrgutur^ nulla fundamentoinnit it i*r, 2uia grdttf diffmm^ ver» 
hum aliquod Jubintelligl, quad nunquam expreffum referitur^ V^fi nan fine 
^dffurditate exprimi poffit^ ut leeendum eft legere (which very abfur- 
dity, as they call it, is found in Cicero) Fifum eft faciendum voscertio' 
res ).ia/f, Fam. L. 4- Ep« 12.) I fay it is not therefore for this rea- 
fon that I think they are Subftantivcs, nor yet becaufe negotium in 
a proper Cafe can never be fuppofed to be underftood ^ but be- 
caufe neither the one fuppolition, nor the other, will anfwer the 
end they were brought for in ail Caics> namely, of making the 
Conftru(f^ion regular, as will be feen by trying them feveraliy, as 
ill this Sentence ; Quum illorum videndi gratia me in forum contultffem, 
Suppofe here vidcre to be underibood for the Subftantive of FiJendiy 
and videndi to be an Adje<ftive Participle agreeing with it, then the 
Sentence will be, ^um illorum videndi videre gratia me in forum con* 
rulilfem. And the refolution will be, j^»»m me conttUiffem in famm 
gratia videre illorum videndi, fo that vtdere muft govern illontm in the 
Genitive. But what Example is there of any fuch eovemment, 
namely of an Infinitive Mood A^Tiive, governing a C^enitive Cafe 
of the Patient ? That it may govern a Genitive of the Agent I 
own, and have fhew'd in the Animadverfion upon the Infinitive 
Mood, and that a Patfive may govern a Genitive of the Patient, 
may be fliewn by that of ManiHw, 

Namfemper tunti merces eft parva lahoris : 

Cenfihus aquantur concha^ lapidumq) notari^ L* 5* p* 1 23* 

But certainly there is no Example of an Infinitive Adive go- 
verning a Genitive oPthe Patient^ nor yet fo much Anjdogy as of a 
Gerund governing a Geniti ve,which yet this fuppofition is brought 
to avoid. Next let us fuppofe fome Cafe of Negotium to be under- 
ftood^ which IS the fuppofition of Pm^oMtM, and then the Sentence 
will be Qui*m illorum videndi negotii gratia me in forum contulijfemy and 
the refolution of th($ Conftrudion, S^uum contuliffem me in forum 
gratia negotii videndi illorum. If illorum be governed here of nego- 
tii^ it muft be in this Order, gratiA negfltii tlhrum lAdendi^ and this 
JS.far tbefi\e oftWxt huf\r\e[s hfdtfgfeeti^ and not for the fa^ of them be^ 

ing 



Of Gerunds. 55 j 

if^feen*^ n^otium illim for ilU being as unheard of in tkeLatinTongue,' 
as, vUere tUimy fbr videre illum^ which this fuppoiition alfo is brought 
to avoid* The reafon then why I take thefe Gerunds to be Sub* 
ftantives, is, Firft, becaufe it is the more natural and facile fuppo« 
fition; that which we render them by in Englifli, and out of which 
we render them in Latin, being a Subftantive, as in the Sentence 
above 'mentioned^d all others, viz./or thefal^e offtcing them. Where 
Seeing is a Subftantive. So j^gnavt cao a Hifcendo deterrtntur^ are dt» 
terred from Learning^ where Learning likewife is a Subftantive, as 
thefe Gerunds always arcj and may therefore properly be calPd Ge« 
rttndii or Gerundioy becaufe they do, as it were, iigniiic the thing in 
Cerendo or Gerundo^ in doing^ and fo rcprefent a Conception of the 
Agent along with the Adion : in which they differ from Verbals 
in io,which repreient theAdtion as abftracfted or without the Agent; 
though not from the Infinitive Mood, but upon the different oc- 
cafions upon which they may be ufcd which being matter of Go« 
yemment, fhall be fpoken to in Syntax. And though the Gerund 
in </«m, when it is in the Nominative Cafe, is generally rend red by 
muft or ougbty yet it may have alfo a Verbal rend ring by a Noun 
Subftantive ; as, Orandum eft ut fit mensfana in cot pee fanOs To fray^ 
or the prtryif^ that there be a found Mind in a fount Body^ be 
ionfs to US, Secondly this Notion is more calV and Natural in 
point of Conftrudion, at which mark all thclc kinds of Notions 
ought to be levelled, as bringing their Government of a Geni- 
tive Cafe to the ordinary Rules of Conftrudtion : neither can this 
Government, of which there are feveral other Examples, be foWd 
withont it. 



Z z Of 



.'i 



U4 Of, Su^neu 



m J M^^i— ^1 « . »* ■■■ »ii in ii ■ mtm ' ■ ii»»»— ■^<»— — ■^M«»>i^iMma^«— — »wiMii»"^^\ 




P Supines. 

THcre he alfo apgpjcrtdhing, unto Verbs ». two Su- 
pines: rhe. one endiDg/ in un^ wUchiis^.cailocI the 
foft^ Supine, bccaufr it* hath the fignification of the 
Verb A<9Jve: as.,, Bo^matiuwy. L gp to love :: and the o- 
tbcTiin } f/y, beeaufet it; hathr for the moft^ part: the: figoifi- 
caxitta of , Piflivc,. as U/JfcV/i atnau^^hsxAxohcStwt^ 

Gramnuirf LaL fp-Sg*. 

SXJpina:{juafi ineriUvpMrtkifmiia^verik-'dicuiHw^ ornni'-' 
a^ue cum gcrundii vocihus eommunia halent j and|then 
as in the Engufh Grammar- 

Animadversion CXXVt 

THefe words, concerning whiclu both thefe Authors are (b 
afraid to fpeak out (he that fays moft not determining to 
which of the eight Parts of Speech they belong) are nothing 
but Verbal Subftantives to be ufed upon proper occaiions, being 
governed as other Nouns of like relation, and thofe in um^ having 
alfo the Power of Governing as the Verbs they are derived from. 
This is now generally aereed by the beftGrammarians, who refolve 
the ConftruSion of all Sentences, where they are found, by this 
Notion. For Example In Miliitsf/mt tmjfi ffecuUtum orcein^ Specu»- 
latum is the Accufative with ad underftoodi, as being the intention 
or purpofc of the Participle of motion miffly and arcem is the Accu- 
fative, as being the Objecft of the Tranfltive ynlal SfecuUtum^ 
which governs as other Verbal Snbftantives do at this day in the 
Latin Tongue, namely Gerunds and Infinitives ; and as Verbals 
in to did in the Time of Plautusy who fays, i^id ttU eft curatio banc 
rem ? and ^*id meam tihi me ininto tact'io efty and Others like, as has 
been obferv'd before me. Thatin f* alio they make to be the Ab- 
lative Cafe, governed of an sA-djeAive ; as, DijBlicile di^u^ L e. Diffi^ 
ciu m di^ug or 4 dUtu» Aitd tms is the general Cooftru(%Lon of this 

latter 



Of Saints. j^5 

ktftr Sofkuie, namely, that it is us'd-to T^relent a F^afiUm in re- 
ipecft otwnich fomcthing is attributed by an Adjedive to-a Sub' 
mntiye. And thus much has been obferved before me, as alfo, 
that the firft. Supine fometimes ii^fies Paflkelyyandihe litter A^ 
lively, which this Grammar alio takes Notice of, but does not 
prove it by Examples, which for the Satisfaiflion of the Reader I 
ihall produce. Of the ufe of the firft Supine Paflively, there is but 
one Infbance brought by the Grammamns, and thatisoiftof ol- 
^rUitw. L.3. C.2. where he fays^Mf/ur ufurpatum ijfct "for ut ufurparetur^ 
Of the latter Supine us'd Adlivcly, there are ieveral, as Trimuscubi- 
tu fw^ety poftremus cubitum f4t^ Cat. R. R. c. 5. Cdfir r^trm 'tigr^J^ 
Tac. An. 1 5. 

£»em tuyenatu rt^ifmrmn m limiw fritno 

Ofperiens^ Stat. Theb. i* 

JForenfes uva ceUres provtntu^porUttufaciUs PiinJ^.H. Ul^X,^ 

Theiewords therefore are nothii\g but Heterodites of the FotiMfk 
Decknfiom which feem to haveoeen entire by t^gr^tM, L. 15. c 
X 9. though now thev have only ibme Cafes lef^, and moft <<^ tnem 
only thefe two, which ihould therefore have been added to Dip tot fs 
or Triptotes^ or MonoftotieSy according «o the Nomber of OMi 
which they have. This I fay has been obferv'd already, but ^en 
what Otfe each of them have, and which m^ be ufed A<!lively be* 
fide thofe few taken Notice of by yoffim^ or Conftrued in other 
Forms, befide that above mentioned of ihewin^ the thing in re- 
%e<R of which an Adjedlive is attributed to a Subftantive, nas not 
yet been obferv'd, or but ihortly hinted. I iliaU therefore give a 
Catalogue of them, that the Reader may fee what thexife of Au- 
thors is in this particular^ andliow far lie himfelf may go by way 
of imitation. 

Accerfitu. Cum ad eum ijfius rogHtu Atctifitu^y vtnijfem^ 
Cic.N. D. 1. I. p. 9. 

Acdcu. I{pgiu5 Accitu chart genitoris ad vrhcm. 

Siibmiam pier ire farat^ Virg. jEti. i. p. 1 itt« 
Adau6hl. N/^w quacanque vides hilari grandefcere Adau&U^ 

Lucr. 1. 1. p. 61. 

Though the fame Author has Aufhn and Au-^ 
Rum in the Simple. 
tisSfC&xx. ■ Et nojiros AdjcHu tangcre taUvSy Lucr. 

I I. p»xo. 

%iixheci AdjeEius t&ioundiinVinuviuSy I.9. c. 9. 
AdmiiTu. H^c res uvas efficit finguiores Admijfufolis^ Pall. 

M«. Tit. 1. 
Adcnonitu. Vt de clnris oiris locorum admmiitu mitemw^ 

Xjk. Fm. 1. y. p. 949. And fo the fimc Author, 



3 $6 OfSufines. 

Veteras froverhii Admmitu. I have not fecn any other 

Cafe or this word, though Monitus finiple be frequent. 
Admotu. Ciet menjlrua admotUj Plin. N. H. I.4. c. 1 1 . Of 

this alfo I have feen no Other Cafe, though Mottis 

fimple be frequent- 
Advefla. Hac de originc atque AdveRu del ccleberrima^ 

Tac. Hift. 1. 4. p. 671. 
Affli6lu. Effemimta virtus AffliElu occidit^ ClC. T« L- L. 

2- p. 5 5 ). So Robert Stephens quotes it , but in 

my Book it is Affii^a, and (b Gronovm reads ir. 
'Affriftu. Sfuma a^U£ AffriHu verrucas tollitj Plin. N. H. 

1. 3. c. 6. 
Allegatu. Meo Allegatu venity Plaut. Trin. Ac. y. Sc. i. 
Animatu. Vblare autem ali^ua^ tfr Animatu carere^ Plin. 

N. R 1. X, c. ?• 
Appofitu. Etiam fuffitu^ vet Appojitu purgat^ Plin. N. H. 

1. 14. c. 9. But then here I confefi in the Margin 

is appofita! 
Armatu. Achxi juventptis fwis^ Cretico maxime Armatify ^i 

mille dederuntj Liv. Dec. 5:. 1. X. 
Alperfii. Qudi infeita apelUvitHUSy omnia olei Afperfu «e- 

canturj Plin. N-H. 1- ii. c. 5^3. 
Aftipulatu. Or/tculi ejufdem jujfu, (3 Jovisfummi del Afli^ 

pulatuy Plin. N. H. 1. 7. c. 47* 
Attreftatu. Nam AttreFlatu ^ quajfuj fyvum amplificatis 

doloremy Cic. T. (i, 1. 2. 
Auft. . Et ififolitos grejfus prior occupat Aufu^ Petron. 

p. 282. 
Calfaftu. Cibos qact modis juvent notutn eji^ cum tranfme^ 

ant faucium tumoremy CalfaFiuq^ obiter foveant^ Plin. 

N. H. 1. 29. c. g. 

Carptu. Flos cujufqy generis trium digitorum Carptu dyfente- 
ricos^ i^ alvumcitam emendate Plin. H. !• 24. c. 10. 
So Robert Stephens quotes it, but in my Book it is 
Caftu. 

Circumjeclu. Inrudiparietum CircumjeElu doliis etiam de- 
vorantur^ Plin. N. H. 1. II. c. J I. Indeed the 
fimple is common in all Cafes, but I read no other 
pf this Conipound* ' Circumvectu 



Of SufifM. J 57 

Circumvcftu. Sui tenero termm CircumveRu AmfleHitur^ 

Enn. in Gc. N. D. 1. 1. p. 76. 

Goa£lu. Nequc judicioj autvoluntatefuifccijfe: fed Coailu 

civiutisy Cxs. Bel. Gal. 5* 1- p. 98. And (b C/c. fede- 
ral times. 

CoUatu. In Collatu fari erant conditioner BelLHifp. 1. p.564. 
Collifu. Seufono quodam gnudcant^ ^ iffo Collifu marga^ 

rifarum^ PHn. N. H» 1. 9. c. 3 y. 
Compreffu. Qua meo CompreJJu feferit filianh Plaut. Epid. 

Ac. ^ oC. I. 
Conceffu. Datur enitn Concejfu omnium huic aliquis ludus^-' 

uti^ Cic. pro Cxi. p. XI y. and elfcwhere feveral 

times. 
C#nciliatu. Quorum condenfo magis omnia Conciliatu. 

ArHari fofjuntj validafq\ oftendere virfiSy Lucr. 

l.i. and elfewhere. 
ConcuflUtf Micoi ConcuJJu eli/as matmsm vocamusy Plin. N. 
H« ]. 9. & 14. Magnoque rrpente^ 

ConcuJJu late dijferfutit indc tremor cs^ Lucr. J. 6. 
p. 186. 
Conditu* Conjilia nullus mente tmn furi dedit, 

Vel altiore Conditu texit datayAus.VroieCs.CsLTn\, 1 6. 
Gonflictu. Nam lapidum ConfiiBu^ atq'y tritu elici ignem 
videmus. Cic. N. D. 1. x. p. 6. though confliilm is 
read alio, but hardly out of the Tranflated Senfe. 
Coqjectu. Quinti fr^tris domus frimo fraBa ConjeBu lapi- 
dum ex area noflrij Cic. ad At. L.4. Ep. g* ConjeBu 
radiorum exifiimulata funt^ PHn» N. H. J. x. c. 39. 
And I know no other Cafe of it, except in Lucretius. 
A$ contra lapidum ConjeBum^ fpiclorumq'^ 
ticnu potefiy L. 3. p. 69. 
^pD^iratu* Achaos Homerus pugnam indipfci ait nonfidicu- 
larumy tibiarumque concentUj fed mentium animorumq\ 
Confpiratu tacito nitibundosy AgeU 1. 1 , c. 1 1 • 
Conteroplatu. A contemplatu femoveoq\ mali^ Ov.Tr. 1. y. 

p* 164. 
Paninsitu* AUeno beneficio poftea vixit, bonis inde etiam 
' fonfccratis k Damnatu fuoy Plin. Nt H. 1. 7 . c. 44. 
: , Datu, 



j^ CfSofimf. 

I^ttik f Umille nnrnmnm fi ituriSm 

Meo Datutibi ffrre^ & gruiM> Lesbmico atthat meal 

Plaut. Trin. Ac. jr. Sc. 2. 

DccoQiU, Et ^liks vmnes gftmna m^pF DecoBu fhh^cunt* 

Plin. N-H. 1. 37. c. II. 
Defofiu.. Caff arm quo^ue feratur in ficcismaotime^ Mrea m 

Defoffu cavMtlt. Pltn. N. H. L 1 9. c. 8. 
Dejc6hl. Cormfedem trefidos faeium^fnevertere eervas 
Watum gemind ^eHu fyfum, & .4irma 
Mirantem gravi<nrK heri fublimu agtbat^ StaC 

Theb.l. 4. v;X72. 
DejeBuqtie gravi ienuas agltanfia fumos 
f^ubila ccnducit, Ov. Met. i. p. ao. 
Bfetraftu. SiwV BetrnBuj nut adjeHiene fylUba faohfm* 

fwn. Sen. Suaf] lilt. 
Dii^rfu. Differfu enim -tlhrmn aBio de face fublata efl* 

Cic. At. Ci. 9. Ep. 9* 

Dilpofitu. Aftiorfermonej^iffofitu^frtuvifuq* TaoHift, 

1. 2. p. ^02> 
E}iftm6):u. Ore ac DifiinBu fennarum k cater4s anibus diver- 

fum* Tac. An. 6. p. 228. 

^ ■ Viridk cum regula Ut^o 
Synnada TkiftinBu variat. Stat. Silv. Carm. 5*. 
SblXMtu. Efjichnus etiam Domhu noftro quadrufedum 'veili-- 

ones- 'Cic. N. D. \. I. p. MO. 
lEflbgkatu. CvaBu atque Efiagitatu fheo. C3c. in Vtr. 

Or. 10. |>. 359. 
Hfiftu. I» nrcar EieRu farva futura mora eft. Ov. PhyL 

Demoph. 
Erratu. Sed ii vita demonfirari oftn^tet in tarn froclivi £r- 

ratu. Plin.N. H. l.^y. c. y. 
Exeo^tkta.' Et coftionis verfuta Excegitatn fn^mut 

fuit. Agetl. 5. c. i«. 
laiStiu 2«o F^flFtt won mode defiant ptgnAyfedffSc^ Varr. 

R.R.1. 3. c. 16L 

HiStu. Galea horrida FliFiu 

Ardefcit g^ltie^ Sil* 1* 9* p. 144* 

• ^ . Turn 






Dant Sonitum FU8u galea* Virg: JEn. 9. pr.a^g, 
"fixicatti. Lufcitfos^ex^oiio iSiiiK entendaty dSdemiumfoiilit 

crebro Fricdtu. Plin. N. H. 1. xg. c. 7. 
Illiiu9.is <]UOted by E^pbtrt Stephens out of Pliny N. H. 1 iy. 

c..8^ ISifu iffo repircuffw. I do ncJT find it there, 

but /. X. c. 48. is read, Idem XUifu iffe refettujjus^ 

for which in the Margin there is iffo^ and I maike 

no doubt dii8-is the place be means. 
tUitU* PaxMoi' feimnfitenfes i3 fuderes ciet^ Scordotis fotu^ 

(3 lUitu. Plin. N. H. 1. %6. c. 15'. / 

ImpisUii). is' (carce found in any ca(e but this, but in this 

it iscomnaot)', Mpulfti adoUftentUi Pfaut. Aul. Ac. 4, 

Se^io. and C^ctf rr-frequently. 

IncitU. Qui five ajfiduo mundi Incituifit c * ■ mnfcunhirm 

Plin. N. H. 1. x.cds*. 

\ta3ki2XXL.'l^eqneilUud-^St qnodfimili hicltnatu dicatur. Agel 

1. ^.C 12. 
Io€i>nfiiku« Mtnhfemei ntque infiiente^ Jnconfultuweo 

/Edes ^vtnalcs has ce infcribit Uteris^ Plairt. 

Trin. hoi. SCi2. 
InculTu. Cum gl adits (3 crmorum Inenffu fracifkati^ /u- 

dibrn & fiii obruuntur. Tac. Hiftr4: p.'6i8. 
I^ldo&UL' Quod ^Utn$ InduBu fecerit. Ad. Her. 1. 2. p. t o« 
Qftio vobis datttr^ utrMin velithtafu illo itinere Varo 
num ufum ejje^ an hujus ferfunfuy (3 InduBu. QuintiL 

lafafihi^' De reliquiirumi nempe lanaront, InfcBu fuis loci 
dioemm. PKn. N. H. 1. 8: c. 48; 

la&ih. « Sonitup aurium^mendat Injvftij firumasiHittt. Plin« 
N.' H. 1. 24,^; 6. So i(pbett Stephens quotes it, and 
itiisxnoft^ likely to' be fo, though in my Book it is 
Jnfu/uMi and lUitnm: But fince Styrax is underftood 
(ot^th&Suh&AnUVt^Infufum and illitum mil not agree 
with it. 

Injeftu. Qua dimicatio InjeBupttl'iftiir difiutitur. PKo. 

N^H.) I. 1 1 ^ c%v 1 7; 1. 8. c. 1 6, X 7. Tac . An. 6: 
p. 24 J.-. 

ltvfttu<Stvi^ 



}6o Of Supines. 

Iriftruftu. Eodem efi InfituBu^ ornatuque comitata. Cic. 

de Or.l; 3. q. i?. 
Intercuflfu. terribiUs Intercujfu luminis Sri* Sen. N. QJ 

K 3. c. 2$. 
Interduftu. Oratio non Spiritu prontincidntKy nee Inter* 

duBu librariij fed numero coa&a debet infiftere. Cic* 

de Or. 
Interjeftu. ^ICum eft e regione folkj Interfofitu^InterjeBuque 
Interpofitu. 3 terra refente deficit, Cic. N. D. L X. p. 90, 
InveOiU. Nafcuntur enim nee flumina tantum InveStUi 

Plin. N. H. 1. X. c. 8f. 
Inventu. In Alio genere Inventu novitio finditur maUeolus* 

Plin. N. H. 1. 17. c. XI. ^nd 1. 17. c. 10. 
Tnvitatu. Poft autem Invitatu tuo mittendum duxerim, Cic. 

Fam. L. 7. Ep. jr. 
Le£lu, from Lego to chooie. Tutor Treverorum cofias re- 

centi Vangionnm LeBu auBdi fi rmabdt^ 

Tac. Hift. 1. 4. p. 660. 
Licigatu. Quanquam in hoc Litigatu quodammodo tibi iffa 

excidifti. Quintil. Decl. 6. p. 76.- 
Locutu. Cum hAc Locutu me fubigit ut amenu Plaut. 

Mil. Ac. 4. So. 2. . . 

Ma6latu. Nubendi tempore in ipfo 

Hoftia concideraty MaBatu mafta parenti. Lucr. 
1. I; p« 4* ^^^ conjy derate as Stephens cites 

Miflu, IS common in the Ablative for the A6k of Send- 
ing, and is found in no other Ca(e in that Senfe. 
Balbus ad me venit currens ad Cof, MiJJu Cafaris. Cic. 
ad At. L. 8. Ep. 9 BruBeros L* Stertinius Mijfu 
Germanici fudit, Tac. An* I. p« 49. SHetonivs h^s 
Miffus in the Accufative Plural, in the Life of 
Claudius and Domitianusy but there it fignifies feve- 
ral Sets of Gladiators lent into the Lifts. Lampri* 
dius ufes it alfo in the Nominative Plural, but then 
it fignifies Services of Meat. 

Mul£lu. Sed horui(n funt difcrimina quadam^ (^ a partio- 
nibusy e? a pecudum naturiy (3 ^ }dulBu. Varr. R. 
R. 1« X. c. 1 1. 



X 



Of Sufines. 3^1 

Objcfhij IS common in this Cafe, and Robert Stephens di- 
ftinguiflies it not from thefe other Words, which 
have only the Ablative, though he puts them down 
in the Nominative al(b ; but Tacitus has Hi mclium 
ObjeBHs^ hifcaphas fcanderc. An. 14* p. 347. And 
Statiui has 

Port arum OhjeRns minuunt. Theb. 10. V. yxi* 

Obfervatu. Ex Obfervatu Jicuntj eum equum habere anms 
fcdecim* Varr.R.R.i. x* c 7. 

Obtentu. ExtruElofque toros Obtentu frondis inumbrantk 
Virg. iEn. 11. p. 330. But then it has alio the* 
Dative, as, Sed clariras natal tumy (^ tnetus temper um 
Obtcntuiy ut quod fegnitia crat^ fapicntia vocereturi 
Tac. Hift. 1, 1, p. 471. 

Obtreftatu. jEquum ejfe futo, ut fine ObtreEiatu confide-^ 
rent^ Agel. 1. 20. c. 10. 

Ofienfil. Sinca qu<£ fruBus cumque es fericre frofufa^ 

Vitaque in Offenfu eft : Cur amplius addere qu(Zris* 
Lucr. 1. g.p 90. 

Oppofituj is uled by AgclUus with the Government of a 
Genitive Cafe, Quern fol Oppofitu circum und/que ali" 
arum medium nunquam illuftraret^ I 4. c, y. Bjt there* 
is found alfo Oppofitus in Cicero '^ as, Non modo excu- 
bid$ (3 cufiodiasj fed etiam laternm mftrorum Oppcfnus^ 
& corporum pollicemur* Cic. pro M. Marcel. 

Opprcflu. Narn quid in Opprejfu valid durabit eorum* 
Lucr. ], I. p. 24,' 

Oratu. Illarum Oratu faciunt. Plaut. Caf Ac. 4. Sc. i. 

Peccatu. Nemo ita in manifefto Pcccatu tenebatur-y ut^ &c* 
Cic. apud Agel. 1. 15. p. 300. 

Percu0u. Spftfyuitaj (^ Percufflt vitiata fimo aprugno cu* 

rant, Plin. N.H. 1. i8. c. 17. L 7. c. 5^. 
Perflatu. Vlmus in Perflatu firma^ Plin. N. H. 1. 1 6. c. 40. 
But then Columella has Perflatus in the Accufativc 
Plural J as, Quantoque fuerit adificii folum pronius ori* 
entif tanto (^ djlate libcriw capere Perflatus^ ^ hycmn 
frocellK minus infeflariy 1. !• C. y* 

A a a Periiiafu. 



j62 Of Sufines. 

Perfuafu. Oftio vohis ddtur^ utrum velitis cafu illo itinere 
Vnrenum ufum ejji^ an hujus Perfuafuy ^ induElu. 
QpintiLl. y.c. lo. 
Pctitu, is found In the Ablative, and governing a Geni- 
tive Cafe, ^yConfenfu^Petituqueomniutn^ Agel. I.18. 
c. 3. But then Lucretius has Fetitus in the Nomina- 
tive Singular ; as, 

Attamcn infequitur languor^ tcrraque Fetitus 
Suavisj (3 in terra mentis qui gignitur djius. JL J. 

p. 68. 
Pofitu, is often ulcd in the Ablative, and not in the com* 
mon Conftruftion of a Supine, that is not governed 
of an Ad]e6Hve5 as, 
Kam dubium eft meliHs Pofitu^ defenfa manuve 
Vrbs ernt. Ov. de Pont. L. 4. El. 7. AgeL 1. 4. 
c. 17. 
But then Tacitus has, llle Pofitiis fiderum ac fpntia di- 
mevjus, An. 6. p. ax4» So Celfus 1. 8. 
Poftulatu. Cum res peragi intra farietes nequijjet^ ven^ 
turn in jus efty Pcftulatu audito matrisy tutorumqucy 
Liv. Dec. 1.1. 5. 
Prxparatu. Namque in Vrafaratu ret ruftie^y fer temper 
ftates fluviasy ^uoniam otium efty maturari foteft, 
Agel. 1. 1 o. c« 1 1 . And 1 know no other Cafe of 
this Word, though Paratus the Simple be Com- 
mon. 
Prxtentatu. Coehlets Oculorum vicem cornicula Una Prdt" 

tentatu imflent, Plin. N. H. 1. 1 1, c. 37. 
Prccatu, is ufcd aWb in this fort of Conftru6lion j as, 
Irfeftare juvat manesy meritoque Precatu 
Pacem auferre rogisy Stat. Silv. yj Carm. %• So 
Theb, II. V. log; Achil. i. v. 144, But 
then the fame Author has, 
— — " ■ Hilares des oro Precatus 
Kojfe tuos. Tlieh. 8. v. 55a. 
Prefilu Lenitate vocisy at que ipfo oris Prejfii & fono facile 
vincat. Cic. de Or. 1. 3. p. ai. But then the (amc 
Author has, DepcHit Prejfum omncm fonderisy T. Q. 
.. L 2. p. 370. ' Promiffu, 



Of Sufims. 36J 

Promiflu. VUntefque farentes 

Fromijfuvit^ reereat. Manil. L J. p. 1 3 1. 

Pronunciatu* Numerus in verfuj ^ ratio in Pronunciatu 
manetj Agel. I. 4. c. 17- 

Provifu. Id veri egrcgium quod Provifu deum vidua junge* 
retur frincipi, Tac» AnMV p» ijl- Apti!>r fcrmone 
difpojjtu, Prcn)ifuq\ Tac Hid- 1. p. JOl* 

Quxlitu- Nilusfama inermi Quxfitu cognitusy Plin« N« Irl* 

J. y. c» 9« 

Quaflu. Nam attreBatu (3 QuaJJu Jdvum ampHficatis dolo* 

renii Cic* ex Pacuv. T« Q: 1* ^• 
Recuflu* Qu£ prihs ex longo nocuerunt miff a ^ccujfuy Lucr, 

^•3* P* "/^^"^^rabic^ exceliunt candor e circuli — wf J- 

in [{ecujfu gemmky neq\ in dcjeBu renitentcy Plin* N, 

H-l« 37« c. 6* 
Redltani* Ancipitiqyl{efutatu convincere falfumy Lucr*I J* 

P78. 

Rdatu. Quidam incrcdihiUum Helatu commendationem pa* 
ranty Sen. N. Q: 1. 7. c. 16. Neq, enim I{cIa'u vir* 
tutum — opus efty Tao Hift- i« p» 46c. and others. 

Reptatu* Alia improho Heptatu atria media complenteSyVlm, 
N. H« 14* c. I 

Repulfu- ■ Tamen ajfiduo crehroq'y Hepulfuy 

t^efeBa reddunt fpeculorum ex aquorc vifumy Lucr.L»4« 
p- 98. Plin. N. H. I. !• C.43. But then Claudian has 
J^aucufqi Repulfusy Bell* Gild. 

Refperfii* t{e/perfufinnarum hoftem ob/kcantesy Plin. N»H 
!• io» o 3* 

Reipiratu. Pulmones tum fc contrakunt afpir^mtesy turn in 
B^fpiratu dilatant* , This is the only Cafe I have 
found of this word, but from another G)mpound 
there is found Sufpiratibusy Ov. Met* !• i. p 29^ 

Sciflii. Is cited by Calepine and Stcphensy out oiVarrcf^Scifi 
fu materia fatigatm quiefccbat in leRulo» But lieither 
of them (ay where* 

ScitU* Neq'y fopuli jujfuy neq'yplebis ScitUy Cic* ad At« !• 4. 

£p* z* 

A a a X Scriptu. 



3^4 Of Sufines^ 

ScriptU. DicitUY tabulas fcfuijfc^ (3 Scriftu fcfe abdicaffhf 

Age], 1- 6» c- 9. 
Speculatu* Feles quam occuho Spcculatu in tnufculos exiliunt^ 

Plin.N-H.l- 10- ۥ 73. 

Spiratu. ■ ExfpiratUy atque anhelitu 

Nebula conjiat. Plaut- Ampb. Ac* I. Sc. I. 

Stipulatu. Jovis deorum fummi Snpulatu* P/iw;', as quoted 
by Stephens, but without naming the Place. Biit 
Qusntllian has It, Decl. ix. p. 147. Ex Sti- 
pulatu, 

f Alt' 

Sponfu- Qui ftipulabatur ex Spon/u agebat, Agel- !• 4» C.4. 

Cic. ad At- !• ix* Ep* 19. 
Spumatu, - ftf''^?? anguis abundat 

Spumatuy Stat. Sylv* i-Soter* pro Rub* Gall* 
Suafu may feem to belong to this Rule, by that of Plautm. 
Ne temere te emijfe dicas Sua/uy atque impulfu meo, 

PerCAc*4, Sc-4. 
But then Terence has, Ob fuafum nteum, Phornj. 
Ac- y Sc. I . 
Suba£l;u. OptimUm frumentum in SubaBu congium aqu.e 

capit, Plin* N. H- 1- 1 8, c» J* 
Subjectu* Inhibet fotuj vel fuj^tu, v^l SubjeBuj Plin. N. 

H- 1. x6* o 1 5:* 

3ubftratu. Saffith atque Subfiratu fugant venata, PHn. N. 

H. If 24* c» 9. 1. 1 8* c go* 

Subvectu. Inerant militesj (£ proviji ante commeatus : quo- 
rum SubveBu pauci avidius frogrejjtj (3 repentinis ho^ 
fiibus circumventi, Xac. An- If* p* 383. 

Suctu. Ab its diebus refidunt^ac priorum pedum SuHu vivunt, 

PHn. N.H. 1. 8. c* 36. I. 9. Q go- 1. a8- c» 3* 

Sufpectu. Facta ejus, dictaque quanto meruit SufpcBu cele* 

bramm^ Sen* Confi ad» Marc. 
Tortu is thus quoted by Gc« Divl* 2« out of a Poet, but 

then Virgil has, 

N(? quicquam longos fugiens dat corpore T!6rtus,IEx\,^y 
Xritu» Lapidum conflictu, atq, Tritu elici ignem videmus 

Cic- N. D» l»i. p* 60 f plin- N« H-1* 3- c- 4v 

Vcrberatu^ 



Of Siffimt. jtfj 

Verberatu; Aut c fublimi dejecta, i« e. aqua Verier atu cor* 
rifiat aera, Plin. N- H. 1. :^i. c. 3. PropcmodHm tuo 
Vcrbtratu, !• e. tuo impulfa ///r/r-y/iw//;, Curt. I. 7. 

Vinctu. Pcndere aut fuyiiculo, aut ViriCtUy qucd antlqui vtr 
c^snt cejlum^ Var. R- R- l« c 8. 

Volutatu* Multum pulvcran Volutntu collectum tn/idens cor^ 
nibus excutit in Qculos, Plin. N-H* 1' ic c. 4. 

By thfs, and what xAgelliw lays, 1. 13. c. 19. as before, T think it 
is plain that the Latins had Nomis of this Formation from almoib 
all Verbs, and that Supines are nothing but the remaining Cafes 
of thofe Nouns, unlels we will fuppofe, that they are different 
Parts of Speech when they have different ConftruaionS) namely, 
that the Btfi Supine is a Verbal Participle, as this Grammar calls 
it, when it governs an Accufative Cafe, and a Noun when it go-* 
yems a Genitive, or has any other Nominal Conilrutf^ion ; ami 
then tbt Verbal; in io, muft aUb he Verbal Participlef, w^en they 

govern 4B the Verbs they come from, as Curatio or Pa^io banc remjxdm 
hich no Sody ever thought of. But however this be, this Cran^r 
'jB(ur is never to be excuiea for not adding thefe of this Liil 'z% 
ltSL§t to the Catalogue of Monoftotts^ Ijiftotef^ or Tnptotex^ accord" 
jBg to the Number of Cafes which they are found to have : Of 
vmch ilfo ibme are found in the Dative, l^ojflus reckons among 
the(e oirbitruiuiy Derlfui^ Defpicatui, Frujiratmy Irrifui^ JLudificutui, 
Ikiide which there are ^ICoindutui, nip cA^ ^uam ludutmgt>chat Vtftc 
drteKgtret^ Tac. An. i^.p. 426. Oiteutui. as hcforcin ^btcutu, Ofien^ 
tm, yiveirt jubtf Ofientui cUmentidt Jm, Id. An. 12. p. 276. and elfe« 
where. He acknowledges %ArhitrAtum^ as well as %Arhitratu frojn 
fUut, %Amfh. Ac. i. Sc. i. but the fame Author has UrbisratUiS aUb } 

Mtm tArbitratm t^ lingua, qucd juret men^ Perf. Ac. 5. Sc. 2. 

^Md^ficiUuil do not find in thefe Authors. As for the reil:, Derifui 
is found in Tac. Vit. Agr. p. 742. Irrifuiy Tac. Hill. 1. 11. C«C 
BeiU Civ. 1. 2. Defpicatui, trufrratui^ Plaut. Menaich. Ac. 4. Sc. 3. 



r 



Of 



(?<56) 



Of the Paradigm of Verbal 

Formations. 

Animadversion CXX V I . 



THE manner of defcribing thcfc Formations in this Gram- 
mar, is very obfcure, and fuch as Children are a long time 
before they come to underftand ; the lirft Pcrfon in each 
Tenfe only being generally put down at length, and for the refl, 
only the ending, without any Direction how much of the lirft 
Perfon muft be carried to it, to make up the whole Word. I al- 
ways found Children at a great lofs in this matter, and feveral 
School-Mafters have wrote ^to me to prevent the perpetual Vexati- 
on they find upon this account. I^ow all this trouble would be, if 
not wholly avoided, yet greatly eafed, and much Shortened both 
to Mafler and Scholar^ by fuch a Draueht of the Verbal Formati' 
ons, as would difliii^uifh the Body of the Verb, or that which fig- 
nifies the thing Predicated (which is one throughout the Verb, and 
^erefore never alter'd, but fometimes in the Preterperfc<ft Tenfe, 
to diftingui(h it from the Prefent)from the other parts of it,which 
are but io many Accommodations of the Signification of the Verb 
to Mood, Tenfe, Number, and Perfon : And if the Difference be- 
tween the A(f^ive, and Paflive, were fo reprefented, as to be feen at 
one View. For an Example of this, take the following Draught, 
where the Adive Voice is feen at length in a larger Charadler, and 
thofe Interfertions, Changes, and Additions, which will make k 
Paflive (except in the Preterperfed Tenfe, and th<^c derived from 
it, which are made Paffive by the Participle in »/, and thi Verb 
fum) are fet over in a fmaUer Letter. 



Of 



\ 



^'''^- Am 
Doc c 
Leg 
Aud 1 



o^ Am a '^^ * s 

o'' Doc e '^ s 

o'' Leg f^ i s 

o*" Aud i '* 8 



S:>:z- Am aba m Am aba'» s 




Aud iveri m Aud iVeri 



Shig, Am avilTe m 

Doc uiffe m 

Leg ifle m 

Aud ivifle m 



Am avifl 
Doc uiflTe 
Leg ifle 
Aud iviflj 



Slfjg. Am aver o 

Doc uer o 

Leg er o 

Aud ivcr o 



Am aveif 
Doc ueri' 
Leg eri ; 
Aud iv^erj 



^^""S- 1 Am a '•^l 
2 Doc e ^^\ 



X Leg e ''*' 
z Aud I '-'^ 



The Fourth Conjugation had anc 
amples in PUutw^ and fbme remains 
been queftioned by many Grammar 
for diftindion fake, betwixt the Imj 
Sc, 2. Fa^o opere arbitraminor. And ', 

The Advantages of this Draught <i 
the Termination of both Voices, thd 
but the InfertiotV) cuu oft ^Ssosyi^ 
by heart, where tViey a^gf^geac xoYoxo. 



(?«7) 



Of the Formation of the Preter- 
perfe6l Tenfe in Simple 
Verbs. 



A 



Of the FIrft Conjugation. 

Grammar^ Lat. ^. 46. 

S in fr^efenti perfeflum format in avi, 8cc. 
Deme Uvo Uvif (^c* ! {aro hac formnnttir in 

avi. 



Animadversion CXXVII. 



FRom this Rule, ;ts it is here given, muft be underftood that 
all thefe excepted Verbs ma&e the Preterperfe^ Tenfe com- 
monly in «i, but yet fometimes, though rarely in av'u But 
this is utterly faife, for Crefo^ Frico^ .T^vo, Lavoy Micoy NexOy Plico^ 
Secoy SonOy iVo, TonOy never make 4vt in the Simple form ; nay 
fticQ has neither Plicuiy nor Plicaviy that I can find ^ out from Flica" 
ti9y fticatiltgy Plicnturay I fuppofe rather Plicuvi, And Ktco maJces 
Necinn always, but in Bnnius» 

Hqs pefiis Necuity pars occidit iUa dutllis. 

And once in Phsdrusy 

Vt refeSfa efly necuit hominem frotinus* Dc Homine & C«- 
lubra L. 4- Fab. i8. 

^MO indeed has Domavi in F/orw/, 1. 4. c. 2.— -and Cuba Cubaffe in 
iluintUUn^\,9.c, i. .I'rtohas not only l^etavi^ which rq^«/ quotes 
out ofPerfiusy with fome uncertainty (for he fays for l^etavtt fomc 
Books have Kotuvit) but in Cicero aifo, as Gr^vius has publiflied 

him, 2i*od C, Catium ad me in conj iSfum venire Vetaveram^ Fam. L. lo. 

£p. 24. iot which alfo fomc Books have Vetuentm. But for the reft, 
they none of them make the Preterperfe<ft in uvi, whatever they 
maybe fuppos'd to have done formerly by their Participles in musy 



f 



^68 Of the FoTfnution 



and atufus^ or their Compounds in <*vi, of each of which I Aall 
ipealc ID the proper place : Only Ntco as I have faid, conftantly 
makes N-^-uvi^ except as above"^cxcepted. And becaufe this is a 
thing, which I find the generality oi Grammarians averife to be- 
lieve, as well as others, and amongft them fome School^Maftets al- 
fo, and I hat Mr. Leeds lays no more upon AVro Necui in this place^ 
than NeCavi i>.'Jk>€t Cueroin ^,nrem^ by which one would be iiKlucctil tol^ 
believe, that l^rcavi were cxtraorairiary, ^d Ifecm the comnien 
Pretcrperfc<ft, I fhall give fuch a Plenty of Examples, as lliall put 
this matter out of doubt. 

Nccavl, N-im in {imnatum necafli^ Ad. Her. 1. 4. p, 29* Mdtrem ne^ 
cjjfe. Ad Her. 1. i.p. 4, j^<i Purimtm nec^vtty Cic. dfe Juven. 
1. 2. p. 61 . i2:^t piuennm ntcajjety Cic. Or. pro Sext. Rof, Am. 
p. 234. Qs*i *-i^i^ nfcufet undt iyff natiu "j/ir, Cic. pro Scxt, Rof, 
p. 234. i^os partim fecuri fercuffit^ farttnt in vincuOs necavit , Cic 
in Ver. I. 3. p. 2^i. ^»m tot homiius innocenteis necavit^ Cic. ill 
Ver. 1. 3. p. 2<^2. Fatir tuuf non nutnifcfle neravi/ ? Cic. pro A. 
Clu p. 401. ^*i %Avunculum filii fui in Servitute ac vinctUis necu" 
rity Ck. pro A. Clu, p. 411. Qn^ Aomejlicos bofteis ne ah its if fa, 
txecafctur nec<tvit^ Cic« Orat. pro P. Sylla, p. 48^. Pupiltof necw 
Tzf, Cic. Or. de Haruf. Ref. p. 529, Civeis quos necavit^ Cic, de 
Haruf. Kef. p. $31. Z'*^m necafli verUrihuSy Cic. in L. Pif.p.^03. 
£/<u inimicos necavi^ Cic. ad P. R. Ante quam iret in exilium 
p. 704. tAtque omnt fupplicio excercitutum ntcuvit^ Cic. pro L. 
Man. p. 33. Iliig-itum in macbina VigiUndo mcaverunt^ Cic. in 
Lr. Pil. p. 270. !lll*i putris ulfcifcendi caufa matrem necavijftty Cic. 
pro T. An. Mil. p. 305. Nifi forte rn^is erit farncida^ ft quis 
confulunm putrem quum ft quit bumilem ntcaverit .<* Cic. pro Mil, 
p . 3 1 1 . tjiqui "Rrgtm^ quo J nunquam antea apud eos audicrat necavf 
runt^ Cic. Oif. 1. 2. p. 96, tAccepn^ obtutam armis ntcaverey Liv, 
D. I. L. I. Sunt qui firunt eum verberujfe^ & ^^-^t Liv. P.I.L2* 
2ft qui hominem necaverit^ Liv. D. 1. 1. 3* Si tjuis ntcajjet civem 
Rjonutnunty Liv. D. X. 1. lO. Pir cruciaium & ad contustuiUm neca^ 
vcYimuSy Liv, D. 3. L 6, lAifuram odiQ cnicavity Plauc* A£fl« 
Ac, 5. Sc. 2. . Poit bercule^ in t^ iliam pcjfumis extmpli entcaffo^ 
Plaut. Moll. Ac. X. Sc. 3. Hofpus necavit hofpitem cajptum manu^ 
Plaut. Moft. Ac. 2. Sc. 2, ^i patvif ulfcifcendi caufoy matrem ne* 
cuvij'et^ QiiinC. Inft. 1. 5. c. 1 1. *Ad quern velut renutjie pAore con* 
ttntione V(ni<. vus^ an perinde punifi debeat ac fi virUm veneno necaffet^ 
Qiiinc. InfV. I. 7. c. 8 , 2ithfilium impudicum cognita domi caufa ne» 
ravitl Quint. Dec. 3, ' in asree enecavtmus^ Calp. Flac Dec 13. 
Et JudLutus hojlef fame necavit^ Suet. V it. Tib. C. 54. xMium pue^ 
rum »cum undoficT J\f*&u3 necavijfet Dtlphwus ad terrain revexitj 

Solin. c, 22. p. 229. K/ilter vcro monitu eorum <pn domum profecuti 
it ant Itoncm mvfum ni'cuvit^ Solin, C. 25. p. 233. jg«t filium fuum^ 
quod cont/a funm di^um in hoftem pugnavtraty Jecuri neCavity Agel* 
1. 1 7. c. 2 1 . Et in catcere yeneno necavit^ Agell. 1. 1 7. C* 2 1* 

^e hciii Saltern eaptivam lege necaffcs, Yirg. Ceir. p* 430* 

Tatte Neptuno genifum necavit. Sen. Med. Chor. 2» I^o» it^ato 
tanrumy verum etwn & crudAi animo necavefunty J^£t'm, .1. 2t; 
p. 2^0, gum^ue fitrricidaii vcnm9 f»rc«vtr, Juftia; 1* 37. {U 228. 



of thi Preterferfe^ Tenfe. ^6p 

Sij^f illi • murif oB injurias tortos necuverunt^ Q. Curt. 1. 4. p. 95. 
j^rm tuorum protinquorum necuvi ? Quint. Curt. I. 4. p. 104. ///t 
utfidem fuamjavttid rr^i approbarent^ excrucUtos niJAVtrunt, Quint. 
1. 8. p. 302. 

llUfi Turhido ^emirios in ventre necaffet^ Ov. Am. EL I4« 



I 



- Vffigio ptcum morfu fuo in confpc&u finatuf nec4tifity Val.MaX. 
J. 5. C. 5. £tidm ipfdfti puelUm necavitj Val. Max. 1. 6, ex. 
jgy4 viros fuos vemno ntcuverant^ Val. Max. 1. 6, C. 3. Ut 

continuo tra^u Moris necaverunt^ Val. Max. 1. 9. C 2. Fartimferro 

Cariimfldmmd necavity Val. Max. I.9. c. 2. %Arims chmt^m neca, 
it^ Val. Max. I, ^. C. ^. JBr quiiem a ptdcberrima Vt^briA ifenit^n^ 
tes capitati judicio exceptor nefovit^ Val. Max. 1. p. C. 8. %Aiterum 

'Trii^mUrum ferro necaVeraty Sal. Bel. Jug. p. 161. £«f/» 

euhiem mox diJcriUiatum nccajjet^ Suct. Aug. c. 14. Cujus 
tanta fmt apud antiques Veneratio^ ut tarn capitnU ejftt hovcnt rtecajfe 
quim civemy Colum. R.R. \,6» Prooem. £^*od pur ilium vfntHo nc 
cajfety Suet. Gal. C. 9*Ipftfc necavlt^ 1i> gin. Fab. 4. Dracones 
duos duabuf maniims necavit^ Hygin. Fab. 30. %^mvhrifo necavity 
Hygin* Fab. 130. Lycaonit fiUos fulmine necavit, Hygin, Fab, 

Now who Would think, after all this, that Farnahy alfo iliouM 
content himftlf with laying by way of Note upon M-ro Kecui 
NeStum in the Body of his Rule, ^ Secavi^ Cic. i. in Vcrr. tr St^ 
neca fn lAedtky as if it w6re found no where clfe. 

Of the Second Conjugation. 

fgrviOy which is faid here to make Vervi^ is not found in the Prefer- 
pcrfe^ Simple in thcfe Authors. As for the Compounds, 
i*liny in his Epiftles has Defervijftty but Dcferhmt is more com- 
mon, likewjfe Efferhutt^ Conferluit^ as ybjfius obfervcs. 

Jld^ is found to have Kubuvty or llubivl according to fomc, in 

fUUtUSy 

Mquidem bercle nullum ferdidiy qm>i nullum unquam. k^iluviy 

Piaut. Af. Ac. 3. Sc. 3. 
Si forte pure veljie btihere dixnity 
Tot reddat fpurcaSy quot puras hahavtrit, Id, Af. Ac. 4. 

Sc. I. 

^Oy which is faid here to make Icvi, is not found in the Simple in 
thefe Authors, except it be in the Preterperfecft, which *tis 
more reaibnable to fuppofe comes from. this antiquated Verb, 
rather than from Linoy s^ this Grammar would AiggeH: by 
jLino Leviy in the Third Conjugation. 

fUoy faid here to make Flevi^ is no where read in thefc Authors, 
w» Fkp neither. 



Bbb Qf 

r 



J 7P Of the Format h^ 

Of the Third Qjnjugation. 

'Jht account this Grammar gives of the Formation of the Pre- 
terpcrfcifl Tcnfe in this Conjugation, is not to be depended on. 
7*here are fome Sli£):akes alfo of others in this matter, \yhich I 
ifiaJI endeavour to clear aJl together in the following £xamina- 
f ion, 

v^»?jOj which yoJfiM (ays, has no Prcterperfccft, is found to have it 
'^ni4geUmy of whom he fays in another Cafe^ that he would 
not have ufcd any Word without the Authority of the Anci- 
ents. However tnat be^ his Authority is enoush for us, efpe- 
ciaJly when it is to fupply a Dqfc<ft of fomething neceflary. 
He fays therefore, Enque res .in fine quoque vif* ipjit animum ejw 
tAnxityl, I, C.3, 

<Jf//o, which this Qramma^ fa) f, makeCVftt/i, is no Nyhcre Ibund in 
thefe Authors, nor in any now extant, is I bl^lieve, but in- 
ftead of it Pcrcello Perculi 

Incejjo has Incejfuiy as well as Incejfivi ; as, Objurgiitione jujia Incejfuity 
Agel. 1. 1, c. 2. 

>m 

^ „, ., _ , though foUn J in the 

Author to Herennius^ Rem ubi Fi^unt. orutionf P^^wwf, 1, 2. p. 9, 
It is like the Word fignified primarily to F<t/!r», and was tran- 
ilated to this Senfe,bccaufe Bargains faften the Bargainers to the 
Terms agreed on, and to this at laft it was appropriated. But 
Fango retains only the primary Signification, namely, that of 
faftening or joyning together, and partici^larjy of Planting or 
Setting m the Ground. Lex vetufta. efi )r/ifiis Uteris verbifque de^ 
jfcripta^ ut qui Prdtor' mixintus fit^ Ic^ihus feptembribw cUvum Pangat, 
fixus fuit dextro Uteri adis Jovis^ Opt, Max.hlv, 1. 7. And in 
this Senfe it makes Pc^t ; as, Kequiri pUcere terminoSy qi*Bs Shcrtt- 

ferPegerit^ Cic 1. ($. 1. 1 . p. go 5. This I take to be the tru^ 
reading, as Vofjii^s reads it, and not Pepigerit as Stephens, From 
be«ce ^tis eafie to fee how it came alfo to fignifie to Write or 
Compofc, namely, becaufe What' was written, was iix'd, or as 
jt were Planted in the Wax Tables they ufcd in Writing, But 
that it ever fienifies to Sing, as this Grammar will have it, 
there is no* Authority. For although it be nfed of Compofi^ 
^ions in Vcrfc, as. 




Mir A poemxta Pa^fjo, Hor. de Art, 



Yet that is with rcfix^ to the eompofing or putting together, 
6r the manner of writing- ill thofe Days^ forafmucli' as "it is 
lifed alfo of Compoiitions in Profe ; as, 'An'«/i»7«, qus tibi 
uni le^ammsy Thecp^mfomo ^entre^aut etiam ifperiwreynMito Tdt^en^ 
tur^ Cic. ad At. 1. 2. £p. 6. Pan^o therefore and Pdntifor^an^ 
^nd Cecini, are meer Inventions of this Author. The latter 
^ (ov^nd indeed froi^a fan^9 to Plant, or f «ft«i in th« Ground j 



t4 » 



of the Preterperfe^ Tinje. ^yt 

aS) Ncviffima fofitio efl^ qUaris taUd^ eamque oporttt cum PunxerU^ 

fimo & cinere mtftit Mnire^ Colunl. 1. 1 1, c. 2. 
farcB^ inde^ has. Peperd and Parfi^ but this latter fo rarely, that 

ii i$ not fit to ftand in a Rule, as it does here, without thaC 

diftin^ion. 
i^lrio has Parti alfb, according to fome Copies, of Cuto de R. R« For 

there is to be read GaUinaf teneras^ qudt primum Purierint^ conclu^ 

dat^ c. 89. for which iome Copies have Parient,- 
Pendb has not only Pepenii^ but Ptndi alfo without Regcmination, 

but I know but one Example of it, namely, VvSti^d dimidium 

ejuf quod rep Pendijfenty Liv. Dec. j. 1. 5, 
Pinfo^ faid here to make Pinfui only, has alfo Pinfi at leafl once in 

I'ioTo, Z/Vitm pajfam cum Pinferunty affundunt /xfi, R. R. 1, 5. 

c. i6* 
Poiio feems to have had Pofivi anciently, as appears by TUutut, in 

th$ uie of the Compounds, of which I ihall fpeak when I 

Come to Compounds. 
Premo has Prfmi once in Turo, Vhi furores veCHhus Premerinty cdpuUtor 

comcba oUum^ (juam diligentijjimi potcrit, tolUt^ tietjue ccjfcty R. R^ 

c. 66, 
Prtfndo for Prehendo is alfo found to have Prendidi^ as well as Prendt^ 

once in Sil, 

¥nt UthmH cuicunque vir6, i^Hem Pfendidity Utus^ L* ij* 
p. 245* 

Xtf/90 has Piapfi-i but then it is in the Old Law of the Twelve Ta- 
bles. Sacrum fMrrive commendutum qui clepftrity RapferitqtfCf fur* 
ricida efloy Cic. Leg. 1. 2. p. 328. 

Tendo makes Tendi fometimes without Regcmination, namely^ 

once in Properuus^ once in Scnec* 

2ut nojlfo TenJifti rttU h^o^ Propert. L. 3. El, ?• 

£/ ^a pUtM rates curhaf* Tender ant 

IntQn/ts ttritur femiu Sarmatis. Sen* Hen Fur. Chor, 2. 

Vddoy (aid here to make yafi, is hardly found to have it but hi 
Compofition. The only place quoted by Grammarians for 
it, is that of Martial, 

Zonular undecimi notnsy decimique libeUi 
OlrStatus Ubor f/l, & bene Fafit epufy L. 22. Ep. $• 
But here many read Kafit. 

Of the Fourth Conjugation. 

Of thefe Verbs, Camhio with its Preterperfe<|l, is out of life, and 
ft4»Wo Kaufi Simple is hardly found. Cicero in his Book de Oratore^ksA 
tnrmcuerity for \^idi Pr'tfcian reads Irrauferit. 
Wm alfo is no where read,that I know of/rom Salio to I/tff»,thoiigh 

Ac Compound DefiUvit be in PUutusy as I ihall ihcw in Com<» 

poujuis, llreti indeed ufcs the ContraAion i'ii/frrf. 



}J2 Qf the FarmAtion 

.V i09i SMlifre fer utus. Georg. 2. V. jaf . 

Kor yet S,orci\ny t^mtrivi, Sanc'tyi^ as it fhould havt been wrote ; 
for as for SAnxiy'x doubtlefs there is no fach Word. 

Scnio fhould have beep added to the Irregulars of this Conjugati- 
on \ for it makes S^u^ in the Pretecperfed^ not Xortvi, though 
among all (heOrammarians^I know none that take notice of ic. 

Si bene Sarfirisy aut bene Mlti^diferit, Cat. C. 3. 

So Tjli SAxferii in the fame Chapter* 



Of the Formation of the Preter- 
perfe<9: i« Compound Verbs. 



P 



Grammar Lat. f, 49. 
^fteritum cUt idem fimflexj £^c. 



Animadversion CXXVIIL 



T 



His Rule is partly falfc, partly dpfed^ive. There are ibme 
Miftakes alio of others in this matt$i/. I ihaijexamin them 
together. 

CellQ is faid by Mr. Leeds to make Qnlfy in the Compound Perceihy 
for which he refers to Ter, olndfs ifuppoie theiPUcAis.v^. i. 
Sc,:, 

PauJ/U illico unimutn, as it is in my Book and many others, 
of which he fhould have warn'd his Reader, and not have de- 
livered a difputable thing, for certain. BeHde his Book bear- 
ing the Titleof KftjTrtM rQ«fr4^;«/, and ^<#««.faying no fuch thing, 
hi; ihouldh^ve diftip^uifk'd his own (>pinion) 'whore' he dil- 
Tered from that of his Author, which is bu^ a neeeil^py peioe 
of Juftioe both to the World a:nd the Author, in t^e who 
Abridgthc. Wpxks^f others. ' RJnrf, Sfepkfn^ quotes. ^ctMt 
Oiit osTactiufy in^ens rerum tumuitsts ftrctiffit ciyi^Me/f^ j^t hf 

mi^9l lyp pUce^ and I cannot jB^d it*. 

Cref'9 



of the Prefer perfeii Tenfe. g 7 j 

Crefo in the Compound Difcrefo ms^^cs Crefavi commonly, as fi ^1 
til re Difcrepavit ab ^Amtonii dhijione noftra furtitio^ Cic. de Or A. 3. 
p. 49« and rarely Crepui ^ as, 

SortUtgis nom Difcrefuif finUntia DtlfhU^ Hor. dc Art. 
Jncrttfo makes Increfui commonly, but not chat only, xilToJJiut 

^t v§$€ves t» ^0^ injigmficatiime^ I, e. objurgandi, Jfw/Jcr !«- 
crefui & Increfttum dtcunt : for Mautm has, 

Nnn^md Incrtpavit filmm ? MoB:. Ac* J, Sc, 2. 

Oii'ra 18 i^id here to loole the gemination of the diifl: Sylfabk in all 
its Compounds, befjde Excurro and Pr^ecurro. But neither is 
cucurri read always in both thefe, neither are they the only in 
which it is read. Robert S$nfhgns quotes Fr^curnjh out of PUu- 
tm %Amfh, the place he names not, but the wordk are in «/2r. 2. 
' Sck 2. but otherwife than he quotes them, in my Book, and in 

th^t of Doufu Lugd, 3u favor urn I 5^4, 

Mie Citftits^ ^iMO. tute ah navi cUnculum alia Vi i. 
Pr^ecucurriftiy not Tr-Acurrifiu But for £xcurri there is that of 

Jnfine* l^omanos Bxcunerumty L. X- p. II. 
And thatof P/i^y, 

Cwm publicum oftts inch^fuifus in Thufcos Excwr^emy L, 3. Ep. 
Macrino. 
And as one of thefe two at kaft, which arc faid here to make 
cucwrif has curri alfo, of which this- Grainmar takes no No- 
tice, fo feveral other C^itpounds which are here excluded, 
xn^e cmurvu yojjxm upon this Head fays, Namoccuyro^ circuTn^ 
curroy difcurro^ incurro^ cccurro^ recurro^ fuccurro^ nondhm referi 
(km gemituttionc prs$erifu Mr* Leeds adds to ?racu¥ro^ and Excuv 
roy as having alfo Cucwrrt foiuetimes, decurvo^ procurroy concur 70, 
So that they both exclude xAccurro^ Occurros Prrcorro^ which yce 
all have ct4curri a\Co» But their miftafce^ as^ well as that of this 
Grammar, will appear by the foli'owifig Examples, oicctmo. 
Sef^tamen opinor fvopter pr/depfitcstAccucMfijpey Cic. ad At. L. 12. 
Ej^. 18. PntiU ante in condu8h»m,tAdcu€urrity PeCron. p. x 5, Vmu 
ex moyitiis fervulisftutim oidcucurrit^, Id* pi 3 34 ,Concurro, l^deo hue 
tempefhtte Concucurrijfe omnet adverfufiof, Cato in- Pifonem, as yknf" 
fiw quotes it, Juvenum munus mutuig i^ihus in fe Concucur/it, Flor, 
1. 4. C. 2. Decurro, Cafar ad cohortandos^ milit^s Decwrumty Gail^ 
BeJ. Gal. L i. p. 44-. P^^ Catadromum Decucurrity Suet, vic. Nc- 
ron. C. II. CujHS tttdioad- mwttm irrevocMi confjanua Decvrrity 
Plin. L. 3. Ep. 7« S©- Wj^quotes it. I^ut in my Book it is 
Decurrity and m fevcral^chers. Occurro, Otcuct^rrty atq^ inter pelloy 
Plant. Merc. Ac. l.Se. 2. Ptrcurro, xAmfliJfmoshonxnrvs Percucurrity 
Suet. Vit. Neron.c. 3. Cum omms regiones Qalli* togatx C^Jur Per^ 
cucurrilfety Caif. Bel. Gal, 1. I. p. 210. So PetronitUyp^ loj, 124, 
Procurro. Rt Jiferocim Procucurrijjfety Liv. 1. 20. as cited by Prifctan, 

Concredo is fuppofed to make Concredui from that of PUutus^ Caf. 
Ac. 2. Sc, 8« Omncm amorem Concredui, But he has Creduis fim- 
pie, tAmph, oir, 2. Sc, 2. and elfewhere. 

Z)« lA the Compoundu/ft/to»«/o does not only make Dt,as thisGram- 
mar fays, but didi alfo, not only in the Carbonaria o£ Piuu tut y out 
of which Prifci^n quotes it, SecundUm ipfam aram aurum oibfcondi- 
Jitj but alio in Siliu/, S»fcepit ^remioy vitreifti] ^Ahfconiidit antrtf^ 

\ 1.8, 



5^4 OftbeFormAnony &t. 

1. 8. p. 125. But it muft be confe(s'd %Ak{condit is the more fre- 
quent, nay I believe there is no other Example of %Al>fcondtdi, 
lacio in the other Compounds makes Uxiy but in Eluio only EUcui^ 

Vt qui poft loi^um ficcri monftrator iniqui 

EUcuit fluviat Vt^inu Cdfm aquaSy Ov. in lb. p. 972. 
Mico in the Compound Dimico moft commonly rnake^ micavi ; as, 
oic lie dncipiti quidem unqiamfortuni^,frMtcrquam his Dimtrovtr^Suet. 
Vit. Jul. c 35. Dimicui is found but twice that I know of, 
and that in Ovid only. 

Vt vincam^ toties Dmicuiffe pudety Amor. L. 2. £1. 7. 
Hac tibi fitp^gnA Ditnicuiffe fatis^ Id. lb. £1. 13. 
But Dmicitvi is at leaft abundantly more ufual, although 
DespJMtmm faySj Dicitur etUm & dimicaviy as if that were ex- 
traordinary. 

But Emico makes Emicui only^ fo that ^ntUUn Condemns 
thofe, who in his days u(ed Emicavity 1. 1. c« 6. 
Hecoy from the Compound Eneco^ forms Enecuiy but PUutuf has alfo 

Enecxvi twice, Moft. Ac. i. Sc. 3. Cal. Flac. Decl. 113. 
Ole9^ which is here faid to make Olevi in all the Compounds, except 
ReJoUo, and Suholeo^ ne^er malces other than Olui^ when the 
Compound iignifies to Smell ; as, Oboluifti allium^ Plaut. Moft. 
Ac. I. Sc. I* Oboluit marfupiumy Menaech. Ac. 2. Sc. 3. Oboluit 
Cafifia frocuU Caf. Ac. 4* Sc. 3« So it is in my Book, and that 
of Doufay Lugd. Bat. 1 5. ^4* But Robert Stephens quotes it, 
OboUvity which I can never approve of. Jf there be Authority 
for it, it is a fingle place. Suetomm has xAbduiHety Vit. Cal. 
c. 23. where (peaking of his putting StUnm to Death, he fays 
his Realbn was 2^od antidotum tAbolutjfety quafi nd frsctivenda Vf 
ne9M fitiifumptum. It will be heft therefore to ufe o/»i in the fig- 
nification ot Smellins, and dein in the other Senfe. 
MVo faid here to make flicui^ or plicayi indifferently, in the Com« 
pounds Explicoy and ReplicOy hardly ever makes plicui in the £0%* 
mer, when it fienifies to explain or interprety and never in the 
latter, as I can find* 
Stlio fimple has hardly ever Salivi'y 1 cannot find it, nor do any of 
the Grammarians quote it : yet from Defi'tOy VUutm forms De» 
filivi ; as, DeJUivit infcapbatny Rud. Ac. I. Sc. 2. 
Sio in the Compound Refto^ forms Reftaverit once in Propertitu ; as, 

Necfi poft StygiiU aliquid Reftayerit undMy L.2. ad Lync. p« 235* 
Circumfto alfb has Circumftetity Curt* L. ^. 
Tero in the Compound u4ttero forms %Atterui m TibuUw^ 
tAut operx infuetof %Attcruiffe m4»M, L* i* £!# 4* 



Of 



( in> 



Of the Change of Vowels in 

Compound Verhs, 

CrAmmar La^ f. yo, yx. 

VErba b^c fimplicia frajcntis pr<cteriti^y 
Si comfonantur^ vocalem primam in e mutant^ &c. 
Hac habeo^ lateo^ 6cc. Hcccfi componas^ 8cc, 

Animadversion CXXIX. 

THis is not a master of confequence enough for three lon^^ 
Rules, as what would be underftood in time without them. 
I ihall give what is obfervable upon the whole in one Cata- 
logue. 

Cano compounded with 06, is found to keep the Vowel, and to 
n^ake the Pretcrperfefft in m ; as, Jt^u MetfUi comldnes Occanu^ 
erunt^ Sal. Hift. 1. 1. p« 143. And it feem$ to me as if it were 
preferable to Occ'xm in this Senfe, becaufe Tacltm alfo ha^ Turn 
Sentitu Occanere cornua, tt*bafq\ ju/fit^ An. 2. p. 107. 

C4nto changes 4 into f, in the Compound Occento ; as, 

xAt tnim Hli no3-u Occentabunt oJHumy Plaut. Pers. Ac. 4, 
Sc. 4. and elfewhere. 

CioMido is faid here to lofe the a in Compofition, but there is no ne^ 
ce^ty to fuppofe that, iince there is cludo iimple, and thac fre- 
qqently. ConcUu£itf alfo is found in Colt*melUf 

EaAemq'y vrlut conclaufu & coAr^atafemina comprimere^ I.3.C, 1 2. 

D'tmno retains the a in one of its Compounds j namely, Pradumne, 

Ne dtJiitu^Cy ac Prdiamnart amicum exijiimaretur^ Suet. Aug. C. ^6^ 

Farcio is well known to make /crrio in all its Compound s.and there* 

fore this Author fhould have given it a place in this Rule, 
Frff cor alfo Compounded, makes /if for /irf/W, 
4fradior alfo changes a. iato e in all its Compounds. 
lUlo compounded with ex keeps 4, but in Jinhelo it changes it. 
Jmcio compounded with fufer Is alfo found without Change, 

Mt ^rborilws deUpft folU Superjaciebantur^ Colum .1. 2. C i. 
hl*ndo keeps its 4, in tAnumdo^^ FiocultAmandavit, Cic. N. D. 1. 2. 
fidanco is faid here to change its a into i, in the Compounds Emineo^ 
^ fmmiwoj frsmimo^ FroniiafOc But there is nothing more abfurd 



^j6 Of the Change ef Vowels^ &c. 

than to fuppofe thcfcVcrbs to be Compounded of AC<iifo,whicIi 
has nothing in its Signification to give the Icaft Countenance 
to iuch a Suppoiition. For what amnity is there between Ma- 
neo to ttarry^ and Promineo to jet or foint out ? or Emineo to excel, 
or primariiy to ftund out or ubove fomething ? It is more reafo- 
nable therefore to fuppofe they come fronlM/nco, found iixLu* 
crctiu4y and iignifying to fint fome certain way, 

Pr£tertM ventuf cum per loco. fiJlK<vd fetfd 

tonleQ-m parti ex %nm prBcumbity 6* ur^et 

Obnixus mJ^k fpeluitcas ^fiihi^tu «ft4i ; 

Incumhit tellm^ q»o venti prona premit vis : 

Turn fupera terram quafunt extruSfa domorum^ 

nAd cctlumtjf'f magis quanta funt edita quaif^ 

Jnclinata Minent in eandem proditu partem, \.6» p- l8^* 
And of like fignification with this isMtnor fignifying commonly 
to threaten by a Metonimy of the lign imply'd in this Poi^ure ; 
and fo I fancy Virgil ufes it in that of JEn. i* />. 9B. 

Hinc atq\ bine vafla rupes, geminique fmnanpft 

In cctlum fcopuli, 
rarco changes 4 into r, hi the Compound Comperjit ; as, 

Suum genium defrudans Comperjit mifer. Ten Phor. Ac. i. 

Sc.u 
rlaudo ihould have been of the Nusiberof thofe that change Vow- 

els in Compofition, becaufe of £jr/;Wo, rom^Wo, Supplodo: but 

with ad it has no change, as %Applaudo, 
Stdto does not change its # in all Campoonds, witnefs Syperfedk^y 

whkh is never otnc^wile, and circuimfedf: though th^e be alfo 

CircumjuUa inditferendy. Cum c^toUiui circumjederetttr^ Cic. ad 

At. 1. 14. Ep. 9. Circumfedes Confulem defgnatum, Cic. Fllil. 
13. p. 692, pompeium Circumfidety Cic. ad At. 1. 9. £p. 12. and 
£p. xB. And fo he elfewhere promifcuoufly, arid outers. 
Tr4tB-o keeps it Vowel in fertra&o, Rettaffo, Burbattdos muUof excep- 
tawtem de ptfiina, & Pertraifantetn, CjCf Parade ulrth (J^4Mtum 
tempwis retraStati^ Tiajan. Piin. 



I • • ■ - ' >«-i-- ,. 



Of 



fotHtdthitof Sitphis, ^^f 



Of the Formation of Supines, and 
Participles in us and urus. 



N 



Vnt tx frdterito difcas formare Sufinum^ (^c, 
Ccmjfcjitum utjimflexformdtur quod^ue Supnunif ^t. 



Animai>versioi4 CXXX. 

HEre are two long Rules about Supines, which yet very few 
V^rbs haVe \ artd it is meerly Arbitrary in the Gramma- 
rians to allow 6f Supines , which are never read in either 
nation, and yet to reim Cjlfes of Nouns, becaufe they ar« 
never read', when other Cafes, from whence they are regularly 
formed, are fbund frequently. And yet this they do, all their 
Uttles about Verbs that have no Supines, not containing one Tenth 
'part of thofe which really want than; that is, whofe Supines ari 
read in Roman Authors. But what Verbs have Supines^ and what 
have none, I fhall fay when I come to the Rule of H«c t^bt* out nun* 
^mam^ Scc In the meantime, bccaufe moft Verbs haue Participles 
in ut and urm^ in which the preceding part is the fame with that 
which is iuppoied to come before t*m in thefe fuppofed Supines, I 
ihall take thefe Rules for granted at prefent, meerly for the con« 
Ueiiiency of forminj^ thofe i^articiples. But even with this allow-* 
ance they cannot pafi without CorredioU) as will appear by what 
.£>ilowi. 

Ctmbio makes no Supine, nor any futfh Partieiple as Camjffus in thefe 

Authors. 
OUo makes neither Culfum nor Cnlfm. Neither is CeUo any Claffick 

word. 
Cenfto in Kecenfto makes Rfrn;/S»»t,;poflibly from the old Cenfire ofthd 

4tfa, as well as KecenfuSf gut Ktcenfiti non effemiy Suet. Vit. Jul. 

ۥ44. and others. 
Defff makes Dcpflus. Nifirati^ recenti mjuA Deffiafifni^CsLt.K^Ji* ^'^'i^* 
Do in %Abfco$tdo iJbfeonditut and iAbJc^nfiu, Iwvtmffes %jtbfeonfuin^ 

QuintiL De^ 17. p. 191. 
Vhcq in %Aiduco makes tAddrntmrns cb490^ MditahftMm AmfrM^ Plaur# 

fmc, Ac. T. Sc. 3. 



^7^ Form^im of S«fwf. 

f j-ci* mjikes F4rtBf and R»Ji.j. F« fsn-jnn rft. Sen. Ep. jS. and 
Cic. in Ver. VofC. whence fna-mficiffcci'ifuii, *r finiui, Co- 
luin, l.^de Arb. c sr. 

F'fm/to makes Fi'f/rM or Snfii, P-A», frt}Jj^ or Trtfi commonly. 

tVito in Bf//>«, Ktfritaiuru^ K^4(«-a vb/.w «,««, Cic. At. 1. n. 

£p. 13. Cacu!. Carm. 40' Infiuttui- Firfiutiu,, Plin, N. 
. H. 1. la. e, li. ^ . 
Cliih> fimple it h«fdl^ AnadgSMr Sapint of tUniciple ftoik A. tat 

yuuiai has Di^ttpii MtMi, Poea. Ac. ;. Sc..;. 

»"<iie in K'iU hM hWwiii, An- 4> Suffliat lt*afiifnmfafi-tit. 

/•V'.(irro isdeny'd By the bell Grammarians to ^iiR*'rftft*W"'>m 
or iH^iJium but I am much miftaken it I have not read the 
latter, though not having it in my Mead at that time, that it 
was dilcariJed, 1 made no marlt udder it. 

y«ve is aJrodeny'd to make ^iikj, and that even by yiffim, but r-j<i' 
ItubisSfU'lin ttmfort J«t.t, An. 14. p- J4). 

Mrs in Dimica makes mifa/wiif, and never muiivrut. Cinicdturi viJ- 
Arbmur, jult. 1. ]. p. 48- But Emica, though it hasror.tht 
Pteterperfe*!! EiaLrm, yet has the Participle Emimunn ii» Sene^ 
.•«, ^■ip.mm^ Emtc^laru,, Conf. ad Helv. c. 1 1. But EmKiluiut 

I kave never Teen. 

ifu'-ruin J-fruw/^ohas Ptr<HBl£ftl. Literflimi Vfrtu ftf•mlll|i,fl'4^iS3.l. 
Hia:.4.p. 15?. So^gel. F . - ■ . ■. 

AVculiid here to have iVHfcf, has never other than Jff(««B< ; Enen 
indeed ha* Eiteitat mo|U>', but Eaeijifi toa. This 13 amattcr 
invjiick.mafiy o£^hfc Grammarians arc out: Mr. J.^:^ Jets^ 
A'nwc fi'iSum pfA without Cottetfiion. Fariubj, wl)o lays ftt' 
the Preterpetfi^ tenfe .Vi^i'"' tSf Wt^vi, lots JVfflB^ ftand in 

■ ' ihis Rule without any remark, wherefore I [hall bring fuch a 
Number of Examplet fpc A'« jibi as may make this no longer 
a nuiier of Difpiite. Si^Hifurat mm vmevo tiecmum^ ad Her. 
I. 2. p. 7. SetviicM if miJuBi ciinUii ir f^tcmi, Cic. in Ver. 
1. a.. p. J)2. Fame KtiMlit Id. lb. Hoftdem ii, naHi"n Necjii, Cie. 

in Ver. i. 7. p- 3»?. Jhff'""> ''M' "' ^•-■^'•S"«t, Cic. iji Ver. 
L7. p. iSj. «w"4i*( JV™»i,. #.■ ^i>.o. Id. lb. p. ^<S9. Pj'tim 
ix sincWij fitcam. Id. lb. fii'.J Robub; jVctjri iraeum, Cic. in 
Ver. 1.7. p. 371. ©/^■iVbph VfBfflp A'tcj/Hnif/f, CicproClu- 
ent. p. 4i9.i^irt'i Ww-*!) Jf/fW, Cic dc proy. Conf. p. 579. Jt 

rti Nffonu, Cis- pro 0«Loc. p. fija. rafc fr i«cJ;4 Kr«(iw, 
<!:icFin. 1.5. P.2B7. l&J»i» "uHailj, A W^wifii, Cie^. D. 
i. 3. p. 14?. ertionti Ktiiioi, Id. lb. jVccMhi tfi Scipia, Cic.de 
Fiio. f.t^. tmitmJf'c-aCh Cic.de Leg. 1.2. p. 34!; Tolri- 
viun mliihus ITkmU, Cic. pro Leg. Man. fftMtu».fj}i Aixijli, 
Cic.C.ptop.RaiHf. tf*,!" "'"" N'cain«4c J«.r Cit. in Cat. 
Or. p. IJJ. But enfiUgh of this Author, l/l mfirJidoaJlilteria 

Liv.Dec. 11.1.3. ffhriuiflifr.i, quinJcrKi.JiKtti, ^iv..pft. i. 

1. 7. Nii^iio J^(r»vio, tiv, Dec. 1. t. 8. Ifulfiaati ^biA^ JVwa- 

Bee 3. li ai ■ >tf*»i «t»w, ^ —■"■•': C-' i iv Ti.r , ( , 

ZJjmnJd, Wfraiiqi Liv. Dec. 3 
■ ^flem- ^- tfKiut^ Mi- Dtt. 4 
Liv. De<. 4-l> ?• tlt^MtZj ........ . 



Dec. 1. 1. H. yn^ufdti DHu^iH. JVn-d- 

, ib .T«ci.«i W,.,l.iv.B«.3.I.,s. 

C.3.I.7. I1 Mniavm Jcimjf'ij Car- 
«.», !,*.' ' ««« Ar«i 9««™, *r. 



K. Hi 1. 7. c. ia. Sunt Nec4$isj Plin, N. H. I. 8. c, 51. sic 

Niecmtwrufii miracuU in corforibus apparent^ Plin. N. H. 1. 25. C.13. 
IH urink virHi Uctwu Necata^ Plin. K. H. 1. 30. C, l^i Scorptus 
fiuirintts Nfcatms in vinOy Plin. K. H. 1. 32. c.-p. MuUus in vino 
NecufUSy Plin, K. H. 1. 32. C. 10. Omni fiuusu Necato^ retiquof 
fuh corona vendidit^ Cxf. Bel. Gal. 1. 3. KAdulur loris tdfus^ vtl 
fiune Necatus^ Quintil. 1. 3. C. 6, Et alteram ujfcYat matris Necw 
ta caujam, Quintil. 1. 3. C. 1 1. 2t*i a Je bomifU'in ttccdtum rjfc fa* 
• ttatunTy Id. 1. 5. C. 14.' fratrefn Nvcatnmj Id. 1. 8. c. 3. Viore ne^ 
cat4^ Sen. Contr. 1. 2. Sponfo Ntcato, Hof. L. i. Od. 29. Cum 
ih frrfiSA ctmfcji effent^ Nt^catt funt , Agel. 1. 4. c j. Again, 
1. I S. C. 9. iAmnes (jutnunt urmenta Nccatos, Stat. Tlieb. 4. v. 
704. Ife ilia Necati infanm ultioncm exignet^ Juft. 1. 1. p. 6, again « 
I. S*^* P« 28 <5. Ntcatijti'y putris, Curt. 1. 9. p- 333. yeneno Neca- 
turn effe creiidere^ Id. 1. 10. p. 408. Pollicitus iji je Pyrrbttm vmruo 
Necaturum^ Val. Max. 1. 6, c. 5. Conftabut tandem iiCcfOiufn vemho 
HecatoTufn dolorc eommotam. More of thefe might be produced, 
but I am afraid fome will think thefe too many : However, I 
thought it neceiTary to be thus large, to (hew the Reader how 
little Grammarians are to be relied upon, when they do not 
back their Rules with £xamplcs, and how little reading there 
has been for moft of the Grammars, that have vet appeared. 
And in this ignorance we fliould have been flill, had it not 
been for the labours of fome Learned Foreigners, who by 
their Reading have difcover'd the Errours, which had been 
taken up by a Succeffion of Trufting one to another.. £«t- 
CO has indeed EneSfus^ as — bos tfi Enetfus arundo^ H^r. 1. r. 
Ep. 7. Ene^is Cafaris libertis^ Suet; Vit. Jul c. 75. ^^d Ck. and 
others. But then it has £/»trarMj alfo, a^ <iuam fuguli Emcatu* 
rum^ ntitgiflratus refcVant^ Plin. N. H. 1. II. C 29. So 1. 18. C. 
13^.1.30. c. 12. Interneco has alio Intcmecatis^ Plauc. Amph. 
Ac. I. Sc. I. Internecatii hcftibus. But here others read i»/ty- 

Nofco in *4§«o/co makes v^^mfw/, as this Grammar fays, but then 
in Sallufl is found alfo Jignoturus^ Hift. 2. Fragm. 

fando is found to have none of the Participles^ in the limplc Form, 
unlefs Tajjas bfe taken for one, which fome thijik to come from 
Vateo^ but I fuppofe rather from Fan'to^ ■bccanlc Vuttoi^z Neu- 
ter, and fo cah^>rm no Paffive Participle : However this be, 
it has the famie fignification, and fo may be utcd as if it came 
from Pando^ as Expajfa rcptnte dclubri fons^ Tac. Hift. 5. p. 
^85. feems to prpve, there being no Exfattc, Difpanjus is 
found in itt^V. /. I. Eaiam D'lfp^njx in fo!e jtrtfcunt^ p. 9. for 
which Phut, Afi7. has Dlfpijfii munibus^ Ac. 2. Sc. 4. 

Fayco ihould have Per^us by this Gramhiar Kule, for by chans;ing 
ci into ^ttm, and taking away the regemination wiil arife Pf/- 
Rum, But if it have any Participle uf this Tenfo, it is ^Purci- 
tus^ according to that of Pim, N. H. /. 3c. r. 4. Itaha. PaVcttHm 
ell^ vetere tnterdt^o patrum^ ut ditimus. For whicii feme read 
Italia Paid Vdtere interd'iilo pAtrum diximus, JPor the Participle in 
V'ftts^ it has ParJuYus'^ ai^S Plurcs ali^juanto Ntcaturur^ ai ns ttli^is 
f^uiicm nepotibus PayfurnSj cndittit^ buej. V^. Tib. c. 2. 

C C C a •.••::tjL;r ••♦IfaWa 



J So Formation of Suftines. . 

fJtrio has T4!rttus in SaU. Ne ilU tiutro Fariufint, Hi&, t» p, 14^. And 
by Contra^ion PMnui, But I have never read fnfturus^ but 
?an$uruf only ; as. Hoc maxim* f^fci ^ic»mtttr Csrvs Paritui^myPlia, 
N. H. 1. 30. c. 5. S^ia & cunSta. peffrit femper 4r dnneefs faritu^ 
rafit^ Colujn. 1,1. Pre£ P4ritKrs ad karam ffrducautury Pallad. 
1. i.Tit. 3Q. 

Speraui ego iJUm tibi parituranf filiitm^ Plaut. Amph. Ac.2« 
Sc. 2. 

pe^o befide PeMi*s forms alio Pe&itus^ PetUfa lama^ Colunu 1. 12. c.^. 
Pe^ita iellusj Id. 1. lo. 

Pinfi has not only Piftum^ as here is faid, but Pinfitum and Pinfum» 
Ifim bene Pinfitam^ L. 2f ۥ 9. And this is comniOR, but the 
Example which is brought for Pinfum is out of Vitruvim^ldque 

Pinfum ubjolutum^ nf mitots Pede fit craffum^ L« 7. C. I . 

^lico in %Apflico, Exfflico and Jmflico fprms the Participle in att*s an4 
itus» But KefUco, CompHcoiy and Diifplico makes atus only* Sto^ 
fnuebi dolor em fedunt %AppltC4iti fafiiUy Plin« N. H. !• 30. C, 5. 
Cic. Inv. 2. P. 61 ' %Apflic%tum efi cuhculo bypocapflttpt ferfX^uum^ 
Plin. L. 2. £p. i7.C«f. Bel* Civ. 1. 3. and otben. Ho^rr £ap- 

flicaUm rutionem faluw ft*a^ C9C. Fam. L. tf. £p. I. So l|e el(e* 
' where, and others* C^m ilium quoque miraremitr Exflidtum^ i. e. 
JExpedttum, Quin^ DecU 2« p. 14. Decl. 15. p. i69» and elfe- 
where. But in the fenfe of explaining or interpreting, Explica" 
fm is much the more frequent. Et fi navit amcitiit implieati fu* 
mus^ Cic« ad At. L. X. £p. 19. Hac fidts atque ratio fecuniarum 
Implicita efi cum illit pecuniu %Afiiaticis^ Id. pro Leg. Man. And 
frequently either one or other indifferently. And (b others. 
Ifieplicata Cerviot^ N, H. 1. 34. c. 8* And ;huson|y, except that 
$tat, has Repliifa^ 

Non lilycbnta ficca^ non Kefliit^ 
Bulioxum tunicsj Nee ov«^ tantum. Sily, 4. ad Plot. 
Cpmplicitus I have never read, but Complicatus only, though I 
cannot recoiled^ an Example, i^^i fi qunndo Difplicata funt 
nempe apes Cymhalis isr pUufibus numt^o reducunt in unum locutpt^ 
Var. R. R, (.3. c. 16. 

Pofcoy is faid by l^offius to form Expofcitus, He proves it by Epofcitum 
caput in St rtecoy but fay s not where. Others alio mention it, 
but name no place ; if it be fo, I have overlooked it. 

Kiff^o, in the Adive, Ihave not read, though froi^' Rir^or PafTive, 
it feems to be allowable ; however Ri^us I have never f^en^ but 
for a Jaw, and I believe the Participle ^iS^us is nothmg but 
one of this Author's Dreams. 

S4II0 or Sallio to feafon with Salt, makes Salitus or Sallitus ; Saffus 

• comes from Sallo^ which is hardly now ^o be founds but in 
fome Quotations qf the Grammarians out of old Authoi;|. 
Cum exo\ja.veriiy coeto fn-e^ nee nimium minuto^ fedfufpenfa mola in- 
fra£fo diligenter fidito. The fame Author has Verro necanda SaU 
iendaquey 1. 7. c. 7. for which i$ read in other Copies Saliendaque, 
But Salitus the Participle is in Salluft^ Reliqua cadavera Salita, 

. Hift*4Fragm. 
Jfawio hzii Sancitumnd San&uf. Kioue enim rogationibus PUbifve fcitit 
< '' ^anS^a fi*nt kite jntctjpu^ Quintil. 1. % C. 1 3. %Ae deiure praporum 
Sancitum efi apui was jure eivtii^ Cic de Off. 1* 3* H^ ne and t)thers 



Farm of ion of Sufines. i%t 

Suigvltto forms neither Supine nor Participle, only Singultus cbe 
Subftantive. 

SoHO has SonafuYus once in Horace, 

M^na Sonaturum, L. I. Sat. 4. 

Sto in its Compounds frequently preferves the a in the Participle 
in uruty though in the Preterperfecft Tenfe it be changed into 
i. Cof^aturus. Kec ultionem rrn^no conflaturam ftttre^ Sen. dt 

Clem- J* i-c.i^. 

krgo M concifiuHt qHonris ft cUdibus urbi 

Conftatura fides fitperam, Luc. 1. 2. V. 17, 

Conftatura fmt Megdi ufis furfur^ ctntuih 

Mi7/tfcf»/, Mart. L. 10. £p. 4k. 
ixtaturus. Idea nee vltis minor transferri debet, Bxtatura etiamnutifi 
duubus gifmmky Plln.N.H.l.17. C. 22. not L. 12. as roffius quotes 
ip, Jnftaturus, Ni cedtnti alterum Inftaturum timuifftnt^ Liv. 1. 10. 
p« S^S* Obftaturus, yideo quofdamin ipfo flatitn Hmine Obflaturos 
mibiy Quintil. 1. 2. C. il. FrMJluturus, Putofi quid in hotninefu^ 
doriseft Prsflaturuin eum^ Cic ad At. 14.. £p. 16 » TJtrulftttfite me 
PrdjUturumffero, Brut. Cic L. ti. Ep.8. And of the two, I 
think it is more common than PrMflitunu, 
Ttndo does indeed form Tentus and Tenjus, as this Rule fays, 

Pingui Tentus Omafo^ Hor. L. 2. Sat. 5. 
Tenfaque modos imitiiitur arcu, Stat. Sllv. ^.Carm . i . 
But then either of thefe are not indifferent in all the Com- 
pounds. For %Attendo, Contendo, Intendo, when it (igi^fies Ope- 
ram do, have only Tentus : Extendo, Diftendo^ InteHdo, when it 
iignifies contrary to Kemitto, Ofhendo and Ketendo have tenfus ot 
tenfus, xAttentus, Contentus, Intentus, in the firft Signification^ 
will not need Quotations. And for the red: there are thefe that 
follow. Difttntus. iluadrufedes cum vindi fahulo Zhftehta futtty 
Quint. 1. 2. CIO. 

. Difientius uber, Hor. L. i. Sat. i. 

2!*on'um inteVigo te Diflentiffimum ejfe, i. c. Occufatijfimumy Cic. 
ad At. L. 15. Ep. 18. Chfienfis fuis navibuSy Hir. Bell. Alex, 
p. ^69, Extentus is the moft common, but even Cicero has £x- 
t'enfuf. Cum Extenfif digitis adverfam manum ofienderety A. Q. 1. 2. 
p. 74. Intentus, traces ut chorda funt Intenta, Cic de Or. L3. p. 
Oflentu§ is faid by Danefius tp be obfolete, as not to be 
found in but Antiquated Authors, and Vcpus quotes no 
freflier proof for it ; but Vatfo has, Hui locus oftihtus vino 
ftty 6- Ofientus foU^ R. R. 1. I . c. 25. But then this Vofiut reads 
obtentus. But after all, it is found in Pliny, ^*i locus vino 
optimus dicetur ejfe, & Ofientus folibus, N.H.I. 14. C. 2. Foip 
Ojlirnfus there is better Proof. 



•Cadcfque Oftenfa placeret, LllC. 1. 2. V. 192. 



Often fam priits ajinam adbibemus. Pallad. Mart. Tit. X4« 
Retentus. 

• ■ Nympharum tradidit uni 
v4> migera jaculumt pharetranujue arcufqne r^tentos, Ov. Met.^. 

P»55« 
^cum Retenfum fofuit in \nKdia via, Pkardr. 1. 3, Fab. H* 

■' . '. ■ * • 

1^ 



Tmo forms intdndtus from intono^ 

Si quos Eois InSoHnia fluSFibui 
Hyems mA hoc veftMt more, Hor« jEpod. 2. 
7(Nsi0#o ikid kcrc to make Twfum^ amd Tortum nukes only Tortum . 
OfUy iVt/a4i» quote! out en CatOy 

M4rrucim vocMniur., de Mar/o Detorfutif nomen. 
But that is no Authority for Torfus Simple, nor yet enough to 
juftific this Author for putting down Torjum^ and Tortum^ as 
indifferent, without any ai(linaion. 
Tufido (aid to have Tumfum^ has alfo Tujumy and that more frequent- 
ly than Tunfum^ though I confcis it is but in two Authors, vtV 
FUny and fdUdiusy but Tni^um aUb is not in many more* Fo/t<» 
TufiwPi^iiUos di^erunty N. H. 1. 22. C. 2i. Tuf^ ^itm radicibnf 
totuy Id. lb. c. 9'i. c, 25. and twenty times beiide, and never 
otherwife. FaiUdius alfo uies Tufus and Tunfus indifferently. 
And as the Simple fometimcs makes Tufus^ fo the Compound 
alio is. found to make Tunfus, Mr. Leeds has obferv'd this of 
. the Compound Ohtundo from columelL \, 6, c. 8. but in my 
"^ook It 1% %Mlio tonfoyiov tunfo doubclefs, ^ balleculk limre. But 
from Rftumdo Fliuttus forms Retunfus twice in Pfeud» Hdc Ketunft 
tlly Ac. I. Sc. 2. hdtbi cor Ketunfum t/J, Ac. 4. Sc 4. The next 
Rule being of the Preterperfed of Verbs Deponent, or Acftives 
in or, and that Tenfe being made up in part by the Participk 
of tke Prxter Tenfe, I ihall coniider it alfo under this Ani- 
madveriion. 

yerba in or adnuttunt ex ptfteriqre fu^dno 
Frdteriium ver/6 u f rritf, SCQ^ 

There are fome Errors and fome QmilHons in this Rule, as ap« 
pears by what follows. 

Difftffufy faid to be the Participle of Diffiteory ii hardly to be 

found« 
pivertor has not Diverfitty but borrows the Prcterperfecft of Diverto. 
Exfgrgifcor makes Expergitusy as well as Bxfetre&usy but then it is 
only in Lucretius of all thefe Authors^ 

■ I ffec ^mjquam Exper^ifus extat 

frigida quern fimel efi viui faufu fecutHy- L ^. p. Rp. 
*'ris found alfo irt v<ff »i««', But he is out of my compafs. 
Btfi/ror is no L^tin Word by any Authority but that of this Author* 
o^ellius indeed mentions fatilcory as coming from Fateor, but 
neither is that in ufe, nor of this place. 
ffunifcor is mentioned alfo by the fame Writer in the fame place, 
vi\, 1. 17. c. 2. as more agreeable to the Ear then Fr/*or. And 
he quotes the Participle Brurfitus out of Navius xAtttlL faying, 
that both Verb and Participle were as good as loft in his time. 
*Thc Compound l»/rf#»t>«j however was then in ufe, and is 
found in Seneca^ InfrumtOy & antiqua t^fty qus tujcit matrimowum 
vocari unius adtdterium^ De Ben. 1. 3* C« I^« 
Irafcor make Iratuf as by this Rule ; the Queftion is. Whether there 
be alfo [YAturus. Robert St ef hens cites it out of Senecoy and cen- 
lures him for it, but by a ftrangc miflrake. His Words are, 
Vnde minus pure vidctur Senecty 1. 3. De Irayjcripfilfe bid Verbitf^ Vu-^ 
^ere itaque omnas dehchit^ quos iruturos iracuitdut fin. What 

Book 



Boole Kt nfes, 1 kilow not, btitit is notorious from the Con^ 
Yext, that for iraturus ir^undia^ muft be irritaturos iracundiMm^ aS 
it i^ i» m)uBookj aut^>whi#h I ilull tMoicribe the vhole 
Pftflage. lAccedit bucy m$od non tantum exemflo mcliorfity ^ difit 
'^uietis homtnibus vtvir, /cd ^tio^j caufat irafceudt non invenity nee vot- 
»m /f«»y^ txer€p. fp^ere itaque debebit 9mt^s qitQS irriiatur§s vukmw*. 

iu|i» j>i></L Itf. AimI if 4fcel? thisiny tmng be vipaatibg, ^ 



pljUe will SMfe fiirthqr fatisfa<^on. 



/ficrwi. j^MMfiiMMUfes thetehotk 
promifcuoufty. Nufer iat r-^ori^ Miferifa ejiy Ded. 357, iVir 
mortem quidtm hd^etitus tfi^ Decl. ^74* - < « 

Monor forms Mortuus for the Participle of the Pretcr Tenfe, and 
Morifurus for the Future, which need but be mentioned, as an 
exception to thefe two Participlci differing only in Termina- 
tion. The fame Juppens alfo in the two Verbs which IdUow, 
For 

Nufcor forms JVkM/, and N^filtwns^ Vofius quotes this^aft out of 

Porcius JLitrOy Fumam vero popularem a majoribuj noflris fspenumcro 
accepimus neque temcre Nafcittnram rfft^ nei^ue temere occ4furam» Tat^ 
Udius alfo has, Z^ f^nnm NAfcx\m\rt^ invenerif, Jun. Titj 7* 

Verlc,- - « r - - ^ 

ITriMrM I have never ieen. 



^r, 



"^-"---'j^^rf^ 



k • 






! I l^iw 



*' 



y « 



Of 



J- 



■/'*x-- 



.»■-. 



^V'l •/ 



. ' ^'l 



4^4 ^^^^ htfving M doiAU Prrterftrf. Tenfiy &C4 



0/ Verbs that have a double Pretcrper- 

feft Tenfe^ ^"^if ^^^ AStive Farm, 
another of the VsLmve, 



P 



Grammdrf Lat f. f^ 
Bj^teritftm sRiva 0^ fdjftva vocis habeni bae» 



of Neuters which have the Preterperfe6l 

of the Paifive Form. 



X\| Eutrofd^ 



Grammdr^ Lat. p. 5*4. 
tffhum fie frdteritum tibi format* 



Of Verbs which borrow a Preterperfedl 
Tenfe from another Verb. 



Q 



Grammar J Lat. p. 5*4^ 
Vdedam Txdnritum verba accifiunt aliunde. 



Animadversion CXXXI. 

THere being but little to be Animadverted upon theTe Rulei, 
I (hall examine them all together. 

CiTfia, of the Firft Rule, faid to make OriMvi and Canutus^ maket 
TffiMvi only, Ccm^fus being only to be ufed of one that has fup* 
ped« not of the aa of Supping. For Example, CWkffus oAitun^ 
t9i bul not £0 iit Conutus fum afud Ftrnffium. 



Of Sufwes, 38$ 

Vhftrtar ihottld have been in che Third Rule, for it takes itf Pre« 
terperfe^ Tenfe from Divert 0^ that is^ it has no Preterperfc^, 
Co chat if we wiJi ijpeak of the thing, it muft be by Diverti^ 
the Preterperfedi of Divtrto, For Divcrfus eft^ or the like, arc 
unheard of. 

I^tda of the Second Rule, faid to make Fi/m/, has fidi alfo in the 
Coflikpound ConfidOy Ncc mctnik moAoy fed i^ros eti^m Cmfidenmi, 
ft k fopuUtiombus tuerifuffe^ Liv. Dec. 5* L. 4* 

ICrrfor, of the firft Rule is.uid to malce Mnui or Meritus fum, "But 
hierm comes from Mereo^ which is us'd often by FUutus. Hio 
Meret tnra USxr Sofis^ Hor. de Art. Magna MerenSy Stat. Silv^ 
5. Car. I Cic. de N. D. 

Kuho is (aid here to have only tmfufum \ but why not Ku^tm alio : 
fince Pan fays in Qvid^ 

• TM nubere Kymfha, volentis^ 

Votpf cede Dei, Met. t. p. 24. So Val. Max. fpeakhig the 
Wives of the Minjs'y fays, D^nas frtjfe t^uibuj AGnys 
nuberenty L. 3. C. 6. 

f^Oy of the Firft Rule, makes Vou^n only, Fotatus and Potur at the 
moft, iignifying only one that has well dr^inl^j toell drencb% as 
we fay, and never implying thf ad of Drinf^ng, Potatus or Po^ 
tus jum vinumf or the lilce, being uiilieard in this Laa* 
guage. 

Pramaeo has no more Prattjusfiim^ than Cotno Ccermtus fum^ Pranfus fig* 
nifying only baving Din*d^ never tbe sA£t of Dining, Thus Pran* 
Jus ad te venumy baving Din'dy or vphen I bave Din'dj I mil come to 
yon, is (aid in Latins but Pranfus fum afui Ijucullum beri^ or the 
like, is never faid, but Prandi only. And therefore this Au- 
thor is very much out, when he makes Prande^ PotOy and Oma, 
to have a double Preterperfed. ] 

PuniQ makes f i»}nr»i/i»in, as well as pnniiy Hujus immiciJjfhnufn^muUo 
crudelm puniiuj es. Cic. pro Mil. for ifpbicb fee alfo^ QuintiL 
L. 9. C )• 



•s 



p dd 



0/ 



(385) 



Of Verbs nxihich "want the Pre- 

terperfeil Tenfe. 



P 



Grammar^ Lat. ^. 55** 
Bjttcritum fugiunt vergoj ambig^f iSc. 



Of Verbs which want the 

Supines. 



H 



Grammarf Lat. p. yy. 
/£C rata aut nunquam rttim^unt i^erlmfttpinmii^ 



Animadversion CXXXIL 

THE iirft of tfaefe Rules having little to be Animadverted 
on, I have brought them both under one Animadver- 
Hon. 
To the Firft Rule, as having no PrctcrperfeA Tenfe, ihould 
have been added of veo, CVv^o, CliteOy Dcnfeo^ DifpaUfco^ F/aveo, GU" 

vfTD, ^fMfOy ffifiVy liXWOy Sl!lftt9t iVlWU IS no ^MimVlOtMMly 'OHt* ^llly 

the Compound Kenideo, 

To the Second Rule of thofe that want the Supines, ihould have 
Been added, at leaft all thofe aforementioned, which want the Pre- 
terperfe(ft Tenfe, and befide them %Algeo^ ^i^fo^ Vul^eo^ i.«^««j Tur- 
^fo, Vrgeoy as having neither Supine nor Participle of the Preter- 
perfed, or Future Tenfe. And as thefe iliould have been added to 
iliQhas want the Supines, fp odiers« allowed by this Rule to have 
Supines, iliould have been «xc|[ide4 nrom them, namely, Calco, c*' 
rt©, Doleo^ J^ceo^ XateOy (Aeo, Fureo^ PateOy fluceo^ Valeo, For there 
2S no reafon to allow Supines to thefe Verbs more than others, but 
becaufe they ar(^ found to afford Participles in urus : But if we are 
to ufe no Words but what are found in Authors, the Supines from 
theCe Verbs muft b^ ftJIi difcarded^ as being none of them found, 

though 



Of Verbs x»hich rvdnt Sufints. 987 

though the Participle in urus be. For though Caliturus^ Cariturusy 
Doliturusj Jucituruf^ JUtiturus, and pofUbly Oliturus be found ia 
good Authors, with Ptriturus, T^cituruSy and PUdturujy Pajfurus^ Vali* 
turus : Yet none cfthefc Authors ever lay, Curra cJituniy / run to 
he tpurmy nor taciU CalitUy eafie to be warm , iior Profr/o Cityitun$^ VuctU 
Caritu^ or the like, Theft Participles therefore are no proof c^ the 
Supines, unlefs we may take the liberty of forming an entire word 
never ufed by thefe Authors, meedy from its Analogy to another 
•word of a different part of Speech, ^s thefe Particij^les are, and 
yet may not by the fame Analogy form another Caie of a Word, 
of which we find one Cafe or more in ule. But this k fuch a De- 
gree of Arbitrarine^ that I can fee no realbn for it. For if Sup^ 
feturum Snffetiis^ muft not be ufed, becauie not read, though Sup- 
jfetis and Suffet'iM be both read, and nothing but Jujft* muft beuied 
•ecaufe nothing elfe c^that Word is read; What reafon is there 
to admit of the ufe ofCaHtum^ Taeitumy &c. which are neither reaii 
themfelves, nor any one Cafe of thena. And if we may fay CaW- 
tum or Caritu from CaritturMSy why not Licitum Licitu^ from Liciturus ^ 
Since this alfo is ns'd by oVfr» and Ltvy^ i^oA mhiU m^^k Xid^ 
turum ejfrt pM>eio remp, perdcre^ quamfimilthus ejus me Conjuie licitmm ef- 
fefy Ad. At. L. 2. Ep. X. Jufi renunciare rtii Ccnfulem P. Licim^^m We- 
vi cum exereitufuturum in Macedonia efftr, %Aa eum^ ft fttufiutfe in *tmm9 
^ffffy mtiteret leg^os : Komam ^§d pr^tterea mitterer non efft : Nemnem 
eorum per Italiam ire Liciturum^ Liv. Dec. 5. L.2. Nay why not 
Putum Putu from Sum ? Since that alfo has Vuturus, At Jeaft Inatfum 
ihoufd have been allow 'd from Inddo^ becaufe from that alio is 
found IncafuruSy as well as Occafurfss and Recafuyus from Ocrido Kccido^ 
Verum bdc ideo fuSt*^ quia Incitfura erant ilia, Plin. N. H. 1. 2. C 27« 
I coMfbfs I dp not fee any harm of allowing thefe Analogical For^ 
mations, but rather a great convenience, imce fo many Rules con- 
cerning the Irregularity of the feveral Parts of Speech, would 
Xhereby be avoicied, provided this Matter were iudicioufly ftated, 
and ^reed to by Learned Men : But till then, he rha^ fhall ale it, 
will but ezpofe himfelf to Publick Scorn. For however this mat- 
ter came to (lip the Obfervation of moft of thofe Learned Men 
who have wrote upon this Subje<f^, whether out of Incogicancy, o^ 
jSut by miftake they thought that Supines were read from afl 
Verbs fave thofe fe^v which they except ; I fay, however this were, 
vet they all agree,that there is nothing to be attempted in this kind, 
]>ut what is to be found in Authors. Wherefore that the Reader 
may be unreprovable in this alfo, if he ihall undertake to write, I 
i^sii furniihliim with a Lift of fach Supines as I have found in 
Authors, by which alfo he will fee what are us'd with tVf,and what 
without : For in this alfo there feems to be a difference, fome of 
:thtm being found to be us'd with tVt, which are never found with- 
out it* For thus Cdfur ufes Nocitum with trj, yq^ Kcw> Nocitum oir 
/cd/r JV0n/i# are unheard of. 



D d da 0/ 



388 [Of Safines 



m.m^^^mmmm 



A Lift of Supines found in 

Authors. 

i'^ J/k Bfolutum. -^0 tihi nmcio Afdutum |rt, Cic. ad At. 1. 4. £p.i 6* 
', /-A Accerfitum* Sji^m accerfitum miffujum^ Pl. Sci. Ac. X. Sc.2« 
mJL A. Nutricem a£cerfitt4m iity Ten £un. Ac. 5. Sc. 2. 
Accuiatum. ■ ■ EtUmne ultra accufztum advenit^ T. P. Ac.9. $.)• 
A^um. Di^umfiterat dt 4gro CamPano oEtum iri^ Cad Q.Fr.l.2.p.29A^ 
Adjuncftuni. Quis tantam moram hu'ic Bcllo ^idjumSum infutartt^ Cicw 

Fam. L. 15. £p« i5t 
Adjutum. Vt earn iftbuc ud te adjutum mtterem^ Pl.C. Ac. 3. Sc 2* 
AdmifTum. MM/ idmiffumiri fpandet epsod^ tare, Liv. Dec. !• L. 3» 
Admonitum.£l[/$4^mo»f>f«mvr»tmt«iir non fia^itatumy C.de0.1.3.p.l2. 
AggreiTu. Deeimum ^*od peffnmuin a^reflu Jcelus^ Plaut.Pers.Ac.4.SC4« 
Ambulatum. fion domi eft .* abiit ambuUtum^ PI. Mil. Glor. A. 2. S.2« 
Afliignatmn. Hoc omne ajfj^natum iri fertinacis mes videbamy Cic Fam. 

L. 10. Ep. 18. 
Attra^um. Scrihjit te ptHre^ me attra^um iri^ C. ad A* L. lo. £p. i< 
Auditum. Ducfre me auditum fergtu qMcunq memento^ Hor. Sat. 4. 1.2* 
Auditu. Incredibilif auditUy Hirt. Bell. Att. 1. 5. 

Bellatum. iJge/iUumq\ bilUtum miffijfent in nAfium^ Nep. Vit. Can.C.I» 
Oacatum. *Atq\ in me vcniant mi^fum atque cacatum^ N* S. 8. L. I. 
Cantatum. CAnutnm PrQvocemusy Ter. Eun. Ac 3. Sci. 
Captatum. ^*id hue ud venifli nos caftatum \ Plaut. Pan. 
Caibigatum. Profiui^ amicum^ ajfii^atum^ (n»OJirtf«m,Pl.T« Ac I.$C. 2» 
Cautum. VeniocUutum, Liv. Dec. i. L. 3. 

Co(ftum. Solet ire eoffum^ Plant. Aul. Ac 2. Sc, 4. ^ 

Cognitu. Cognitu facilior^ Ad. Her. 1. i. p. 3. 
CofiecSlu. DijSlicilis collelfuy Plin. N. H. L. 12. C. i?. 
'Oon^mefTatum. Cum commejjutum tnc Jccutiffiut, Liv. Dec. 4. 1. 10. 
Comprobatum. tJjftntior itcfu Jyranni tompobatum iriy Cic« ad At. 

1. 16. Ep. 14* 
Oonfabulatuni. xAdeam aceejferat confabuUtumy Tcr. Hec. Ac. ^. 2*. 
Confultitm. Et me ires confultum wi«Af, Plaut. Bac. Ac. 3, $^.^* . 
Coquitatum. yeni coquitatpm^ Plant. Auh Ac. 3. Sc. l, 
Criminatunir Non tamen criminatum VtneOy Liv. P. I. L. 2. 
Cubitum. Cuh'itum ergo ire vuU^ Plaut. Caf. Ac. 4. Sc. 4. 
paninatnm. Quodfftttrem occidiffi^ damnatum iri videbatfir^QA.n.l,9,C,2* 
J)atum. KAit datum iri fugn^ndiff^ultiitem^ Carf. Bell. tivH. 1. 1, . , 
Deambulatum. xAbi deambuUtumy Tcr. He^ut. ACt 3, Sc. 3. 
Debellatum. Sperabat in <.^>frica to %Anno debtlUtum* iri^ Liv.Dec.3. 1.9« 
Decretuin* ^t autem eodem tempore dceretum iri^Czd. At. 1. I5, Ep.p. 
Pcfenfum. Mic inviifm patriam defcnfum revocatw. Ncp, Vit. Han« C. j, 
Defenfu. facHes dtftnfuy Sal. Hift. 1. 3. p. 159. 
Pejecflum. Ire dt^jeEtum monimenta Rr^ir, Hor. Od. 2. 1, i. 
Deprecatum. Cum ad me* — dtprecatum veniffety Cic.de Amicp. x 58. 
PCf reiTuip* Sfiit» ptUices efe aiunt^ eunt deprejfumy Plaut,Cift* A . i .S. x • 



ipbicb are found iff Authors. ^2^ 

Deprompttti^. JJff ad vilUm aiebant^ ftrvis depromptum cihumj Plauc« 

Trin, Ac, 4. Sc. 2. 
Derifum. Neq^ ^tde^ol tgo u derifum venio^ Plaut. Aul. Ac^ 2. Sc^ 2% 
I>ecerfum. Ire deter fum macuUsy Cbud. in Eucrop. 1. 2. 
Dicatum, Tibit^f aram hie dicat»m iri^ Li v. Dec. x. Lib. i. 
Ditflu. Mirumq'y di^Uy Plin. N. H, 1. 28. c. 3. 
Direptiun* Scriffifli direptum iri te k tuis^ Cic ad Q. F. 1. 1, p. 287* 
Difcubipum. Difcubitum no^uut imm^ Plaut. Merc. Ac. i. Sc. u 
I>ormitum« PWw quam me dornntum conferam^ Cic. Fam. 1. 9. £p. 2S* 
Duiftuni, Citfar lot^im bellum du^um iri exiftimaM^ Cef. B. Civ. 1. 3. 
Sniptum. IrevdHc'UluUm emptumyTct, Phor. Ac. 5. Sc $. 
£|iarratu. Hcrcule non cteUftia enarrdtu difficiliora fuerinty Plin«K.H« 

L 2, c. 93. 
£reptum* Num hoc m ejly quam miles a me vt nunc venit treptumy Tc;r« 

£un. Ac. 4^ Sc. 6* 
Bfum. 2s^in reciperetfe hue efum^ ady dcc, Plaut. Cure. A* 2. S, I* 
Bxiftimatu. Inde ex^mafufacile ejfe^ Liv. Dec. 3* 1* 3< 
£xceptum. Bunufy exceptum iri putOy Cic. ad At. 1. 7. £p. 22. 
£zcufatuni. Uxcufatum irife arbitrantury Cic. de Amic. p. 167* 
Bzenteiratuin. Fenifii hue exenteratum ? Plaut. Moft. Ac. 3. Sc. r. 
£zploratUiil. hiij}iq\ ab omnep4irte exploratumy Liv. D. 1. 1. 7* 
IEzpUgnatum.^o»yir expugnatum^fed recuperatum^ifenireylvi^AA 3.p.ipo. 
^Xpurgatu. Sed Hon faille tft expurgafUy Ttr, Hec. Ac. 2. Sc..3. 
£xquiutum. 2^idefl^ quod hue ex<p*ifitumvenis^}?\^\xuStic\i,\,iS.2* 
£xulatum. ^i exuUtum Care in Hetrufcoj ierant^ Liv. D. 1. 1. I. 
iFa<fttltti. Puto id. lb. Sext. de ea refa^um iri, Cic. Fam. 1. 6. £p. d. 
Fa^U. Vt upn explicaremy^uid ejfct optimum fu^Uy Cic. Fam.l. ?» £p 3! 
Pamulatum. Et nos Sidon%is famulatum matribM* aHaSy Stl. It. 1.2. p.38. 
Fatu* xAcerbafatupofcify Sen. Agam. Ac. 3. Sc Virg. ^n. 12. p. 355. 
Flagitatum. ktfi admonitum venimus te non /f.^tf4rKm,C.deOr.l.3,p.l 2. 
Frumentatum. ^*inque cohort es frumentatum in proximal fi^etes mifity 

Casf. Bell. Gall. L6. 
Furatum« *An quofuratum venial nox vefligM loca^ Plaut.Rud.A.I.S.2. 
Oratulatum. Pop, Kom. Salutatem fe dixit vemjfe & grutulatumy Liv. 

D. 5. L. 5* 
Habitatumrt><vc^4 eft inquit ptrigre hinc /vtfift<fffint,Plaut.Ci£l:.A.2.S.3. 
Imitatu. Opera ardua imttatUy caterum cognofci utiliuy Val. M. U4. c ^. 
UndlCBtUtn* Juberet ad utramque gentem indicatum m'lttiy Liv. D. 5. 1,4,. 
Inquifitum. Speculatum ptagis inquifttumq\ miffi^ Liv. D. 5. 1. '2. 
Intellec^u. facile eft intelle^Uy ad Her. I.4. p. 31. and others. 
Inventu, *Ardua invtntUy Plin. N. H. 1. 2. c. \6, 
Jj^rifum. Ifunc venis etiam ultro irrifum dominnmy Plaut. Am. A. 2. S. i. 
Jugulatum. Cum ilium plurtJbeo gladio jiigulatum iridiceret^ Cic. ad At. 

1. I. £p. i^. ^ 

J^dt£\xm» Nee abfentem ludibrio lafum iri exiflimaram^ C. Fam. 1. 5. £.r, 
Xf^vatum; Ego mfi quid me Vtj eo lavatum^ Plaut. Aul. Ac. 3. Sc. 6. 
Lautum. Fifniat una lautum non ad ccenam dico^ Plaut. Stich. A.4.S.2. 
ipignatum. Pabulatum lignatumy & pradatum quidum ddapfi fucranty 

Liv. D. 3. L. 5. 

2^emoratu. Ra*d magna memoratu res efty Liv. D. 4* 1. 8. 
iMercatum. I>xVo ejfeiturum me mercatumfi velity Plaut.Merc.A.l. S.^, 
JAi^ivLm, tAiq\ in meveniant mi^um atq\ cacutumy Hor. Sat. 8* 1. i« 
^igratu. Relief a qua migratu diffieilia ejftnt^ .L^^. O. 1. 1. 10. 
2iiKutuiii» /» %Apam adregfm militatum abiity Ter. Heaut. ^. i. S.i, 
Z- ; . • M<xlcralu, 



J90 ^ Sufints 

Moderasii. liUvm^m d^jiaUtmj Lpf. tX i. L. i. 

Miratu. Digna. miratuy Sen. £p. 94* 

Katacum. Erit nobk hineflim vtnijfr in iiU ioca plctra$um fHtmf fMM m^ 

tatumy Cic. Fanu L. ^ £^ a. 
Kegacum. 2s*Mm qmcd ne^Mtum irijiki^ ItoNMnu ^nor^yft^Liv.D.i.Ll^ 
Kegledu. H«t' res neutinuam nigUffu $fk mihi^ Tev. Heau, A. 2«S« 3. 
Kocitum. Kef^fmiit iffi mM noeitt^m iri^ C«£ BeL GaiL L 5* p. Io2» 
Kuptiun* H(k/tr nufium hmc MeM*Aor9 d^bo^ Pkiiic. Aul« Ac* 9. Sc* )• 
Obambulatum. iV« mo^m irtm obambtUatum^ PlaiK. Tfin* A. a« $C3» 
Obfonatum. i^olui CbMimum tmttgre Tecum o^ofMlidif) Plaut.OUI 

Ac. I. Sc. 8. 
ObfVrudum. St vm/, 9^4 mnc fm$eM0j gtftratBum i^i^ Mgemtety Jttft* 

1. 38. p. 300. 
Occifum. Occifum iri ah ipfo Mihm >tdto, Cic. ad ACt 1* 4* £p« 3* 
Opinacu. Varva, opinatu^ Plin. N. H. 1. 29* c. I.- 
Opiculatum. irr opituiatum allcuiy Plaut. Mil. Ac^* Sc« I. 
Oppugnatum. Milium %Aruntenu^tum offu^nutum mif^^iv.D.I.I.2«. 
Oratum. hiultiq-^ mortales Qvaium yeneram^ Cic. in L* P'lf. p> ^o). 
Pabulatum. £r ^utd fabuL^um^quidum diUpfifueranU Liv. £>. )• 1. 5, . 
Paftum. jVe cnicesfime^ fine ire pfftmn^ Plant. Perf. Ac 2. Sc. 5, 
Percontatum. Percouutum ibo ad Portum^ Ter. Phor. Ac. 2. Sc. 4« 
Perdttum. VitaTMf, tuam perditum ire hoc faSfo proper at, Liv. D. 4. !• 9r 
PerlaCum.'r^rn'or<t f fr/tf/«<m tVi 4.i«S<'ii4>i»m^f^tf6am,Cic.Fam.l.x.€pk3» 
PcrpeflTu. DijfficHem perpeffu, Cic. dc Fin- 1. 4. p. 244. 
Percurbatum. i>ict.'ms rationes perturbatumin^Cic, de Inven. 1.2.p.70i«^ 
Pctitum. ?f rrn«m wynt, Liv. D. i. 1. 1. 

Petitu. -. Digna fetitu, Claud, dc Mai. Thod, Conf. 

Pifcatum. i^«t ahiit pifcatum ad mare^ Plauc Rud. Ac. 4« Sc. i. 
Ploratum. Erit m>lmhomfliwviderivfniffe pl9r4»titmyQic,¥^mXt^9*t.^'2* 
Portacu. Portatufacilet^ N. H. 1. 14. c. 3. 
Poftulacum. MAuaeiUum pcfiulatum yenin^ Cxf. Bel. Gal. 1. f . 
Pofleflum. i^Ms non expu^natum eant fed pojfeffum^ }uft. I. 2^. p. 300. 
Pocatun). Ijimui mecum Fotatum^ Plaut. Pl'eud. Ac, 5. Sc 2. 
Precatum. Negantfe precatum veniffe^ Liv. D. i. L 8, ' 

^ Precatu. Blandamq-^ precatu . ointigonemy Stat. Th. 1 1 ^ V. 105. 

Pracdatum. Ipfe cum promtiffmis juvtnum pradatUMu^iretyhtV.jy^lS^t* 
Pr«pofitum. Sifidrm IxAeat, fe mfrapofttum tibi^ Tcr, Eun.A.i. S. 2- 
Prxreptum ^uid hue yenijiifponfam prMTepum m^dtn^ut.Caf.A.I'^V* 
Probatu. Difficile probatu, Cic. T. Q. 1. 5. p. 450. 
Probacum. Sed tamen ego non defpero prtihatum iri Varroniy Cic* ad At» 

L. 13. Ep. 25. 
Prorogatum. Infpefum mihi nihil temporifprorrgatumiriy Cic* ad, At« 

L. 6i £p. 2. 
Purgatu. Facilia purgatuy Plin. N. H. 1. 27. C. 12. 
Quaeiitatum.2f*o>f«m«go ilium curram ^»ie/ifar<^m,Plaut.Merc«A.5.$.2. 
Qu;eiitum. Ti* to ^uafitum fcrvum adventes tuum^ Plaut.Peen.A.3» $•!• 
Queftum. Legati ab Roma venerunt ipueftum injuri^^ Liv. D. 1 • L 3. 
Recuperatum. Tefiati fe recuperatum patriam vemrt, ]uft, 1. X 3. p. 1 90» 
Redd 1 turn. Has tibi redditum iri putabam /rtwyCic ad At. L. 7. Ep. !• 
Reje(^um. Sl!*'ii^e etiam legationes rejeffum iri ^i*ro5Cic.adAt.l.l,Ep.l 8. 
Relatu. Km borrenda relaSUy Ov. Met. 1, 1 5. p. 320. 
Repetitum. Legati ah Romji venerunt res retetitum^ Liv. D. 7* 1. 3. 
Rcfcitum. Dum id refeitum iri ereSt tamtifper covet, Tcr.Ad.Ac.i.S.l# 
Rogatum* tfgatos ai Cafarem mitfttnt nfgxtim ^uxtHumj Carf. B.G.latt 

. Sacri- 



which are found in Authors. J91 

SaCtifieatum. NoSfuftcrificatum ire ocufant^ Plaut. Poen, Ac. 1. Sc. 2^, 
Salutatum. Cum Deos falutatum aliqui yenerint yCic.pro S.Rofc. p. 23 J» 
S^CcitSLtum, Jjftm plane fcifcitatttm adiflos quos diciij Agcl. 1. 12, C. ly 
SefTuin. Jmufne fejfum^ Cic, de Or. L 3. p. I2, 
Scitatum. Mittimut f citatum oracula^ Virg. ^n. 1. 2. p* tt^. 
Scitu. V^ilefcitu^ Ter. Hec. Ac 3. Sc. f • 

Stedaeam. %Affert petitionem, & tefetUtum if, Plaut. Cur. Ac. i, Sc. 2- 
Servitum. tAut Uraiif fervitum matribus ibo^ Virg. JEn. 1. 2. p. 137. 
Speculatutn. Di^ejfus deinde ipfecum faucig fpecidatum^ Liv. D. I. 1-. 4r 
Specf^atum. Cum Jpe^atum Mot in theatrum Veni^et, Val. M.Li i . c. X * 
Spoliatum. Dicens ——7 dignitateeosffoHatumiri^Cxf.heLGsd/Ljw 
Sublatum. Credent Vunditm fuhlatum irt^ LiV# Dec. 4. J. 5. 
Supplkatum. Populus — ^ — frequens it fufpUcatumy Liv. D. 1. 1. 3. 
Tcntacum. i2?*</ »»** norw, tetttatum advents^ Ter.Phor. Ac. 2. Sc. 3^ 
Toleratu. DificiUm toleratu^ Cic, dc Fin. 1. 4. p. 28 5. 
Yra^atU. DifficiUma tra3-atu eft confiitutio£on)eQuralis^ ad Hcr.l.2.p.8« 
^radicwm. Pudet hoc .pcfteris memoria tradltnmiri^ Liv. D. 1. 1. 3. 
Vaipulatum. Co^um ego non vapuUtum condu^usfui^ Pl. Aul. Ac,2.S.3. 
Venatum. StA tempus pueros venatum ahlegaVit^ Liv. D. I. L. I. 
Vifunu Btiniquiorem vifum hri intettigebantf Cic. in Ver. 1. 4. p. 284. 
Violatum. %Addit etiam, fe prim occifum iri ab eOy quam me violaSum iri^ 

Cic. ad. At. I. 2. Ep. 20. 
lUtum. Vinumirie affe^^mt tt^iamy Afoti. Id. p. 275. 



Of Participles. 

Animadversion CXXXIIL 

SijfMBim will have thefc Participles to be of all Times, one red-^ 
fon is* bccanfc they maybe ioyn'd with Verbs of all Tcnfes. 
But that is no proof, that there is not a diftin<ft Time in 
each Participle : all that it proves, is that the time of the Parcici- 
plv is conjun^ with that of the Verb, and not that it has not 
a diftin^ Time of its own. This will be plain by c(^niidering ths 
ftveral ufts of thefeveral Pattidpks. 



Of 



( J92 ) 



■ I I i' 



Of the Participle of the Pre- 

fent Tenfe. 



SoinStm brings faxtral Examples to prove this Participle to be 
of all Times, but it will be fufHcient to produce one or two 
of them, becaufe by them the Reader will fee how to fblve 

the reft. SeJ poflquam amans accejfit petium foUictns^ i. e. fayS he, 

\enis inVicatis. But who fees not that there is a diftin^ Time in 
both PoUicenfy and Indicans, and that Prclent, not with the Time 
of fpcaking indeed, but with the Time of the Verbs oicce^ and 
Vfnitns, For inftcad ot Pollicensy fay PoUicitusy and the Time is al- 
tered, and fo it will be, i£ Indicaturus^ be put inftead o£lnJicans, I 
confeA indeed when the Time of the Participle immediately pre« 
cceds that of the Verb, or comes immediately after it^ the Authors 
fometimcs exprcfs it by the Participle of this Tenfe,of both which, 
San^tM brings inftances ; as. Turn apri inter fe dimicant indurantes at" 
triti* arhorum coftaSy Plin. i. e. foflquuminduraVcrunt, DepravinciA de^ 
ccdcns j^w-e/iorrw Cctlium prapofui provincU^ Cic. Coel. . C. deceffurus^ 
Off^uHi advemens qugcum yolebdm c4>Uocatam filiam. Ter, i. e, foftquam 
advenerim. Putruo advenienti cctua curetur volo, Plut. i. e. 2^% jam ad* 
venerit. And there are others to be found ; as, BrutkUfio proficifcens 
fcripfcram ad u^ Cic. ad At. 1. 3. £p. 8. Pofkndxt tens ad Brutum in 
Nejidcm hac fcripfi. Id. ad At. 1. 1 6* £p. u and elfe where. But this 
is no more than what I have ihewn to happen in the Tenfes of 
Verbs, which yet neither this Author, nor any other, have made 
to be indifferent to all Time for that reafon. And except it be in 
the Cafes abovementioned, or the like, this Participle can never 
be put to iignifie any other than the Prefent Time, t. e. Prelent 
with tbe Verb. For Example, Hac loeutus rtjedit^ cannot be varied 
by Hac lofiuens refedit^ without varying the Time alio. Nor Orfdi» 
tur faffurm^ by Creditur faciens. It ihould have been remarked here, 
that all Verbs do not afford a Participle of this Taife,witnefs Keor^ 
which has no fuch thing as Rem for this Participle. In like man- 
ner Defity Infiu Sd*^Oy ^^e all deftituteof this Participlet witfay»»i 
and all its Compound, except %4bfumj Prafum^ Poffum^ 



Of 



(???) 



' .% '■ .■ >' t ' . > . ' . . ■ • J A ' 



"tr 



€f the Participle of the Future 

in rus. 

THis Pjirticiple is faid by San^iuj to have the Ppwer of dg* 
nifying all Times : his reafbn is, becaufe ic may be joyn^ 
with Vprbs of all Tcnfes , as, FrofcSfuro tibi deJi iiteras^ JVo- 
ffffaro tibi iuho literaj. Thc rcafon has been cohlidered already iii 
the Paxticiple of the Prefcnt Tenfe, and thc anfwer given there, 
wiJl ftrye here likcwifc ; namely, that the Participle in each pF 
thefe, and all other Sentences, has a diftin(fl Time of its own, the*' 
that time be conjund with that of the Verb. For change frtfe^uro 
here into frofe£to^ and the Time is alter'd ; fometimes indeed it 
iignifics a Prefcnt Inclination to a Future thing, which thisGram-« 
mar fliould have obfervM *, as, Nuiue omnino hujus rei meminit ufuwitn 
foetitipfey frofelto non Uciturus de tunta fua ^lorU^ Quintil. 1. ii. c. 2 
It is found alio to iienifienot what will b^, but what might be, or 
Ftut the A^ent might do if he would *, as. 



Tremuit f*v<t fuh V0(?e minaptis 



yiul^^uf in ers^ unumq\ caput tam ipa^na juvtntm 
PnvatumfaSFur4tnmct^ Luc. I. 5, p. 1 2 5. i.e. qu» poffet pifi^ 
V*iti*m f neurit ^ 



.^ I U . 1 . ' I I I ■»! > 



Of the Participle of the Prefer-? 

perfedl 1 enfe. 

THis Participle generally has no regard at all to Time, un- 
lefs when ft figiiifies Acftion, as Locutus, Sccutm, But when 
it iignifics Paliion, as xAmatut^ Verhtratus^ if it fignifies any> 
Time, it is thc Prcfent rather : for fo it fignifies of it felf, and the 
Paft Time^ when it fignifies that, is reprefented by fome pad;. 
Tenfe 6f the Verb Sum, And though the prefent Tenfe of St*m 
^nd this Participle do both together iigni£e foni<:times the P/ail: 
Time; m, 

■ fi qu^fit^is hu)t$s 
Eventumpugn^ Honfum fuperatus ab illo^ Ov. Met. 1 3. p*26$: 

rzt that is owing to the Context^ by which it apnears chaii thai 
'■- * Ecc .'^ . thine 

. —.■■••... J 



594 ^f ^^^ Participle in dus. 

tkiog was Paft, and not to Suferatm : for in vidi homintm fuperantem 
and vUi bominem fuptratum^ the Time if one and the fattie'. Where^ 
fore this Grammarian, as well as others, is much to blame in air 
figning xAmam^fum^ or *Amatusfni^ for the indifferent Preterper- 
im Tenie of u/fm«r, fince the firft figni^ ike Preient Time, *n- . 
lefs the context deterndine it to the Pafb, hnt\Miafm fm ntfer fig-' 
nifies other than the Paft Time« San^iin brings feveral inftances 
to prove that this Participle may be ufcd for that of the Future 
in dus^ but ill vain. His ftrongeft is that of Vir^ilT, fuhmerfafq\ 
cbnm puppesy h» t, Juhmergendus fays he. But what hinders, but 
Ohruo may (ignine here, as it often does, to bury ot cover 
with a load, and tJkn, ObrMrji»6mfr/ki neither needs*) nor admits of 
his^ interpretation^ it is more natural to fuppofe, fte defires Moliu 
to £iik them £rft, and then bury them in the Sand at the bottom, 
td make fure they ihoutd never rife again. The reft are Coo fri- 
irolous to trouble the Reader with, as he may fee, Mim. /, i. r. i^. 



mtmtmmmt^mtmm^i^immimittmmmmittmm-mmtmm 



Of the Participle of the Future 

in dus. 



TJs very rare to find this Voice ufed as a Participle, that is, 
to fignifie any diftiiicfl Time. The common iignificati' 
orr or it is to- repfe&nt a thing which ought to be done ; 
as, rf/w arma L^tints — Quxrenduy or as a Gerundive Adjetftive \ as, 
xAA Accufandos homines duci pramio. Cur adeo deh£tari6 criminibus infc 
rendid^ which are well enough known : whether it ever iii;nifie the 
Time to cdmefoate Qvefticm ; bat I think wi^ent Keafon. ' Fo» 
what effe can it (ignine in that <jf jtivyitt his Ptcfatee, ^t^AiU rt>i»^' 
WzVifm, condendamve urbem Toeticif iHa^'rf decora fabulis.^ quam incorruptk 
rerum geftarum monumentU tr^dttnfttr^ e4i mc affrv/lafCynec refellertt in ani* 
mo eft, Vojfiiu brings another Proof of this out (if xAgellim. Nomine 
non adepto jam^fvd ckmfpe 6' cmnine jum adififctndu Lt 1 8. C. 6, 

No^s^in this lafky arleseftythe Future is iigm&ed by adtpifienJ^^ 
itkd that in centradiAimftidn to the tinve paft m ude^to. CundendUm 
vk the'firft, does not £q abiblutely indeed fignifie the Futurty as 
ilot to imply the Ptefeiit in fome refow*<ft, ifamely as to the* 
tliOughtS; or the neavnefs of its beingt buitt \ yet the Adiion o£ 

fnildiivg it figitified to be Futuirft Bat thefe being very rare ii>* 
aiicesr Wvicoi^ ibctokl taJbe case not: to u& it Futurely, but la 
Parallel Cafes, i. r. when the Complexion of the Sentence^ 
and the N^ttre of tHte dapa nd a n c e is the fame. And, 
r!i(frefortf I thiu^- tt An i;^warr3n«aMe £x^effidn< in R»4tM^iRrhen ho 
fary) 6f€klj^i&m Ae^Wiis taicen npistd Ht§:feikhfJi$piHrycum 4 
fihffoft ejfet occidcndoy ia'fte:id of cum frope ejfet ut occideretur^ oi * 
4bx like, upon Firj, Gcor^. u v, i^8» That ofyitri is no more al 
li / ~ ^ ' ~ < ' * "' lowablc 



\V» 



Of the Pdrtfcifle in dus. j 9 5 

low^le, whe^e upon that of r«yir, Ex^lnubant fldriq^ futuTum fuiffe 

it figimfies indeed fometimes the poffibility of a thin^|bein^done',«s, 
PalUUof invo non ca^nofceniut tAthtnaf^ Ov. Met. 7. V. JT^f 
Et u vortictbiH HOH A-leunAe Gelxy Id. Faft, 4. p. 69, 
But this is hardly found hut in Ov/</. 

San^iut will have this Participle alio, to be put for that of tb« 
PreterperfeiS Tenfc,from that of llr^i/, vdvenda dies en atturlit ultroy 
but it is never fo us'd, but l^Uyendus and wiundw. All that is imore 
to be obfcrved of Participles, is that two of them, t. e. the Pre* 
fcnt and Prcterperfecft in many of them,are ufed Nominally alfopr 
Adverbially to denote aDifpofition orHabit^and then moft of thejBi 
«re compared as other Nouns Ad jccftives ; but becauie fom^ of thenx 
are not compared in that uff, others not fo ufed, others compared 
tho* Participles, and thatjcven the beft DicfHonaries give but »n 
imperfed Account of this Comparifon ; I have for the Security of 
the Reader in this Matter alfo compiled the following Lift, which 
"tho* not Perfed, as>ot being defign'd from the beginning, is yet 
snore Compleat than any thing I have feen upon this Hcm. 



ji Lift of Participials compared. 

ABdu<f^ius. tAbdu^ms )ac'^U contorfify Auf. Grat. A<2, 
Abje(ftius. 2j.*^d tAi>\e^'tuf urixtate^ Cic Leg. r. p, jij, 
Abjed^iflimus.«>f6jr^f^iRMm m^otium^ Val. M. I. 3. c. 7. 
Abrupttus. Kibil altiuj fimul^xAbruptiufq', i/iv.wi/, Plin. N.H.l.i j.c.37. 
Abrujytiflimus. ^Jbru;*tijfimi6 ri^'ui cingitur^ PI hi. Ep. 1. ^. Muijb. 
AbiciHor. Thurii fr^fraBFior^ nt<j\ iAbjfcifior jnfH w, Val. M, 1. 6, C, 5# 
.Abfoluttor. i^uojit tAbfolutius o/,Quint. Inft. 1. i. c. i. 
Abfolutiffimus. %Abfolutiffimu >tygumentatio^ ad Her. 1. i. p. 10. 
Abftinentior. Cujus fucerdotU abjlinentior ccremonlu^ Auif. Grat. fi.^* 
Abfttnentiiitmus. xAlieni iJbftmtntiJ/imusy Plin. 1. i^. Ep. 8. 
Abftmfior. Copiofu ilU amdem^fed paulo uibfirufior^ Cic. A,Q^\.2» p«l5. 
Abundantius. Kemo defiripfit lAbuniantius^SQn. Contn 1. ^. Pr0Qpm. 
Abundanti{)tmus.5fifftf»M(trf»m Varietute tJbundantiJfimuSyQicAcOr,\,2, 
Acceptior. £uo carior oiccrptior(j\ omnibuj crat^ Liv, Dec I. 1. 5, 
Acceptiflimus. Tres coufuUtus .Accefuffimof ^ejit^ y A, M. 1. 4, C4. 
Accin^ior. Habitus *AccinStiof^ Auf. Grat. AA. 
Accommodatior. Tempus *Accommodatius^ ad At. L 2. Ep. 4. Faqci* 

1. 9.- Ep. 24. 
Accommodatiilimvs. yiver^ ad n^turam %Aecommod*xtillime^ Qic. fin. 

!. 5. p. 259, 
K<tHXztiot. ^AccuTAHore ferfnone alUquitur. L;v, Dec. 3. 1. ^. 
Accurratinfimus. Enrum xAccurxtiffmA diligeutia^ Cic.ad At. I.7. Cp*3« 
Acutior. Acutiorem ft quum ornutiorem vWi>, CiC* de Opf* GoD* V|W 
Ac.utifHmus. fAccutijfhnum omnium fbilofophorum^ CjC. A*Q:^?P-i^ 
AddidHus. ^^tlmnei rt^HMntitr f auto jam addicliits^ T*C« ^e ^^Qr« -Gef • 

jE e e 2 AddudUor. 



J96 PdrtiiifUls comfir^L 

Addu(ftior. VU freffiwr^ circumfcriftiory Mdu&iory pliit. 1. i. Epiit:. if. 
Ad junctor. 2**s hujus cdmjd u4Jjt*fU}to/dfumty Cic. pro Clueu. p. 400. 
Adolefccncior. No/H cwUn os *AhUJccntMis jLadimm^ Cic. A. Q. 1. i. 

p. 76. 
Adminiculatior. McmorU iAAminicuUtior^ Ag. 1. 20. c. ult. 
Adilridior. Nibdo oruatior^ fid Umen fAdftriUtor^ Cic. Brut. p. 15^* 
Arfediffimiu. lUtne imofiu ^jij^aiffimi, Patcrc, 1. 2. p. 1 09. 
Aife^atius. oiffe^atiks foftulantibuj^ Quint, Inft. 1. 12. c lo. 
AiHrmaciiTime. %Afirm*tiffim9 firiffirunt^ Ag. 1. 10. C. 12. 
Af&xius. Nihil iilo fetj^ipt ^Afixius aA <xc. Pore. Lac. in Cat. 
Afflictior. Non tJf/UiUQre condiiioHe quam cettri^ Cicl I. ad Fam.£p.^. 
AfHuentius. %j4fjiutn$mf voU*fta$es undiq'y buuriat^ Cic.T.Q^l. 5. p. jjtf* 
Afiluencifllmus. Bxumdant bumorem %Affit*entiffimum^ Solin. c. 6o. 
Agitatior. St omnia vAgiutiora meliusy Quint. Inft. 1. II. C. 3. 
Albicancius. fAut^Albicantius juflo elujutjcit^ Solin. c. 43. 
Altior. ^Vtmfafidiorcm^ <9 CAltiorcm fitcits^ Apic. Artop. c. 6» 
Axnancior. No» illo imlior quifquum^ mc ^Aftiautior aqui^ Ov* Mett 

' 1 I. p. 14. . . 
AmantiQimus. Tut cufidus, noflri oimnntljpmuf, Cic Fam. I. 5. Ep. 5» 

Apertius. 0/A%Jpt!rtioruluniatuviveMtibuSyP\in» N.H. 1. Ii. c. 37, 
Apcrtiiiimus. fAttj\iUe^ ut feir.ver fuit odfertijfmusy Cic. pro Muren. 
Apparatior. InfhuUior cfi rebtts^ 6^ tAppuratior^ Cic. Inv. 1. I. p. 49- 
Apparatiftimus. Vt iniUotAffuratiJfimofj^ifuculo^ Cic.inAnt.Phil.t. 
Appetencior. Nihil eft enim y4}y<ttnt}us limiliumfuiy Cic.deAfn p.1^3. 
Appctcntiffimu$.5f«irfio^wuyff^tf*^»/(^wiY,^j«'/i4i«,Cic.T.Q;l-2.p.37i 
\pj5ofitior. Mulu xAffofitior ad diftrenda^ Cic. in Vcr. 1. 6- Or. 9. 
Aicfliores. Plura oj'cuU & conipUxu§ fArlfiores, Sen. Ben. 1. 7. c. 12. 
Ardentius. Virtuta ayy^tercfArdentius, Cic. Fin. I.4. p 213. 
Ardcnti^imus. Solem nArdentiJfi*num fuftinenSy Sen. £pi£b. 80. 
Argucifllmus. Litteras quam tArgutiffimM mittas^ Cic adAt.L.^. E£^-5. 
Armatiflimus. Pares multis tArmattJimii nudi, Sen.de Ben. 1. 5. C» 4, 
Arrediora. PUraq^y %Mfium ah Italia otyrelfiorafunty Liv. Dec. 3. 1. I. 
Arrogantius. I^id atdtem vArro^antius fieri potctit^ CtC.deOr.l.2.p.33, 
Ar<ftifTimus. In yArSfiffimam aj^nitatem rcceferat^ PaterC.J,2.p.l23. 
A flevcrantius. HactAntiochus multo frw»u/5/'rVcr4nr;i»/,Cic, A.Q.I .2.p.3 3. 
Aftri(5lior. Numeris tAftri^ior faulo &c. Cic. de Or. 1. 1. p. 28. 
Attcntius. In quo ttiam cotnmoriJMr %At$eutiuSy Cic. Brut. p. 171. 
AttcntilTimus. %AttentiJJimA cur a examinahaty Val. M. 1. 2. C 2. 
Attenuatiflimus. Vttmur voce Uttenuatijfima^ ad Her. 1. 3. p. 1 9. 
Attra^ior. CumPolUonii %AttraStiorem vidijfet front em^ Sen. de Ben* 

1.4. c. 31. 
Attrition Vt riSIus ejus tf mentum fa tAttrltiuSy ClO, ill VcF. 
Audior. Nuntjuam qmfqjuam domum xAu^ior ndiit^ Liv^ D. I. h 3. 
Audentior. ^fdnntshpt Utior^^Audentiory& r*rr//ior,Quint.In.I.i 2.C. !• 
Ay trUoT.Ne judex reliquorum defmjiontft %Averfior^ Quint. In. 1. 7. C. 1. 
A vcrfiffimus, j^< y<Vfr/^ma ab bofteerat^ &c, Liv. D. I. L 2. 
Aulpicattor. I^u^it qujs venertm %Aufficatioremy Catul. Carm. p. 42. 
Auipicatiflfimus. Vtrf,ilius%Aufpicatiffimum dederit exordium^ Qu.Llo.C.I. 
Bcatior. /*f>'/fl^mv^jwrr^ffle'*iWor, Hor. I. 3. Od.9. 
7('e|itifllmits. Vt ii Bcatijani videantury Cic pro Leg, Man. 
"BienfeVolchtifs. Naiura autem EeneyolenuffimuSy Suet. Vefp. C. 8. 
^eneV.olentiOr. Nam Ben^olentior quam fimfer fui^ effi wm fotui^ Cic. 

Fam. 1. 1 3. Ep. tfo. 
.jpaildentii&mws. <fr^tmC0nitnfiJlimliMnwtutmm^ Selin* c.^5. 
"* •*' Gavifl*- 



VdrtieipUts ioiwifafi. j^^ 

Dclibcratius. N>g; t//z <pt^9»rfw I)f/itt'ytff j«///wr>, Cic.Fdm.!. 5. Ep 2, 

IDemiflftor. E$ fenttnsiurum fotUere Dtmtjffiory Cic. Ot. p. t8l, 
D^xnililfime. Hdc quam Limtfijf.mi 4/<j-, fubjeiUJfimi exponit^ CxC Bcl, 

ClY. L* !• 
I>ercripcius. N tturu nihil eft v4ptlus nihil Defcriptius, Cic. Fiii.l. 3.^.219 
Deprctiffimus. J^«4m dffrejfijinia voce uti convin:tt^AA,lriQrA,'^, p. ly. 
Deprefitor. De^r^jliorarpufiivdvitijfatioy &€, Colum. I.4. c. i. 
DeiertKs. In onts ^Afijcs Defertijimasjervenity Cic. pfo Sext. p. 551. 
I>eibe6d(9, l^e ccntemijfimi^ acDeJpe^iJpmivideamur^Cic.'mVerA. 5 .Or.8, 
Defperatius. i2j*i<i tt.imlacim^ quid Dtfoeratiu* ? Cic. pro Dofn. p. 51 ^. 
DeiperdtiKs. C^mpofitionit fpem non DtfiityittiJJiniam eJe '^uto^ Baflb, Ci^. 
jytiflQZtii&Xifft tYih^niPUDef^ic4^tlJflmi homints fi4roriyC.iz,pToSCxt.f. $49, 
Dcvcxior Quodcunqy dies IhVexior ambii^ Claud. Mai. The. Con. 
Devindiof. '^i^; ^tif mr /r Dfvln^ior altet ^ Hor. 1. i. Sat. $. 
Dcvoti^S. Si^^km tngrata, in Vevoti/Jfimas fihifuerit^ Sen. dc B(ill.l.^. t.I/. 
Di^uiencius. Mnltof^ timidms 6- Dijjidentiuf, Juft. 1. 3,8. p. 3od. 
DiffuflUS.5'^^ UtiHS uliquunto dicenda li*nt^£)iffufius^Cic,i',Q,U^.^,'^3^ 
Dile<^ier. Luco E^^ior ofnni Ijmrus^ Claud. Rap. Pi*d?1 1. 5. 
'Di\z<^i%.m.\x%,%Augur^i>polimi6 modoDtii^iJfimw urftf,Stat.Th6b. j.p 27'^, 
Diligentius.£j quidetn Dili^entiks qudreudus (n'f</«orjSen,lfen*L.2.Ci8. 
Dlhgenaffimtts. ^w omnu <j#tf« Diligent- ffimo^ Cic. pra M. Ccgl. 
Diiutiss. BiOCiftMa^t.tmtn eUamnum levius mtq\ Dilutxus^ Pliri. 1?^, Bf • 

L. 9. c. 37. la. lb. L. 1 1, c. 7. & AI. 
DirccftiUS. Ecfq^ UireBtms guhernant^li earn /f»^»riCic.A.(!jjL.l.p.35^ 
Vi coMtigMimagis Dvfe&iwtfqy iSfusfianty Agel. L. 9. C, i, 
Diruptior.t>l/ altiorem Dvruptiaremq^ tumulum c(«i<rf//Vr^,Li:v.£fed.4.L.8. 
Dii^r^pantifTimtlS- UJntm qu9(^ DifcrepuntiJ/imus efl. Sotin» C. 6^, 
Disjuncftius. Nihil eft enim ub e*t c'ogitatione -i^jJttnffiw/jCicA.dj. 

La. f'36. ...... 

DisjUtKfliflimus. Duohus in locis D%S)un^iJfmis^ Cic. pro Leg. Man, 
P^lpoficitU. j^o fuq\ fwn^fi»s eft 4jflkcq9iamy«i(; tijp^fniuty Stt(» l9. (^ 

L. I. Pr«f. 
I>iflblotior. itV »«« Hheralifaf DijfiU^tior videatury Cic. ad Bt\ft, tp.J,. 
DtflCbfutlfs. Ttthttfi onmum DijfUftiJittms femper futfli,^ Ck. ill VefV 

L. ^. Or. 8. 
Dlftentifs j^mitM rmHiljgi ttfiifttntifimum ^/f^^Cicad At.L.<^.£p.i^, 
Difbindlius. I» ddiherAtivo gtntre DiftinUius frit Jictndun^ Cfc. Inv'. 

L. 1. p. 47* 

Diftortius. MWm generi. fitm entwtuutdiy fed nulkm tAfloHiuSy Scc^ 

Cic. d« Fat< p. 3:Sb. 
jyi^emfkskn%4 Fe^lms artituLtri #i«yfco D^<«rtiJimis,$iact.(^stTb. t. 2r* 
I>iftrikf^i4r. S$ Dinn fnt. inter fiy 6- DiftraStiir inluf^ t-^cr* L.4«g.iii. 
p^ftfi^ior. I'lV «Mf9ii hAeto me nunqiMm^ «. cuAi//y & judiciis fuijlt X>t« 

j^^iorrm^ Ck^.Q^Fr. L«^£p« 15. ^. 

piftributius. 5m Diftributius tra£turequis volet^ Cic. Inv. t. 2". p, 7^. 
J>iYifiof. EtlAyifttv inttr fe & Biftrd^i^ intus^ Luer. L. 4« ]^. 121^ 
]p^iYivlgati(ililla^F^tiM#to.«i^[/ftfii^ mapftratms DivtdgaiiJJimu Cii^ 

FaiA. I. 10* Ef. i/, 
I>o^tof'. Vtf4tirin\ tirlMy luiert ^oCfimr^ Hor. L. 3. Od. 24* 
Dodfiffimu^ j'f Si^t^talW'iHirily^ffftAMAi Serncnihus dtdidifef^ Cft« if^ 

Oy. L. 2%^. 4, fc fjApe-al. 
Pblentiu«b 1)^ n/W r#6W/ miib* DoUmm deplorund^trh eflj CiC« Jjfrtir 

Sext.p. 54^. 



J 9? FsrtmfUls comftfi. 

Conibnantior. Vt fint alia. Conjotuntiotd^ grdVtora^ leviora^ ClC^ Par« 

Or. p. ft<J5. 

Confo(uici(imttg« Pra nojhni Cmfteta$iffimX volmttate^CicVun .Ep.34.3« 
Confoddtipr. Yr^ in totdCamffe^iar uUa ^ufriUis ^arj/mr^Ov.M^.L^.p.^/ 
Conftantius. Kibil Conftatatm^ mibil jtjferiufy Cic ad At. 1. I. £p. 14. 
Confbancifs. Necvfje eft Omfhrnfifimus vnieatuu Cic.proR.Co«i.p.24T 
Coiifbri<ftiu6.Fo/ti«m unylius^C*t^ctius aiigt»piufti\ Plin. K. H. 1. 2i. 

<• 10. 
Confuecifs. MMdit C^nfuttijginu quatj-^ Vtrhu^ Ov. Met. L xt.p, 240. 
ConfultflTimus. Confubijfimuwi %A{holo^U profejforem^ Colum. 1. I. C, I. 
donfummatiis. %Amavi Confitmrnatifimum juyenemy Plin.L.^a £p* 7* 
Contaminaudimus. H«tMm pofi homines natojContaminutifimo^CK, pro 

Dom. p. <oS. 
Contemptius. ATi/r:/ UloContemftius^Cic, Phil. ^. p. ^53. 
Oontempcior, ATi/^t/ primo afpeff^u Comtcmpttus^ Lir. Dec. 4. 1. 5, 
Contemptifs. Cotuempttjfimif efcis & potionihur^ Cic. Fin. 1.2, p. 1660 
Contentior. F«i«o Conrcn/iore/ mtf^f erunt^ Plaut. Pceiu Ac. 2. 5c. I. 
Contentius. Sic pU^a, hoc grtvifr^ qpo eft mijfa. Contentms^ Cic. T« ^ 

1. 2. p.370. 
Continentifs. Continentijfimorum bomtnttm^ majorum wtftromm^ Cic. 

Par, 1. 
C ontatius. Nr^; Contuiius a prtmoribttt cvAtaM^ ire, Tac An.^.p.2 1 5* 
Contortius. H«c kftoicis^ comcludumur ComortmSy Cic. T. Q. 1. 3. 

p. 385. 
Confra<frior. Stouorum adftrilHor eft oratioj^ rofi/r«£7tor,Cic.B.p.i55. 
Conturbatior. McherctUt eram Contmhatior^ Cic. At.L.i. I^p. 12* 
Convenientius. Dic^onveuienSiH/ frit.. Pi. N. H. 1. x\, <. 7. 
ConVenientiis. Bono civi Convenigntifimufn CYtdiAi^ PliiiX.3-Ep.Scycr. 
Copulantius. Sihil eft amahilius^ nee CofUantiusy CicdeOffa.I.p.24. 
Corre^ior. Vf attemtiorfiat CorreiH^r^'^ Age!. 1. 6. c. 14, 
Corruptius. Va&um Corruptius imhri^ Hor. 1. j. Sat. 5. 
Corrupciflimus. Corrupti/imam rem ommum^a unquam dt^^fimtfita^ 

Suaf. I. Plin. N. H. i. 13. c. 5. 
C4ilpatiu8. Sed moUftiuf eepuidem Cuifafiufif, ejt ^AMtror^ Af^LLlf ^.7. 
Culcior. Sed obhAe turbo, qttoq'y Culttorey Sen, £p. 114. 
Culciflimus. c/f^rr quifoteoatej'e CtUtiffimuj, Cic. in Ver. 1. 5. Or. 8* 
HamuUtior, Cmnulaiore memfura reddere ^im aceeferity Cic, Bra t, 

p. 147. 
Cuncflatior. CunStatior fortajje ist eautior effe deherem^ Plin. 1.2. Ep.An. 
Cun(flantiu8, £uod Cunlfantius confirm^trentm aSta fuOy Suet, Vit, 

Jul. c. 1 9. ■ 
Curatius. £>«»/ negot'i ordinem Cur^itf Mjferdm^ Tac. An. 2, p« 78. 
Cupientiflimu^.Murw Cufientiffima pUhe <-««/»/ /4^«»/.Sal.B.JUff. p. 10^ 
Bamnacior. Quut te jAiferior ? Huit te Damnmor ^ Cic.in Pis. &o &• 
Decentior. V* ibr amStusfii Decentiory ^, &c» Quint. In. i. it. c. 3. 
Deco^tius. iAffice & hac^ fifort^aliquid DeeoStiuf audis^ Perf, S^. i, ' 
lL>edlti[Y\mutJj4h Optimo ceru ammoaeDedttijffimofibifi